opposite of agonist
|Movements of Radioulnar Joint||
inflammation of the bursa
Iliofemoral- restricts extension
Pubofemoral- restricts abduction
Ischiofemoral- restricts- internal rotation
|three types of joints?||
Slight, passive, nonvolitional movements allowed in most joints (also called "joint play")
projecting, prominent part of bone
ALBUMIN contributes osmotic pressure.(determines balance between interstitial fluid / plasma volume) carries fatty acids, etc. GLOBULIN - also carrier molecule, but antibody, involved in immune response.
Decreased lumbar ROM
Flattened spinal curvatures
Pain and tenderness over bony protuberances
Limited Chest Expansion
Other organ systems affected like heart, great vessels, pulmonary, GI and GU systems
-btwn talus & calcaneus
Muscle develops tension as it shortens
(contracts-contracted muscle, concentric m
ie. rectus femoris is concentric during knee extension
-A combination of ankle dorsi?exion, subtalar eversion, and forefoot abduction (toe-out)-Internally rotating radius where it lies diagonally across ulna, resulting in palm-down position of forearm
this holds the radioulnar articulations together
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus, radial collateral ligament and annular ligament
I: lateral surface of proximal shaft of radius
A: supinates the forearm
ditchlike groove containing a tendon or blood vessel
|what do lymphocytes do?||
immune processes, phagocytosis.(engulf and kill invaders.)
increases in solute concentration necessitates additional water to carry solutes away. Increases in solute excretion causing additional water and diuresis is osmotic diuresis.
O: proximal posterior tibia and fibula
I: posterior calcaneus
A: plantar flex ankle
|Cervical Vertebrae (structure)||
- nerves and arteries to brain
force that deforms a material at right angle to longitudinal axis
Joint position & movement
Effect of external force
Type of contraction
Speed of movement
Plane of movement
Attaches to the Axial skeleton. Consists of 126 bones. The extremities
Property of a material demonstrated by its ability to return to its original length after the removal of a deforming force
|Diarthrodial Joints are||
-known as synovial joints-freely movable
on humerus; large projection lateral to head and lesser tubercle; provides attachment for the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles
the tendency of force to produce rotation about an axis
O: lower eight ribs
I: anterior part of the iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
A: flexes the vertebral column
compresses the abdominal contents
laterally flexes vertebral column to the same side
rotates vertebral column to the opposite side
|In the evalution process, what part will tell you the most information||
|Functions of the Shoulder||
Stabalization for hand use
Shock absorber for arm
a partial or complete tearing of fibers of a ligament
compression of the spinal column causes two vertebrae to push together, crushing the hard ourter portion of the cartilage, tearing it. this can cause the soft inner portion of the disk to herniate, pushing out of the ruptured area. This can cause pinching of a spinal nerve.
|Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)||
released when atrial stretch-receptors sense too much blood volume. Causes kidney to excrete more Na+, and therefore more H2O, bringing blood volume back down to normal.
O: upper border manubrium of sternum, medial 1/3 clavical
I: mastoid process
A: flex, laterally flex, contralaterally rotate
|Cervical Lateral Flexion||
- Ear to shoulder
tubercle- attachment of the inguinal ligament and rectus abdominus
symphysis- shock absorber
|Movement Formula Step #1||
Joint position & movement
|Different kinds of bones?||
discrete thing over and over again, or it can be actions over and over again continuously but different actions.
Motion of bones relative to the 3 cardinal, or principal, planes
|Movements of Wrist and Hand||
Palmer flexionDorsal flexion (dorsiflexion)Radial Flexion (radial deviation)Ulnar flexion (ulnar deviation)Opposition of the thumb
on the humerus; also called the lateral and medial lips of the bicipital groove; provides attachment for the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and the teres major
the articulation of the humerus with the ulna and radius is commonly called this
must be overcome for motion to occur; can include the part being moved, gravity, or external weight
O: spinous processes of T-3 to T-6
I: transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebrae
A: rotates head to the same side
laterally flexes the head and neck
extends the head and neck
|Valgus stress test of the elbow is looking for trauma in what ligament:||
Movements in Sagittal Plane
GH Joint- Hyperextension
What is the action for the shoulder Girdle?
upward tilt of scapula
thick, clear fluid that lubricates the articular cartilage
a complex system of membrane bound storage saces (modified endoplasmic reticulum) which collects and stores calcium.
outer region of kidney, where renal artery divides into many branches, supplying blood to nephrons located in the cortex- nephrons in the renal cortex means that this is where the majority of renal filtration takes place
O: proximal 1/2 posterior IM, tibia and fibula
I: plantar base metatarsals 2-4, cuboid, navicular, cuneiform bones
A: invert, plantar flex ankle
Good for disc but not stenotic conditions
When the muscle is contracted and elongated real long, it takes alot of resistance and force to make a muscle stretch any further
largest of the movable vertebrae
- support the weight of the body
- interlocking articulation with other vertebrae
|Cerebral cortex info||
Area of highest level of control
Involved in choosing a course of action
Contains Primary Motor Cortex to send commands
Contains Somatosensory cortex
Line of gravity – anterior to normal dosiflexion of ankle
Thus, normal standing requires contraction of the plantar flexors (soleus)
Talus – "keystone"
All weight transmitted to foot through talus
Located somewhat medial (highest side)
|What is synovial fluid?||
-egg white like
-keeps joint apart
-dries up when you go to bed
-has pressure gradient
-keeps joints cool
-provides nutrition to articular cartilage
Ratio of the internal moment arm to the external moment arm
|Bone MarkingsTypes of Cavities||
Facets, Foramen, Fossa, Fovea, Meatus, Sinus, Sulcus
muscle that lies below the spine of the scapula; the trapezius and deltoid muscles cover portions of it
located at the proximal end on the lateral side just distal to the trochlear notch; articulation point for the head of the radius
|What system of evaluation includes the comparison of an individual's preformance to a standard established by an expert?a. criterion referencedb. norm referencedc. self-referencedd. standardized reference||
a. criterion referenced
O: costal - inner surface of lower six ribs
lumbar - upper two or three lumbar vertebrae
sternal - inner part of xiphoid process
I: central tendon
A: draws down the central tendon of diaphragm
increases the volume of thoracic cavity
Movements in the frontal plane
GH Joint- Abduction
What is the action for the shoulder Girdle?
Upward rotation of scapula
when you move the sole of the foot outward
small rings of muscle - junction of arterioles and capillaries. regulate flow into capillaries. can reduce flow to zero.
|extensor digitorum longus||
O: proximal anterior shaft of fibula and IM
I: dorsal base middle, distal phalanxes digits 2-5
A: extends digits 2-5, everts, dorsiflexes ankle
|Characteristics of disc heights||
During bedrest disc pressure is low.
Low pressure and hydrophilic nature of the dis cause cause dis to swell- disc herniation patients have more pain in the morning.
Weight bearing activities force water out of the disc- 1.1% variation in height during a single day.
At birth - 88%
65-72% by age 75
less able to handle loads
May lead to microfracture and bony resorption of the vertebral endplates - eventual widow's and dowager's hump.
Lost of height with age with not a function of disc height - it is a function of bone loss.
|Extensors of the Elbow joint||
Triceps brachii: all heads, anconues
forces acting in and on the body that produce stability or mobility
-consideration of internal forces (body mass and muscular forces) and external forces (gravity)
Two surfaces flat and allow gliding movement
Primarily uniaxial, however can move in more than one plane or axis
Ex. Carpal bones of wrist
|What type of joint is the acromioclavicular?||
Angle formed by the line of pull of the quad muscles on the patella and the line of the patellar tendon.
|Goniometer is used to||
Goniometer is used to measure amount of movement in a joint or measure joint angles
|humeral neck fracture||
caused by a fall on the outstreched hand; common in the elderly is usually an impacted fracture
|Historically, which math or science course is the most common stumbling block for kinesiology students at UTSA?a) MAT 1023: College Algebrab) BIO 1404: BioScience Ic) KIN 3313: Anatomic Kinesiologyd) KIN 2303: Cultural & Scientific Foundation of Kinsiolog||
b) BIO 1404: Bioscience I
|Name the 4 types of parallel muscles, and the 3 types of oblique muscles. Give examples||
1. Strap (Sternocleidomastoid)
2. Fusiform (Biceps
3. Rhomboidal (pronator quadratus)
4. Triangular (Pec Major)
1. Unipennate (looks like half a feather) (flexor pollicis longus muscle of hand)
2. Bipennate (feather) (rectus femoris of hip)
3. Multipennate (deltoid)
|renin angiotensin systemREGULATES BLOOD PRESSURE.||
1. Kidney senses low blood pressure or reduced Na+ filtration of glomerulus2. kidney secretes renin3. liver continuously secretes angiotensinogen to blood.4. renin contacts angiotensinogen in blood, it becomes angiotensin I5. Angiotensin I contacting ACE (present in most cells, but highest concentration in lungs) converts it to Angiotensin II6. Angiotensin II causes:- vasoconstriction of small vessels (rise in blood pressure)- Increased ADH secretion by posterior pituitary = increased thirst --> increased thirst = increased: drinking + fluids --> increased blood pressure- increased ALDOSTERONE secretion by Adrenal gland --> SALT reabsorption and potassium secretion increase by KIDNEY--> INCREASES BLOOD PRESSURE.
|What are the characteristics of Type IIa muscle fibers?||
*Moderate numbers of mitochondria
*Moderate resistance to fatigue
*Combination of aerobic and anaerobic
*Intermediate speed between Type IIb and Type I
|Joints in the knee joint||
tibiofemoral joint- medial and lateral compartment
|Type II Collagen Fibers||
Thinner and less stiff than Type I fibers; provide a flexible woven framework for maintaining the general shape and consistency of structures such as hyaline cartilage.
|Bipennate muscles are described as||
fibers run obliquely on both sides from a central tendon
|Location of the top and bottom of the scapula marked by the thoracic vertebrae:||
T3 and T7
|hemoglobin - reduced in body called what?||
anaemia. reduced oxygen carrying capacity.
|Age related muscle changes||
Slow phase - 10% loss from age 25-50
Rapid phase - 40% loss from age 50-80
Aging results in loss of fast fibers
Primary loss of muscle mass is due to inactivity.
|Pennate muscle fibers||
Stuff a lot of muscle fibers in small space, contract over short distance with great force
|ACL injury in women||
Women tend to land in more knee extension, internal rotation, and valgus position. This makes them more prone to ACL injury.
Women also are quads dominant in their legs.
Can train to prevent this by training the hamstrings, softening the landing, training the hip abductors, training the hip ER's.
|Explain the properties outsides and underneath the bone.||
-Most outer bone is cortical with cancellous underneath-Cortical bone – low porosity, 5 to 30% nonmineralized tissue-Cancellous – spongy, high porosity, 30 to 90%-Cortical is stiffer & can withstand greater stress, but less strain than cancellous-Cancellous is spongier & can undergo greater strain before fracturing
|# axes, and joint motion of a pivot joint||
1: Rotation. peglike pivot
(Bar Graph Intervertebral Pressue without Chair)
Low - High
- Lying (low): 25 kg
- Lying on Side (middle): 75
- Standing up (middle): 100
- Standing flexed forward (High): 150
|Movements of the Subtalar & Transverse Joint||
combined 5 - 15 degrees
|Why is the SC joint impt?||
it's the only bony connection btwn the humerous and axial skelton.
|The movement of the patella in patellofemoral joint||
In full extension the patella rests above the interconylar groove.
At 20 degrees of flexion the inferior portion contacts the femur.
At 60-90 degrees of flexion there is the greatest contact.
At 135 degrees of flexion the superior portion is in contact with the femur.
|What are the characteristics of the Axis?||
Large tall body with dens (remnant of the body of the atlas) projecting upward to articulate with the atlas.
Dens means rigid vertical axis of rotations.
Bifid spinous peculiar to the axis - good reference point for palpation.
|What are the two motions of the Rectus Femoris?||
- Knee Extension (when hip is extended)
- Hip Flexion