Cranial Nerves Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Vestibulocochlear
AUDITORY/HEARING
CN II
Optic nerve-Vision
Trochlear
OBLIQUE EYE MOVEMENTS
CN IX
Glossopharyngeal, Mixed, Medulla
CN VI
Abducens nerve-Lateral eye movement
CN VIII
Auditory or vestibulocochlear nerve- Hearing and balance
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus Gag reflex, say "Ahhh"
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory (smell) Have patient smell: orange, bandaid, lip balm, etc (anything with a distinct smell)
Inferior cervical ganglion is also called what?
The stellate or cervicothoracic ganglion.
CN I
Olfactory, Sensory,
Abducens
LATERAL EYE MOVEMENTS
CN IV
Trochlear, Motor, Midbran
Oculomotor
MOVEMENTS OF THE EYEBALL
Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulocochlear (balance and hearing) Balance - Romberg’s: eyes closed, feet together, arms at side.. Tilt head back. Sway or step is positive Hearing - ticking watch, whispering in ear, finger snapping. Eyes are closed
CN VII
Facial, Mixed, Junction of Pons and Medulla
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal (tongue protrusion) Have patient stick out their tongue and wag it.
Cranial Nerve II
Optic (visual fields) Have patient read: something close by, something far away
What are the branches of the Vagus nerve
Meningeal, Auricular, Pharyngeal, superior laryngeal or called internal branch, External laryngeal goes to cricothyroid m. , cardiac plexus, recurrent laryngeal
V
trigeminal
Olfactory
smell
Hypoglossal
XII
Moves tongue 
CN X
Vagus
Interna Tunic
retina
Facial nerve #
7
trigeminal
opthalmic-superior orbital fissure-supraorbital fissuremaxillary-rotundummandibular-ovalesensory-facemotor-mastication
Tendonitis
inflammation of tendon
sheats




Accessory
XI
Innervate Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoid
Cranial Nervie VII
Facial Nerve
hypoglossal (12) pathway
medulla-->tongue muscles
Glossopharyngeal
Originates: MedullaPasses through: Jugular foramenMuscles: Stylopharyngeus
Fiber types of VIII
SSA
CN4
Trochlear
 
EOMs- watch finger w/outmoving head
Finger in H
Note symmetrical and conjuagate w/out nystagmus
cross eye noting convergence
Cranial Nerve 8
Vestibulocochlear.
Sensory.
Pons & Medulla.
Sensory - Hearing and balance.
Bilateral.
abducens (6) pathway
inferior pons-->lateral rectus
Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal
 
Medulla to the jugular foramen
 
Primarily: somatic fibers for pharyngeal, parasypathestic fibers for salivary glands;
Sensory fibers from pharynx, tonsil, posterior tongue; chemoreceptor & pressure receptors of carotid artery
 
Tongue depressor used check uvula; gag reflex swallowing coughing & speaking; taste for posterior tongue
CN VI - AbducensFUnction?
abducts eyeball
innervation of 2nd arch
facial (VII)
XII
Hypoglossal - Movement of tounge.
Properties of Muscles
Excitability, Conductivity, contractability, Extensibility, Elasticity




Superior orbital fissure

Oculomotor (III) 
Trochlear (IV)
 -Ophthalmic Division (V1)
 Abducens (VI)

Glossopharyngeal nerve function
both: taste, swallowing
Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal=Components: Sensory and motor
accessory (11) pathway
medulla, spinal cord-->trapezius, sternocleidomastoid
 Nerve X
Vagus
 
Medulla through the jugular foramen
 
Mixed: Somatic & sensory fibers to pharynx & Larynx, parasympathetic Heart, smooth muscle & abdominal visceral organs; sensor to visceral
 
Tests gag, swallowing, coughing & speaking
Cranial Nerve XI
Spinal Acessory - Motor
Cranial Nerve V Function
Facial Sensation (Sensory)
 
Muscles of Mastication (Motor)
facial
Mixed- supplies somatic motor fibers to muscles of facial expression and parasympathetic motor fibers of lacrimal and salivary glands; carries sensory fibers from taste receptors of anterior portion of the tongue
Tay Sachs
hereditary, too much
glycolipid in myelin sheath. Blindness, loss of coordination, and dementia.
Death by age 3-4




thalamus
nearly all sensory impulses travel through the area of the diencephalon
  I
Olfactory Nerve I
 
Orgin: Hair Cells in the Superior portion of the nasal Mucosa.
 
Termination: Olfactory portion of the cerebral Cortex
GVE of occulomotor innervates?
papillary sphincter- constricts pupilciliary muscles- changes shape of lens
glossopharyngeal (9) function
motor: swallowingsensory: taste, blood pressure
motor innervation to skeletal muscles of the tongue
CN 12
structures supplied by GSE column
Extraocular, tongue mm
Name the nucleus for the hypoglossal nerve
Hypoglossal
Rigor Mortis


stiffening of body 3-4 hours after death, peaks at 12, and
diminishes over next 48. deteriorating sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium.
Activates myosin-actin cross bridging and muscle contraction, muscle relaxation
requires ATP and ATP production is no long produced after death. Fibers remain
contracted until myofilaments decay.





How many pairs of cranial nerves originate in the hindbrain?
8
Vagus GSA pathway
sesnory information > spinal nucleus of V > cross the midline > VPM > sensory cortex
Trigeminal?
V. Mixed. Fibers emerge from pons and form three divisions, which exit seperately from skull
WHAT IS CN XI AND X11
ASSESSORY AND HYPOGLOSSAL
Cranial Nerve XI CNS Nucleus
Ambiguus (caudal)Accesory nucleus, pyramidal Decussation to C3-C5
Hypoglossal XII
-Unilateral lesion – speech may be OK -Bilateral lesion – effects speech
Myelin Sheath Disease (MS)


myelin sheath of CNS degenerate. Replaced by scar tissue.
Slows down. Double vision, blindness, speech defects. Death 7-32 years after
onset





4. (IV) Trochear Cranial Nerve
Type: M

Origin: Midbrain

Function: superior obliques muscles of the eyes
CN 9 - Glossopharyngeal
Attaches at the Medulla Oblongata; Senses General Sensory and Taste from Posterior 1/3 of Tongue; SOMATIC MOTOR for Stylopharyngeus; PARASYMPATHETIC MOTOR for the Parotid Salivary Gland
location of nucleus ambiguous
ventrolateral medulla, dorsal to and roughly coextensive with inferior olivary nucleus
trigeminal opthalmic (5) function
sensory: skin of nose, eyebrows, forehead
INFRAORBITAL NERVE
(OF V2)
Branches to upper teeth and gums:
1. Middle superior alveolar branches
2. Anterior superior alveolar branches
Branches to the face:
1. Inferior palpebral branches
2. Lateral nasal branches
Superior labial branches
What type of innervation does the accessory nerve receive?
SVE (Branchial Motor)
CN VComponentsFunctions
GSA, SVEGSA - major sensory nerve of head, innervates portion of scalp, most of face, cornea, epithelium of nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses,oral cavity, skin of outer ear, external auditory meatus, external surface of tympanic membrane, cranial dura mater, also proprioceptive fibers to ALL skeletal muscle of headSVE - motor innervation to skeletal muscle that come from arches - muscles of mastication, mylohyoid, anterior belly of digastric, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani
Loss of eyesight might indicate damage to this cranial nerve.
II - Optic
Cranial Nerve 2
Optic
Sensory
Optic Tract - optic chiasm - retina
Vision
Bilateral
sulci
a shallow groove on the surface of the brain
IV Trochlear
test ability of the eyes to follow a moving objectinability to move eyeball in a particular direction
SENSORY BRANCHES OF
VAGUS N. (X)
1. General (somatic) sensation from external acoustic meatus, meninges and larynx
2. Afferents from chemoreceptors and baroreceptors in aortic arch (visceral sensory)
3. Two sensory ganglia: superior (jugular) ganglion and inferior (nodose) ganglion
What is the function of motor nucleus of V for the trigeminal nerve?
Muscles of mastication
Trochlear nerve (IV)
A mixed nerve which orginates in the brain an runs to the eye. Its motor functions are later and inferior movement of the eye. Its sensory function is to provide info on the positions of the eye.
unilateral lesion of hypoglossal
weakness on one side of tongue, will deviate towards effected ide when protruded
four parasympathetic relay stations in brain
ciliary, p2, otic, and submandibular ganglions
CBOs of the trochlear nerve?
trochlear nucleus - ventral border of PAG in midbrain - motor neurons
GVA/SVA pathway of facial nerve
taste from ant 2/3 > soliatry nucleus > PBN (parabrachial nucleus) > VPM > sensory cortex
How do you test: CN I
Identify familiar smells, one nostril at a time.
Name the nucleus for the olfactory nerve.
Neurosensory cells of the olfactory epithelium
CN IX motor function and structures innervated
f:(1) swallowing and gag reflexes & (2) tear productionsi:(1) throat muscles and (2) lacrimal glands
What presents if you have a UMNL of the accessory nerve?
Ipsilateral SCM weakness (patients head turned toward site of lesion) and contralateral upper traps weakness
What does damage to the Pharyngeal branch of the Vagus Nerve cause?
Failure to elevate the soft palate, difficulty swallowing (constrictor muscles)
Where are the LMN of the accessory nerve?
Axons emerge from the lateral white matter of the spinal cord as a series of rootlets to form the accessory nerve, which enters the cranium thru the foramen magnum.
Where are the CBOs of the branchial motor portion of the facial nerve?
LMN are located in the motor nucleus of CNVII in the pontine tegmentum
What occurs if you have a LMNL in the hypoglossus at below the level of the nucleus.
Flaccid paralysis of the tongue with fasciculations and atrophy of the tongue muscles on affected side (over time). Upon protrusion of the tongue, the tongue will deviate toward the side of weakness with is the SAME side as the lesion
VI
abducent
CN V
Trigeminal--mixed
Optic II
SensoryVision
Smell
1 olfactory
Glossopharyngeal nerve #
9
cranial nerve 9
glossopharyngeal
OLFACTORY (I)
Smell (SVA)
Afferent
sensory towards brain
cranial nerve IV
trochlear
VIIfacial
motor - face muscles
functional components of abducen
GSE
optic (2) pathway
retina-->optic chiasma
trigeminallocation, function
pons; proprioception, chewing
Cranial Nerve XII Type
Motor
muscle of eye movement
motor
trochlear-IV
Foramen Magnum
Vertebral arteries
Spinal cord
Visceral Reflexes
Direct light, consensual light
trochlear (4) foramen
superior orbital fissure
Nerve V
Trigeminal
 
Fibers emerge through the ponsand go to-
Ophthalmic: Superior orbital fissure
Maxillary: Foramen rotundum
Mandibular: Foramen Ovale
 
Function: Mixed Major sensory of face to skin of face & anterior scalp, from mucosae of nose and mouth & surface of eyes; Mandibular division innervates mastification muscles & muscle of floor of mouth
 
Test: Sensation of pain touch & temp with pin & hot & cold objects; Corneal reflex w/cotton; Clenching teeth and moving jaw sise to side and opening mouth w/resistance
Spinal Acessory
Head movement and swallowing
innervation of 1st arch
trigeminal (V)
Protoplasmic astrocytes
contribute to blood-brain
barrier and regular composition of tissue fluid




glossopharangeal test
assess ability to swallow
CN XI
Spinal Accessory: This nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, which control neck turning and shoulder shrugging. The test subject should turn their head and lift their shoulders against resistance
IX. GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL
TONGUE, PHARYNX, BLOOD PRESSURE, PHARYNGEAL MUSCLES;
effect of lesion = loss of sensation in back of mouth, decreased blood pressure control, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth
oculomotor (3) peripheral pathway
ventral midbrain-->eye muscles
Glossopharyngeal IX
Sensory / MotorTongue movement, swallowing, salivation, taste.
3rd O
Occulomotor- Eye focus and movement.
Cranial Nerve V Peripheral Sensory Ganglia
Semilunar
Cribriform foramina in cribriform plate

Olfactory (I)
Which cranial nerves originate from the Pons/Medulla border? (1)
VIII (vestibulocochlear)
Spinal accessory structures innervated
trapezius and sternocleidomastoid mm.
Cranial Nerve #6
Name: Abducens nerve
Function: Motor to lateral rectus m. & retractor bulbi mm. of eye
Exit: Orbital fissure
 
CN11
 
Name?
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Function?
 
Accessory nerve M Jugular foramen motor fibers to trapezius and SCM
Cranial Nerve X Peripheral Autonomic Ganglia
Peripheral Autonomic
IV
Trochlear - Movements of the eye. Joins in the Trochlear nucleus (midbrain).
Dislocations (luxation)
bones are forced out of
alignment, must be reduced, bones returned to normal position




Where does the Hypoglossal Nerve (CN 12) emerge from and is it motor, mixed or sensory?
Medulla

Motor
Cranial Nerves
Numbered from I to XII
 
Can be sensory, motor, or both
 
Sensory cells have ganglia in periphery
 
Some special sense receptors have unique receptor cells that synapse into a "sensory nerve" fiber
lesion of trochlear
eye will go up and in
motor innervation to muscles of facial expression
CN 7
Where do the optic nerves cross over?
Optic chiasma
Cranial Nerve VII Function
Muscles of facial expression (Motor)
 
Taste, Tears (Sensory)
 
Spit (Parasympathetic)
What is the innervation of the abducens nerve?
Somatic MOtor
Function of skeletal muscles
movementmaintain posture and prevent communication, communication Control of openings and passageways, body head
production
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
A mixed nerve with motor fibers orginating in the medulla, and traveling to the pharyngeal region. its sensory fibers orginate in the pharyngeal region, middle and external ear, the rear of the tongue, and the carotid arteries. Its sensory function is involved in taste, touch by the tongue, the gag reflex, and regulation of blood pressure and respiration. Its motor functions include the control of pharyngeal muscels in swallowing, speech, salivation, and gag relex.
CN 10 - Vagus
Attaches at the Medulla Oblongata; Senses General Sensory: the Pharynx, Ear Canal Visceral Sensory: Most of Thoracoabdominal Viscera; SOMATIC MOTOR for the Larynx & Pharynx muscles; PARASYMPATHETIC MOTOR for the Thoracoabdominal Viscera through 2/3 of Intestines.
fibers of hypoglossal emerge where
ventrally between pyramid and olive
bound to surface of B cell plasma membrane, acts as B cell receptor
IgD antibodies
OCULOMOTOR (III)
1. Eye movements (4/6 eye muscles and levator palpebrae superioris m.) (GSE)
2. Pupil constriction and lens accommodation (parasympathetic to ciliaris m. and sphincter pupillae m.) (GVE)
 
If you have weakness in the right SCM and left traps (so on opposite sides), is this an upper or lower motor neuron lesion?
UMNL
Does Calcitonin lower or raise blood calcium levels
released when calcium
concentration rises too high




Tongue would deviate to the injured side of this pair of cranial nerves.
XII - Hypoglossal
facial nerve
Either one of the seventh pair of cranial nerves composed of motor fibers that control muscles of the face except those used in chewing. e.g. expressions.
Trochlear1. Sensory/Motor2. Exits3. Function
1. Motor, 2. Superior Orbital Fissure, 3. Eye Movement
III Oculomotor
test the ablity of the eyes to follow a moving object. examination of pupils for size, shape, and size equality. pupillary reflex is tested with a penlight (the pupils should constrict) test the ability of the eyes to converge.drooping upper eyelid(ptosis). absence of pupillary reflex ( dilated and fixed pupils that may indicate an increase in intracranial pressure).difficulty in focusing eyes on an object
LONG CILIARY BRANCH OF NASOCILIARY N.
Sensation from iris, cornea, conjunctiva on anterior eyeball
Effects of anabolic steroids during adolescence


anabolic steroids may cause premature closure of growth
plate producing short adult stature





Lower Motor Neurons
nerves and axons of cranial and spinal nerves that connect to the muscles.
motor nuclei are located in brainstem, and axons of the nerve cells innervate muscle.
CN V motor function and structure innervated
f: chewingsi: muscles of mastication
lymph node below digastric and where it receives drainage
jugulodigastric ln, receives drainage from pharynx, palatine tonsil, and tongue.
The sensory arm of the gag reflex
General sensory of glossopharyngeal nerve
CN IX sensory function & structures innervated
(1) taste; (2) proprioception for swallowing & (3) blood pressure receptors(1) posterior two thirds of tongue; (2) throat muscles & (3) carotid sinuses
Where are the 2nd order neurons for the visceral sensory portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Processes project to reticular formation, hypothalamus and dorsal motor nucleus of X for appropriate reflex responses (DMNX - decrease HR and BP)
HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS CN XII
HAVE PT PROTRUDE TONGUE OUT AND SIDE TO SIDE AGAINTS RESISTANCE OF TONGUE BLADE.
What is the function of the solitarius nucleus of the vagus nerve?
Visceral sensory from pharynx, larynx, viscera, and aorta
HOW WOLD YOU ASSESS CN IX AND X
TOUCH EITHER SIDE OF THE POSTERIOR PHARANYX WITHTOUNGE BLADE AND OR HAVE PATIENT SAY AH AND LOOK AT SYMETTRY OF THE ELEVATIONOF THE SOFT PALATE. AND LIGHTLY HOLD HANDS ON EITHER SIDE OF PATIENTS THROAT ADN ASK PT TO SWALLOW
Where are the CBOs of the special sensory portion of the facial nerve?
Sensory fibers from the taste buds travel with chorda tympani to their 1st order cell bodies located int he geniculate ganglion and synapse in the rostral part of hte solitary nucleus (gustatory nucleus)
Where are the 2nd order neurons in the general sensory portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Cross midline in the medulla and ascend to contralateral VP nucleus of thalamus
I
olfactory
CN III
Oculomotor--motor
 
CN9
 
Name?
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Function?
Pure motor nerves
occulomotortrochlearabducenhypoglossal
Motor
away from brain
CN I - OlfactoryType?
Sensory
Cranial Nerve XI Type
Motor
ATP
Energy currency of cells




II Optic
SSASensory:Receptors are photosensitive cells associated with 1st order neurons located in the retina of the eye. Bipolar 2nd order neurons interconnect with 3rd order ganglion cells in the retina which carry afferent messages through the optic nerve to the optic chiasm At optic chiasm the nasal half of the retina decussateFibers continue as optic tracts to the lateral geniculate body, where some fibers pass to the occipital lobes.Field is inverted and reversed
XIaccessory
motor - sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
trigeminal mandibular (5) foramen
foramen ovale
Oculomotor Nerve
Originates: Ventral midbrainPasses through: Superior Orbital fissureMuscles: Levator Palpebrae Superioris, Sup. Med. and Inf. Rectus, Inferior Oblique
Cranial Nerve XII Function
Tongue movement
Inner Ear
cochlea, semicircular
ducts, round window




Refractory Period
resistant to stimulation.
Absolute (Na+ gates are open. No stimulus will fire). Relative (K+ gates are
open. Only strong stimulus will trigger)




Xvagus
-motor - heart, lungs, bronchi, gastrointestinal tract-sensory - heart, lungs, bronchi, trachea, larynx, pharynx, gastrointestinal tract, external ear
VIII Vestibulocochlear
 
Enters/leaves brain
To/from in periphery
Foramina
Enters: Medulla
 
To: From inner ear
 
Foramina: Internal acoustic meatus
Trochlear?
IV. Primarily motor. Fibers emerge from midbrain and exit from skull via superior orbital fissure
Vestibulo-Cochlear (Stato-acoustic) Nerve
Originates: Vestibule and cochleaPasses through:Internal acoustic meatusMuscles:
Cranial Nerve VIII Clinical Test
Webber/Rhine tests
Parkinson disease
Progressive loss of motor
function starting in 50’s or 60’s. no recovery. Degeneration of
dopamine-releasing neurons in substantia nigra. Involuntary muscle contraction,
slurred speech, bad handwriting, slow gait, etc. Treatment is drugs and
Physical Therapy. Dopamine precursor can cross blood brain barrier. Deprenyl
slows neuronal degeneration. Surgical technique to relieve tremors. 




VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerve
Sensory:1. Equilibrium, Balance, Postural Tone2. Cochlear Portion- HearingVestibular cell bodies in Scarpa's Ganglion
The smallest pair of cranial nerves that arise from the midbrain and carry motor impulses to the superior oblique muscles of the eye are the ____________nerves
trochlear
AbducensNerve VI
Afferent - noneEfferent - voluntary motor lateral rectus
Glossopharyngeal?
IX. Mixed. Fibers emerge from medulla and leave skull via jugular foramen to run to throat
FRONTAL N.
Frontal sinus, scalp, forehead, medial upper eyelid
1. Supratrochlear branch
2. Supraorbital branch
Upper motor neurons that provide cortical innervation for motor nuclei of cranial nervs V, VII, X, XI, and XII
Corticobulbar fibers
CN VI Name function
AbducensInnervation of one extraocular muscle - LATERAL RECTUS - abducts eye
Foramen Lacerum
Internal corotid artery enters vault here
Vagus
Both: SVE, GVA and GVE (jugular foramen)
which branch is trigiminal derived from
brachial arch 1
VagusNerve X
Afferent - touch pain of pharynx, larynx. bronchi.taste posterior tonguetarget organs, glands of pharnx larynx, lungs, esophagus, heart, stomach, colon, pancreas.Efferent - Voluntary motor muscles of palate, pharynx, larynx. Autonomic thoracic & abdominal viscera
Abducens (VI)
Origin & Course: Fibers leave inferior pons and exit from skull via superior orbital fissure to run to eye.

Function: Carries motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle of eye.

Testing: Tested in common with cranial nerve III.
Purely Motor Cranial Nerves
III (oculomotor nerve)
IV (trochlear nerve)
VI (abducens nerve)
XI (spinal accessory nerve)
XII (hypoglossal nerve)
Name, (S, M, B): CN VIII
Acoustic, S
Fibers synapse in the pterygopalatine ganglion. Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers travel with fibers of other CNs to supply the lacrimal and nasal glands
Greater Petrosal Nerve
II -- special somatic sensory
optic nerve (second \"Oh\")
cerebellum
maintenance of the muscle tone and the coordinations of signals from the motor cortex
Motor (SVE) innervations of trigeminal
muscles of mastication: masseter, temporalis, medial and lateral pterygoidtensor tympani ( tightens tympanic membrane and helps control sound)tensor vali palentine (muscle in soft palate)
I olfactory
Asmt: person is asked to sniff and identify various orders( vanilla)
disorders: inability to smell (anosmia)
Fiber types of CN III
GSE (oculomotor nucleus), GVE (Edinger-Westphal nucleus)
What is the function of the neurosensory cells of the olfactory epithelium for the olfactory nerve?
Sense of smell
abducens test
eye movements ( make an H) and accomidation 6
For cranial nerve VIII give the name, whether it is sensory, motor , or mixed and its function
Vestibulocochlear
Sensory
Hearing, equilibrium
olfactory nerve
either one of the first pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct to the brain the impulses from the mucous membranes of the nose.
sensory and motor nuclei in brainstem devlop in what region?
motor (basilar)- midlinesensory (alar)- lateral
trigeminal maxillary (5) function
sensory: upper lip, cheek, nose, lower eyelid
Cranial Nerve X CNS Nucleus
Spinal Nucleus of CN V
Solitary nucleus (caudal)
Solitary nucleus (rostral)
Dorsal motor nucleus of CN XAmbiguus (middle region)
occulomotor function
muscle that moves the eye and eye lid, pupillary constriction, lens accomidation 3
CN 8 - Vestibulocochlear
Attaches at the Junction of Pons & Medulla Oblongata; Senses Hearing & Balance; NO MOTOR AT ALL!!
CN II - OpticLesions result in?
Visual field deficits (anopsia)Loss of light relfex
How do you test: CN VIII
Evaluate hearing acuity, perform Romberg test
For cranial nerve IX give the name, whether it is sensory, motor , or mixed and its function
Glosopharangeal
sensory in oral cavity, baro/chemoreceptors in bloodvessels
motor->swallowing, parotid salivary
MAXILLARY DIVISION OF TRIGEMINAL NERVE (V2)
Sensory  to middle face from lower eyelid to upper lip; upper teeth and part of nose and nasal cavity; nasopharynx, maxillary sinus, upper teeth and roof of mouth and some meninges. It has the following branches in the pterygopalatine fossa:
"Zany People Pick Pineapples on Green Islands"
1. Infraorbital nerve
2. Posterior superior nasal branches
3. Greater palatine nerve
4. Zygomatic nerve
5. Pharyngeal nerve
6. Posterior superior alveolar branches
And in the cranium:
1. Middle meningeal nerve
 
What provides innervation to the vagus nerve?
SVE (Branchial Motor), GVE (Visceral Motor), GVA (Visceral Sensory), and GSA (General Sensory)
For cranial nerve XI give the name, whether it is sensory, motor , or mixed and its function
Spinal Acessory
Motor
muscles of oral cavity, neck, shoulder
what is portio minor, what types of fibers does it have?
smaller root of trigeminal nerve carrying motor neurons, joins mandibular nerves. carries motor and propriocetpive fibers to 1st arch muscles.
What is the function of the oculomotor nuclei in the oculomotor nerve?
Motor to levator palpebrae superioris and all extraocular eye muscles except sup. oblique, and lateral rectus
What is the 1 exception for the UMN of the hypoglossal nerve.
Cortical neurons that drive genioglossus muscle project ONLY contralaterally
what is unique about trochlear nerve pathway
only cranial nerve the exits on the posterior side of brainstem
Where is the LMN in the branchial portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Exits medulla as 3-4 rootlets in the groove between the olive and cerebellar peduncle just rostral to CNX. Rootlets converge as the glossopharyngeal nerve and exit thru the jugular foramen. Gives off muscular branch deep to the styloid process to innervate the ipsilateral stylopharyngeus muscle.
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