Cosmic Perspective Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ptolemy lived...
...2,000 years ago
Aristotle
determined world was round
kinetic energy
energy of motion; .5mv^2
What is Kinetic Energy?
Energy of Motion
Where was Greek Science preserved after the fall of Alexandria?
Baghdad
Nicolaus Copernicus
man: Earth is a plant
geocentric
describes the concept of an Earth-centered universe
Name the temperature scales.
Kelvin, Celsius and Fahrenheit
What temperature scale is used by scientists?
Kelvin
penumbra
shadow when a full lunar eclipse occurs
Ptolemaic System
the Geocentric model that Ptolemy created with was not doubted for 13 centuries
ellipse
planets orbit the sun in an ______
Galileo Galilei
discovered 4 large satellites of Jupiter
Tycho Brahe
man: measured location of heavenly bodies (planets)
free-fall
conditions in which an object is falling without resistance; objects are weightless in free-fall
velocity
the combination of speed and direction of motion
temperature
a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance
Astrology seeks to...
...Predict human events by examining the planets and the stars.
revolution
a orbit of a body about an object
rotation
a spin of a body about its axis
Solar Eclipse
occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
force
anything that can cause a change in momentum
torque
a twisting force that can cause a change in an object's angular momentum
The ecliptic is...
...the Sun's daily path across the sky
Which is the following is the smallest: A. Typical Planet B. 1 Astronomical Unit C. 1 Light-Second D. Size of Typical Star
A. Typical Planet
When is the Sun lowest in the sky?
Winter Solstice
true
(true or false) We only see one side of the moon.
Lunar Eclipse
the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and the moon
29 ½ days
time from new moon --> new moon
tidal force
a force that is caused when the gravity pulling on one side of an object is larger than that on the other side, causing the object to stretch
synchronous rotation
the rotation of an object that always shows the same face to an object that it is orbiting because its rotation period and orbital period are equal
What kind of planet is Mars?
Mars is a terrestrial planet.
How many years ago did humans learn that we DON'T live in a geocentric world?
500 years ago
What is Momentum?
The product of an object's mass and velocity.
astronomical unit (AU)
average distance from he Earth to the sun; 1.5 × 10⁸, or million kilometers
universal law of gravitation
the law expressing the force of gravity between two objects
True/False
"Earth's seasons are caused by its orbit."
False; Earth's seasons are caused by the tilt of its axis.
gravitational potential energy
energy that an object has by virtue of its position in a gravitational field (an object has more when it has a greater distance to fall)
What is the Circumpolar Star?
A star that always remains above your horizon.
Newton's version of Kepler's third law
a generalization of Kepler's third law that can be used to calculate the masses of orbiting objects from measurements of orbital period and distance
What makes the North Star, Polaris, special?
It appears very near the North Celestial Pole.
Explain the difference between mass and weight.
Weight is the net force that an object applies to its surroundings. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object.
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