Latin American History Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cristobal Colón
Christopher Columbus
Time Frame: Santa Anna
French, Haiti
1973_____gov't abolished slarvery altogether in _____
aprista party
socialist party of peru
Desaperacidos. Victims of state attacks on civilians
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
a particular administration or govt.
New Spain (Mexico)
Original name for Mexico
Incan belief that everything had significant beauty or strength, place honored
the boat sailed by Cuban revolutionaries from Mexico to overthrow Batista (unsuccessful)
plantation owned by the Spanish settlers or the catholic Church in Spanish America. Self-contained economic units with stores, churches, jails, and gangs.
Juan Perón
President of Argentina (1946-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte Per?n, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. (823
Toussaint L'Overture
who? slave from haiti that became a soldier, he knew different things from haiti, and was a military genius
what? worked as servant in lead plantations,
1791, former slaves made slaves again in what country?
1850 (Brazil)
Year slave trade ends in Brazil
Caudillos (Argentina)
Small factions of power within Argentina
Population of Argentina (Argentina)
Mostly white small indegenous
daniel ortega
current president of nicaragua and leader of the sandinista party. president reagan supported and funded the contras in their fight against ortega.
Moctezuma II
ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan, Spanish conquest of Aztec empire began during this time, tricked by Cortez
S.E. Morison
American historian, textbooks used and criticized for justifying slavery
discovered (did not give its permanent name) the Pacific Ocean
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Structural Sin
acts commited against others that degrade, oppress, or exclude. It is a state or attitude instilled by society. Some examples are racism, classism (high - middle - low), materialism (haves and don't haves), sexism, and political affiliation.
The belief in individual liberty and equal rights. This was against the power of the Church, hereditary status, absolute monarchy, and the "divine rights" of Kings to do what they pleased.
Inca colonists in new regions; could be Quechua-speakers; used to pacify new conquest or conquered population moved to new home.
Latin America
the cultural region including Mexico, the Caribbea, and South America that has been stronly infulenced by Spain and Portugal
Military dictator who rules Chile w/ iron fist for 20 yrs & is backed fully by US because he opposes communism; made ppl disappear
Debt Peonage
*A system that forces agricultural laborers (peons) to work and live in large estates (haciendas) until they have repaid their debates to the estate's owner
*Haciendas became one of the most important features of Latin American Life
Nuestro Himno
-explored in Maria Elena Cepeda’s article (in Beyond el Barrio)
- Spanish version of “The Star Spangled Banner” which was in conjunction with the May 1, 2006 protests and also caused much controversy.  Some artists were Olga Tanon, Pitbull and Wyclef Jean.
-it was controversial because many believed that the hymn should not be translated. The irony is that it had been in the past therefore this highlights the exclusion and anti-Latino sentiments since they were the ones singing it.
-It was all about how it was being sung, by who and when
-it was seen as anti-American because of what was going on at the time (the march)
-Latinos who opposed it said it added to the exclusion of Latinos because they were claiming they were American but singing something different
_________ ____________ created the Good _________ Policy in ______
Franklin Roosevelt, Neighbor, 1933
Red (Argentina)
Color that represents Rosas and the Colorados
Isabel (Brazil)
Princess empress of Brazil, Pedro II's daughter
augusto pinochet
Chilean army general who was made president in a US backed coup. Economic reforms - privatization of some state-controlled industries and rollback of many state welfare institutions. "Miracle of Chile" to increase economic inequality. Was arrested for human rights violations, tax evasion, and embezzlement. Very bad.
cristeros war
an uprising of religious groups who were unhappy with the anti-catholic constitution of 1917. us ambassador dwight whitney morrow negotiated the end of the war in 1929, with the church assuming control over its properties again and having more rights under the law
a colloquial name for natives of costa rica
Hernando de Soto
first to discover Mississippi RIver, expedition ranged southwestern U.S. looking for gold
old world
the word for Europe, who discovered and explored America
the process of taking an industry or assets into the public ownership of a national government or state
Haitian Revolution
1791-1804; The whites vs. the people of color, and the people of color won!
Patronato Real
"Royal patronage." It's the idea that the pope (Julius II) is under the authority of the king. Made the king wealthy but held accountable for evangelizing. Thought it would be more effective that always having to answer to the king. (Politicizes the church and created divisions between the monastic orders and the cardinals, Christianity became superficial and many of the people still held on to their old beliefs while looking like Christians)
Ancient Civilization
the earliest culture that has a developed form of government
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)
Simón Bolívar
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. (p. 623)
one of the conquerors who claimed and ruled land in the Americas for the Spanish govt. in the 1500s
Paul Castro
who? he was born in Houston, cheerleader, went to texas state, proud of being chicano, he was gay
what? His obituary was published in the Bay Area Reporter. Spent a good part of his life trying to spread the word about AIDS education, because a reporter refused to let him use a microphone out of fear of catching the disease.
when? 1980’s
where? California and USA
why? he is an important figure in the struggle for AIDS treatment and recognition. His case also serves as part of sexuality becoming politicised.
“I am a person, not a disease”
The Cold War involved the _____ + friends vs. ______ + their friends
Solano Lopez (Brazil)
Leader of Paraguay during War of Triple Alliance. Dies in battle.
War of Cabangem (Brazil)
Uprising in Brazil's Pará province; elite vs indians
peninsula war
a war fought between 1808 and 1814 between the french and the allied spanish, portuguese, and british forces over control of the iberian peninsula. the spanish were successful in regaining control over their country thanks in large part to the emergence of guerilla forces, and napoleon's empire collapsed as a result of his loss
venustiano carranza
a leader of the mexican revolution and liberal president of mexico from 1917-1920. he was assassinated by a group of military leaders because he was adamant that his successor to the presidency be a civilian
Pallos de la Frontera
Spanish town inhabited by Muslims, August 1492-Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria departed from them, Columbus consulted here
Pedro Cabral
the ruler of Brazil who became emperor when Brazil became a country, but permitted a new constitution
grito de dolores
Father Hidalgo's Cry for freedom; In response an army of Mestizo's was forme and then Hidalgo was captured and executed
Joao Goulart
a populist president in Brazil who was overthrown in '64
Significance: Porfirio Diaz
When looking back in history, Diaz's time in office is a time of peace, prosperity, and stability. It serves as an example of liberal progress at a cost of skewed development, and neocolonialism. US Capital flows into Mexico with little benefitting the majority of Mexicans.
social stratification
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
Juan Manuel De Rosas
Federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
foreign debt
money owed by one country to other countries
Venustiano Carranza
Who: one of the leaders of the Mexican revolution in Northern MexicoWhat: Began to emerge as the leader of the revolution when Huerta took over in the government. He won the approval of the US who with his "constitutionalist" force captured the port of Veracruz halting the flow of arms and revenues to Huerta. He eventually became president but turned on Villa.Where: Northern Mexico, CoahuilaWhen: 1910sSignificance: Demonstrates the extremely diversify interests and fighters fighting in Northern Mexico. They were not a consolidated effor desiring one thing unlike the South. Carranza was a political leader while, Villa was a rebel and an outlaw. Carranza seemed to be searching for political gains while Villa was on the side of the efforts of the peasantry and was fighting for the sake of fighting.
Battle of Puebla (Mexico)
First battle of War of French intervention. Juarez victorious. French retreat to Vera-Cruz
eugenie de montijo
empress consort of france from 1853 to 1871 as the wife of napoleon III
Jose de San Martin
liberated Argentina and the rest of remaining colonized Latin America
Significance: Santa Anna
Santa Anna in efforts to keep Texas actually ends up losing Texas in the Texas revolution. Also he drove Mexico into such a large national debt that the generations to come would have a very hard time recovering.
El Grito
This is the name of the date of September 15. This day is known for the "cry for independence."
What are the Incan credited with created in the Andes?
A complex road system
Sans Souci
did not surrender to the French, it is believed that his death was caused by  Henri Christophe when they were supposed to attend a meeting to call peace b/w them
o   The Palace: Henri Christophe named his palace after Sans Souci as another way of killing Sans Souci or could be a replica of the one in Germany
bridge of calderon
the site of a decisive battle in the first stage of the mexican war for indpendence, where the mexicans lost to a much smaller spanish force. hidalgo was forced to give up control of the army in favor of ignacio allende
Cuban War of Independence
a three year war to gain independence from Spain
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
1855 California Vagrancy Act aka "Greaser Act"
o   In 1855, California adopted the Vagrancy Act, known popularly as the Greaser Act, addressing “all persons who are commonly known as ‘Greasers’ or the issue of Spanish and Indian blood . . . and who go armed and are not peaceable and quiet persons.” Targeting the supposed “idle Mexican,” this anti-loitering law was the precursor to modern laws directed at loitering, gang activity, and other apparently race-neutral offenses that in practice are often used to justify interrogatory stops of per- sons of color.
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