corrections Flashcards

Terms Definitions

Definition-Simon Fogarty
-Interdependent relationship between mental hospitals and prisons.
-Both share or exchange populations based on the relative amount of resources.
Lack of autonomy
self rule
San Michelle
First Juvenile Justice Institution
Electronic monitoring
community supervision technique, ordinarily combined with home confinement, that uses electronic devises to maintain surveillance of offenders
disorganized criminal
psychological or physical challenges that hinders ability to be full functioning
Farmer vs Brennan
-Requirements of deliberate indifference recieved adequate clarification regarding..
1. Officials must be aware of facts showing an inmate faces a substantial risk of serious harm

2. Officials actually deduce from these facts that the inmate is at significant risk of harm

3. Officials must take steps to prevent harm from occuring.
-SONR.. Sexual Offender Notification/Registration
-Every state has them
-Violent crime control and enforcement act requires offenders to register whereabouts with law enforcement
-States must develop sex offender registries or they risk losing funding for law enforcement
-Variations among states
-Argued that it violates privacy, double jeopardy, and cruel and unusual punishment 
-SOCC.. Sexual Offender Civil Commitment
-In 16 states
-Permits incarceration in the facilities after they serve their sentence
-Based on assumptions that they suffer a mental abnormality that makes them more likely to recidivate and as a group can be differentiated by risk. 
-But research shows they are no more likely to offend than other offenders.
-Burden of how to treat different types of offenders
-SORR.. Sexual Offender Residency Restrictions  
-Prohibits all sex offenders from living within a certain distance of places inhabited by children. 
-Authorities have a lot of problems finding housing for them.
-Can lead to isolation, financial/emotional stressed, and instability.. which can cause recidivism. 
Ford vs Wayneright
No execution mentally ill
The granting of British transporters an early release from a penal colony. This type of early release became more formal under Sir Walter Crofton's intermediate system in which release to the community under ticket-of-leave allowed that "ticket" to be revoked and the offender returned to prison. In its contemporary form the ticket-of-leave is parole.
Middle Ages
Little government control, offenses still carried out through bloodfeuds, corporal punishment, etc.

Secular: Civil or Social, different from religious.
Benefit of Clergy: Less severe and focus on Salvation
Started talking about prison sex/rape
Wrote a book in 1934: Sex In Prison
Silent generation
-Student population was called this because it was so quiet
-Social life so conformist and lacking in diversity
-Art, science, learning, entertainment and information all mass-produced, creating a narrow vision of the 'norm,'
-1950s and 1960s

Jeremy Bentham: 


Creator of the hedonistic calculus suggesting that punishments outweigh the pleasure criminals get from committing their crime 

Informal Sanction
Sanctions are informal when applied by someone acting without offical standing.
Aubrun System
Along with the Pennsylavania system, the Auburn system defined the two main styles of prison discipline and management from the 1820's to the 1860's. The Auburn system believed correction was best achieved by keeping prisoners seperate from each other at night but allowing them to work together during the day. Silence, however was required at all times.
Special problems of Detainees
1.Mental health problems
2.Substance dependancy
3.Medical Needs
4.Legal Needs
5.Pretrial Detainee Rights
Lease System
Contractor buys inmates labor but provides prisoners with food, clothing, and shelter
They lease the prisoner
Line personnel
employees who are directly concerned with furthering the institution's goals. they have direct contact with the prisoners
-The Progressive Era was a broad social mission that created..
-And it's premise was.. and was coined and named what by..
-The Reformatory
-Indeterminate sentencing
-Juvenile court
(Progressive Paid The Repairs In Sandy's Jeep )
-That scientific casework would reveal the causes of crime and appropriate rehabilitative strategies
-Coined as the 'Twentieth-century Rehabilitative Ideal,' by Francis Allen
Brutalization effects
-Increases in violent crime and murder attributed to exposure to executions

Positive School: 


The belief that criminals do not have complete choice over their criminal actions and may commit acts that are beyond their control. 

Concurrent Sentencing
A sentencing strategy that gives an offender a specific punishment, such as a number of years in prison, on several different charges or counts, but all the sentences are allowed to be served at the same time.
Congregate and Silent
The key words distinguishing the Aubrun System, which required prisoners to work together in silence during the day and to be housed seperately, and kept silent, at night.
Widening the Net
new programs actually increase control exerted over offenders' lives, rather than reduce it
Campus Style
Units of a prison are individually housed in a complex of buildings surrounded by a fence
Were used for juvenile & women facilities, and some newer institutions for men
Mostly medium and minimum
State use
Same as public account but only provided for state
(free enterprise - competition)
administrative control theory
prison disorder results from unstable, divided, or otherwise weak management
Nothing works conclusion
-Had a severe blow to the rehabilitative ideal
-Resulted in 'do justice.'
-Means a person's claim to fair and just punishment should always supersede the achievement of societal aims.
-Therefore, punishment can only be justified as censure for deeds already committed, not crimes to be prevented in the future.
-Tied to 'just deserts.'
-Porportionality and consistent sentencing for similar offenders
-Porpotionalism doesn't require exchange of harm.
Meritorious Good Time
The time deducted from a sentence. When the sentence is automatically given all prisoners serving their sentence without problems
Federal Bureau of Prisons
created in 1930
Criminal law is restricted to crimes involving interstate commerce, serious felonies, violations of other federal laws and crimes committed on federal property

avg. time served today is 71 months

operated on confinement facilities which are classified in a security system
Blood Feuds
as a result of wergeld, added pressure on generations.
Our modern day bloodfeuds are gang activities
3 fundamental types of treatment programs in prisons
-Most widely used was group counseling
-Cooking, cleaning, butchering, welding, nursing, etc
Separate facilities for the elderly
-Its not standard policy to have separate facilities
-Not on age alone, most assignments to special housing are due to health
-Arguments for why elderly should be housed in a different facility
-Vulnerable to abuse by other inmates
-Difficulty coping with the fast-paced and nosy jails
-Navigating the environment to food, recreation areas, etc.
-Not part of prison subculture
-Elderly refrain from recreational activities because of embarrassment or frustration
...vilket dock också spelas på is.
...which is nevertheless also played on ice.
1960s and 1970s beliefs 
-The society is to blame, not the criminal
-Also to blame is the criminal justice system and how its responses to crime. 
-Distrust of government
-Decentralization and diversion to avoid labeling and formal criminal justice systems all together
-Labeling Theory was big here
Eastern & Western Penitentiary System
People could be housed in individual cells
Officers called turnkeys
Referred to ask the silent and separate confinement
pyschological & physical problems were extreme
Daniel Glaser and the Federal Prison System and recidivism
-"The Effectiveness of the Federal Prison System'
-Conducted a survey where people were asked how many people they think recidivate
-It's actually 66%.. but answers were 20%-60%
-He wanted to know why the range from 20 to 60

-Found those facing release held very high aspirations.. get a job, girlfriend, etc. and other things often too difficult to achieve
-Few have money from their jobs to survive, so they borrow money or recidivate

-He found no correlation between education programs and recidivism
Security System Classification for Federal Prisons
Level 1 -least secure
Level 4-high security institutions, US penitentiairies

Level 5 is the designation given to administrative facilities with the special missions

How were the costs of the get-tough strategy counteracted?
-By cutting funds to education, welfare, and other social programs.
-Intermediate punishment
-Home confinement
-Electronic monitoring
-Boot camp
How did early civilizations deal with crime?
In their own personal villages. With homogenous civilizations mostly everyone has an understanding agreement about crime
rid parole
Like rehabilitation, reformation suggests that punishment can be used to change or correct an offender's behavior. However, reformation does not imply the use of individualized treatment plans or therapy procedures as does rehabilitation.
om fem dagar
in five days
Ferman vs Georgia
Banned Death Penalty
Buys freedom awaiting trial
percentage returned
discriminatory toward the poor
State family system
pseudo families
express social needs and expressions
-Studied relationship between rates of rearrest and alternative dispositions.
-Found that providing diversion programs to youth who otherwise would have been released outright may have increased their rearrest rates.
-This is because of the increased visibilty to their diversion authorities and police, rather then because of increased rates of misconduct. 
Paper entrepreneurialism
-As corporations profited from mergers, hostile takovers, downsizing, multinationalizing, and de-industrializing, product output and reinvestment suffered.
-The increase of wealth for the already wealthy during the Bush and Reagan administration drove this.
The ounishment philosophy that says punishment is a required response by the state to a wrongful act committed by the offender.
government seizure of property and other assets derived from or used in criminal activity
Selective- Targeting people who commit crime (predators=forever)
Not concerned with overcrowding and there are always replacement criminals
Crime does not disappear
includes programs designed to improve the life prospects of inmates
Most consistent and profound consequences of Law and Order reform
-Increased incarceration
-After congress passed federal drug laws, people incarcerated for drug offences increased 400%

Retributive Era:

An era of corrections that emphasizes holding offenders accountable for their acts and being tough on criminals while keeping them isolated from law biding citizens and making them serve "hard" time.

Along with folkways and laws, mores provide the norms or guidlines for behavior in society. Of the three, mores are social expectations whose violation result in mid-level reaction or sanctioning by other members of society.
Bridewell House
The original English house of corrections, or workhouse, opened in the town of Bridewell in 1557. Other houses of correction built in Egland during the 16th century also were called Bridewell House after the prototype.
Which of the following is not considered "front door" strategy to the population reduction approach of prison overcrowding:
Sentencing Structure
Now= Determinate Sentencing and crime control

Determinate and Indeterminate Sentencing
how many women serving time are mothers
American Bar Association (ABA)
-Founded the Commission on Correctional Facilities and Services

-Helped Prisoners Rights Movement
-Operated the Resource Center for Correctional Law and Legal Services
Weapons of war
-Dyer said they included
-War on drugs
-Abolition of parole and indeterminate sentence
-Mandatory minimums
-Habitual offender statutes
-Intermediate punishment
-Truth in sentencing
-3 Strikes
-Expanded use of capital punishment

Hands-off doctrine: 

An avoidance by the U.S. Supreme Court of judicial intervention in the operations of prisons and the judgment of correctional administrators

The process of assigning a penalty (a sentence) on a person convicted of a crime. Sentencing is usually accomplished by a judge but in some jurisdictions or cases may be the work of a jury.
Astronaut Chapters

Definition -Roger Crouch- Gamma Beta , Old Diminun 
 -Ed Lu- Psi, Cornell
Legal Needs
Suspects need info. about what will happen prior to their trial
Securing release through bail or diversion
Preparing their case, negotiating with their prosecutors about their charges
Directing attorney to people who may provide alibis or evidence

People in jail will most likely need a public defender
The custodial staff of correctional institutions is organized along corporate management lines.
Along Military lines
right guy
upholder of values and belief system (respectful of criminal cultures when new)
Women and HIV/AIDS rates
-Twice as high compared to men
Earned Good Time
The time deducted from a sentence. When the deduction is due to positive behavior by the inmate, it is earned good time.
Today the focus of corrections has shifted to crime control that emphasizes deinstitutionalization of offenders
False --emphasizes institutionalization
What system is the american system based off of?
The english system
Four assumptions that underlined the twentieth-century rehab ideal
-Human behavior is a product of antecedent causes
-The antecedent causes of human behavior can be identified and behavioral scientists should discover/describe antecedent causes/possible explanations
-Knowledge of the antecedent of problem behavior enables scientific treatment of  behavior problems

-Measures used to treat criminal behavior serve a therapeutic function: They are though to be in the best interest of the offender/society by making those treated into contributing members of society
Norm of Reciprocity
Refers to the idea that much of economic and social like relies on relationships involving mutual exchanges of goods, or organizations. It is important to corrections in the sense that punishment is a natural response, or reciprocation, to a wrongful act.
...där jag ska skriva på svenska
...where I will write in Swedish
Rates of female incarceration rate 1981-1991
-Spiked greatly, surpassed those of men.
-254% for females, 147% for males
The degree to which an informal, sub-rosa economy develops in prison varies, depending on:
The nature of official surveillance
Cullen and Agnew in terms of Decentralization
-The societal reaction, not the offender, should be the focus of criminology's quest to determine the causes of crime.
Types of Punishment in Early History
- Exile: making someone leave and never come back.
- Civil death: Not religious - "invisible"
- Banishment
- Corporal Punishment: physical beating or punishment
Capital Punishment: Death
Costs of incarcerating the eldery
-They are often in a worse state of health than younger criminals
-80% acquire a chronic illness after the age of 65 that requires long-term care
-Most important, the day-day to accommodation cost the most
-Wheelchairs, bars in showers, lower beds
Jag behöver trots allt öva mitt skrivande.
Despite of that, I need to practice my writing.
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