Kinesiology Exam Gait Unit Flashcards

gait cycle
Terms Definitions
force/area
pressure
moment x angular velocity
power
does cadence increase or decrease steadily with age?
decreases
distance between successive heel contacts of opposite feet
step length
sequence of events within successive heel strikes of opposite feet
step
during the loading response, what position is the hip in?
flexion
sequence of events between successive heel strikes of the same foot
stride
internal torques are associated with __ muscle contraction when the joint moves in the direction of the muscle's action
concentric
True/False
The SWING PHASE compromises 60% of the gait cycle?
FALSE

STANCE PHASE
this moment is the effect of gravity/outside forces
external
lateral distance between heel centers of two consecutive foot contacts
step width
during the propulsion phase of running, what type of rotation is the limb experiencing?
external rotation
during weight acceptance, what type of movement is the foot experiecing?
pronation
this gait pattern commonly seen in people with CP is characterized by excessive hip adduction due to hip adductor spasticity or contracture and hip abductor weakness
scissoring
at midstance, is the external moment of the hip towards flexion or extension?
extension
what is the average step width?
8-10 cm
at least how much ankle dorsiflexion is needed for walking?
10º
this type of equinus gait pattern occurs because of excessive knee and hip flexion at heel strike, with a relatively normal ankle range of motion
apparent
during terminal stance, what position is the ankle in?
10º dorsiflexion
during terminal swing, what position is the knee in?
20-10º flexion
this deformity is associated with excessive plantarflexion of the talocrural joint and is related to spasticity and tightness of the plantarflexors in children with CP
equinus deformity
during terminal stance, what type of tilt is occurring at the pelvis?
anterior
during the loading response, what type of tilt is occurring at the pelvis?
posterior
vertically, the COM oscillates up and down for how many full sine waves?
2
in Parkinson's disease, at what joint does the majority of compensation occur to preserve the other joint patterns?
ankle
Compromises 40% of the gait cycle?
SWING PHASE
how many stride lengths are there per gait cycle?
1
what percentage of the gait cycle is the stance phase?
60%
at what percentage range of gait cycle does heel off occur?
30-40%
this posture is excessive flexion of all lower extremity joints due to muscle tightness or contracture, and is commonly seen in people with CP
crouch posture
at midstance, is the external knee moment towards flexion or extension?
slight extension
what percentage of gait cycle does toe off occur?
60%
at 12 months, how is the pelvis tilted?
anteriorly
there is persistent hip __ throughout the stance and swing phase of a child at 12 months/beginning walking
hip abduction
the metabolic efficiency of walking is greatest at what speed?
3 mph
what percentage of the gait cycle does early swing phase occur at?
60-75%
what muscles of the foot are active from mid stance to toe off to stabilize the forefoot and raise the medial longitudinal arch to provide a rigid lever for ankle plantarflexion?
intrinsics
this phase of swing occurs just past the passage of the stance limb until the foot contacts the ground
terminal
after heel off, what does the ankle begin to do, and continue to do to a maximum of 15-20º just after toe-off?
plantarflexion
what is considered the best, most functional measure of an individual's walking ability?
walking speed
between 5-35% of gait, which muscle works to decelerate pronation?
tibialis posterior
what is the likely impairment if someone exhibits forward bending of the trunk during mid and terminal stance?
pes equinus
during mid stance, what type of tilt is occurring at the pelvis?
anterior
does a shorter or longer step and stride length use more of an ankle strategy?
longer
When the limb is slowing down in preperation for heal strike?
DECCELERATION
from 80% of the gait cycle until heel strike of the next cycle, how is the vastus lateralis acting to accept weight?
eccentrically
at heel off, is the external moment of the hip towards flexion or extension?
extension
amputees demonstrate a tendency to use the hip during what two phases to compensate for functional loss of the ankle joint?
late stance/early swing
the COM of the body is located just anterior to what vertebrae?
S2
from 10-50% of the gait cycle, is it double or single limb support?
single
this phase of swing occurs when the swing limb passes the stance limb
mid swing
what is the likely gait impairment if someone exhibits rapid knee extension after initial contact?
quadriceps spasticity
during pre swing, what type of tilt is occurring at the pelvis?
posterior
what type of moment is created at the ankle when the GRF passes posterior to the joint?
plantarflexion
what type of moment is created at the hip when the GRF passes anterior to the joint?
flexion
there is a __ torque at the ankle through the rest of the stance phase (eccentric activation as the tibia is advanced over the foot)
plantarflexion
at what phase of gait does the lowest velocity occur?
midstance
what motion does the femur do after heel contact through the first 20% of the gait cycle?
internal rotation
a small __ torque is generated at the ankle just after heel contact to control movement of plantarflexion generated by application of body weight on the calcaneus (power is absorbed)
dorsiflexion
this muscle group helps to advance the swing limb, along with the hip flexors
internal rotators
what is the average genu varum of a child at 15 months (it is decreasing)?
at what age are the rotation patterns of the pelvis and lower limb and patterns of knee and heel strike adult like?
3 years
what position is the ankle in at heel strike?
dorsiflexion
what parameter of gait is the best predictor of falls, hospitalization, disability, and longevity in the elderly?
walking speed
what parameter of gait is a good indicator of stability?
stance time
Gait cycle?
THE ACTIVITY THAT OCCURS B/W THE TIME OF THE HEEL OF ONE EXTREMITY TOUCHES THE FLOOR AND WHEN THE SAME FOOT TOUCHES THE FLOOR AGAIN.
Nonsupport?
A TIME WHEN NEITHER FOOT IS IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND. OCCURS ONLY WITH RUNNING
what motion does the ankle do in a beginning walker?
exaggerated dorsiflexion
what is the average step length of a child of 12 months who is beginning walking?
20 cm
this type of gait observed in people with CP occurs because of reduced peak knee flexion during swing secondary to spasticity of the rectus; impairs foot clearance
stiff knee gait
what are five kinematic strategies that help to minimize energy expenditure and control the center of mass during gait?
(1) horizontal plane pelvic rotation
(2) sagittal plane ankle rotation
(3) stance phase knee flexion
(4) frontal plane pelvic rotation
(5) step width; knee valgus
the sum of the net extensor moments at the ankle, knee, and hip; prevents collapse during the weight bearing stage of gait
support moment
at 60% of the giat cycle, how is tibialis anterior acting/what motion is it doing/controlling?
concentrically dorsiflexing
what is occurring at 73% of the gait cycle?
feet adjacent
they key role of this muscle group is to control the slight lowering of the contralateral pelvis on the side of the swing limb (eccentric), then act concentrically to initiate relative abduction; also control alignment of femur in frontal plane
hip abductors
from 10% of gait until just before toe off, what muscles are active as plantarflexors and pronators to counteract strong inversion effect of the posterior tibialis?
fibularis muscles
what are seven common impairments seen in someone with Parkinson's disease?
(1) bradykinesia/hypokinesia
(2) muscle rigidity
(3) tremor
(4) flexed posture
(5) shuffling gait
(6) difficulty turning
(7) freezing episodes
what is occurring at 87% of the gait cycle?
tibia vertical
at what age do the lumbar lordosis and pot belly emerge?
2 years
what is occurring at 30% of the gait cycle?
heel rise
what is the position of the knee at heel contact?
flexed 5º
at 12 months, what two positions are the ankle found in?
lateral rotation and pronation
what three positions are the knees of a neonate found in?
flexion contracture, internal genicular position, and genu varum
at what phase of gait is the maximum kinetic energy being used?
double limb support
during mid swing, what position is the knee in?
60 º of flexion
these two kinematic strategies help to reduce the downward displacement of the center of mass during gait
(1) horizontal plane pelvic rotation
(2) sagittal plane ankle rotation
what is the normal range of walking velocity for adults?
1.2-1.5 m/s (about 3 mph)
what are the five general spatiotemporal changed for amputees in gait?
(1) reduced walking speed
(2) reduced cadence
(3) asymmetric step length (increased on involved LE of transtibial amputees)
(4) increased step width
(5) reduced stride length
starting at about 80% and continuing into 10% of the next gait cycle, how is the gluteus medius working/what motion is it doing/controlling?
working eccentrically to control hip drop (R glut med eccentrically acts to control L lateral pelvic drop)
about how many degrees does the pelvis rotate in the transverse plane during gait?
about 4º in each direction
what two changes are seen to ankle moments during gait in someone with Parkinson's disease?
(1) decreased internal dorsiflexor moment at heel strike
(2) decreased internal plantarflexor moment at push off
what are three common impairments seen in someone with CP who exhibits rotational deformities?
(1) reduced plantarflexor power at push off
(2) more hip medial rotation
(3) persistent toeing in
at what parts of gait are the ground reaction forces slightly greater than body weight?
loading and terminal stance
what are four spatiotemporal changes in gait that occur with diabetic peripheral neuropathy?
(1) reduced gait speed
(2) reduced step length
(3) increased step width
(4) increased stance time
for a transfemoral amputation, what are the three ways that the hip mechanics change during gait?
(1) increased pelvic drop on the unloaded side
(2) lateral trunk lean
(3) reduced hip abduction moment
what way is the ankle motion of gait changed in a person with an amputation?
reduced plantarflexion at late stance
during the initial 15% of the gait cycle, how does the knee move?
into an additional 10-15º of flexion
what are two reasons for a change in gait as adults age?
(1) to promote greater stability
(2) to adapt to impairments (such as decreased strength and ROM)
what three ways are the knee motions of gait changed in a person with hemiparesis?
(1) excessive knee flexion at heel strike
(2) knee hyperextension
(3) decreased knee flexion in swing phase
what motion does the knee do in a beginning walker?
flexion (but mature knee flexion wave not seen)
what three ways are the hip motions of gait changed in a person with hemiparesis?
(1) decreased peak hip flexion at heel strike
(2) increased peak hip flexion at toe-off
(3) reduced hip flexion during mid-swing
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