Cranial Nerves 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Optic
SIGHT
CN IX
Glossopharyngeal nerve-Swallowing,salivating and taste
CN V
Trigeminal, Mixed, Pons
CN III
Oculomotor nerve-Most eye movement,papillary constriction, upper eyeelevation
CN VII
Facial nerve-Expressions in forehead, eye and mouth;taste
Vagus
VISCERAL ORGANS IN THE THORACIC and ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
Cranial Nerve IX
Glossopharyngeal Gag reflex, tasting, ability to swallow
What landmark is present for middle cervical ganglion?
C6 cricoid cartilage
Cranial Nerve V
Trigeminal Sensory - facial sensation Motor - clench teeth
Impulse from Vagus Nerve
Mixed nerve- Sensory- skin of ext. acoustic meatus,
Motor- pharynx, larynx, and esophagus,
parasympathetic- Heart, respiratory system, digestive, and kidney
XII
hypoglossal
III
oculomotor
CN IV
Trochlear
Glossopharyngeal IX
Velopharyngx
IV
Trochlear IV
Origin:Motor-Oculomotor nucleus in the midbrian.
Sensory-Proprioceptors in the face, scalp, and organs of the head.
Term:Motor-Extrinsic eye muscles.
Sensory-Prpprioceptive areas of cerebral cortex.
 
trigeminal (5) pathway
pons-->face
 
 
CN1
 
Name?
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Function?
 
Olfactory Nerve
Sensory/Afferent
Cribriform Plate of the Ethmoid Bone
Enter the Olfactory Bulb
SENSE OF SMELL
 
Superior Orbital Fissure
Oculomotor
cranial nerve xII
hypobranchial/hypoglossal
Cranial Nerve III
Occulomotor
CN VIII
Name: Acoustic/vestibulocochlear /Source: Pons/medulla /Designation: Sensory /Course: internal auditory meatus
abducens
superior orbital fissuremotor-eye movement(out)
Cranial nerve 3
Oculomotor nerve
Cranial Nerve II Function
Vision
Microglia (macrophages)
formed from monocytes.
Concentrated in areas of infection, trauma, or stroke.




VI
Abducens

(lateral rectus eye muscle)
CN XI
Accessory (XI)
 
motor
O: medulla oblongata
F: head movement, voluntary component of swallowing, control of vocal cords
Cranial Nerve IV
-Trochlear-No Sensory Function-S.M.Function: superior oblique eye muscle-P.S.M.Function: NONE
CN II
Optic NerveSensory: VisionOrigin: Retina in the eyePathway: Optic canal to optic nerves meeting at optic chiasm to thalamus to occipital lobe
 
CN10
 
Name?
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Function?
 
Vagus
S/M/PS Jugular foreman Innervation of all muscles of the larynx, pharynx (except the stylopharyngeus), palate (except tensor vali palatini), and palatoglossus muscle mediates cough reflex mediates efferent limb of gag reflex
sensory to auricle and external acoustic meatus
Smooth muscles and glands in thoracic and abdominal viscerae
Olfactory tract
entrance of cerebral hemsphere
CN 7
Facial
 
Verbalize inspection for tics and symmetry
pt to raise eyebrows, frown, smile, puff cheeks
close eyes tight and don't let me open
taste deficit ant. 2/3 of tongue sweep across horizontally
Cartilage Injuries
remain torn due to
avascularization, arthroscopic surgery to remove damaged tissue, joint is less
stable after removal.




XI
spinal accessorymotor: turn head, shrug shoulders, some actions for phonationSCM muscle, trapezius, shrug shoulders against resistance, turn head side to side against resistance
CN X
Vagus (X)
 
sensory and motor
O: medulla oblongata
F: (sensory) sensation from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax and abdomen; activity and sensation for parts of ear
(motor) speech and swallowing; motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen
controls the movement of the tongue
hypoglossal
CN III - OculomotorLesions?
Continuously dilated pupil
Function of GVE fibers
motor to viscera
Axons that project contralaterally cross at the level of the nuclei.
Corticobulbar fibers
Vasculosa tunic
choroids, ciliary bosy, and iris
Vestibulocochlear
Sensory (Vestibular for balance and euqilibrium and cochlear for hearing)(internal acoustic meatus)
mesencephalic nucleus receives sensory information from?
occulomotor, trochear, abducen
FACIAL
NERVE # VII (7) -
MIXED
MUSCLES AND TASTE RECEPTORS FOR A 2/3 OF TOUNGE
MUSCLES FOR FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
Fiber types of CN I
SVA, olfactory bulbs
The only nerve whose cell bodies originate from the contralateral nucleus
Trochlear
Calcitonin is release by what gland
thyroid gland
comprised of 3 main branches: maxillary, mandibular, opthalmic nerves
5 Trigeminal
medula oblangata
vasomotor and cardiac centers are located here
Functional components of facial nerve
GVE, SVE, GVA/SVA, GSA
Fiber types of CN V
GSA, BE (masticatory nucles)
Name, (S, M, B): CN II
Optic, S
causes of Myasthenia Gravis
RICE, rest ice compression
and elevation




Salivation is linked to this nerve.
VII - Facial
Number 5
Function
Trigeminal Nerve The trigeminal is the largest cranial nerve . It provides sensory information from the face, forehead, nasal cavity, tongue, gums and teeth (touch, and temperature) and provides somatic motor innervation to the muscles of mastication or “chewing”.
2 nucleus associated with occulomotor
occulomotor nuscleus- SVEEW nucleus- GVE
TrigeminalNerve V
Afferent - touch, pain of skin on faceTouch pain to mucous membrane of nose & sinusesTouch pain to mouth, anterior tongueEfferent - Muscles of masticationCorneal reflexJaw reflex
CN VI
AbducensSomatic motor Lateral rectus muscle (contraction results in abduction of the eye)
Cranial Nerve III Clinical Test
Pupil Constriction, 4/6 Cardinal Points Gaze
These axons descend within the genu of the internal capsule to the medial part of the cerebral peduncle.
Corticobulbar fibers
IV - somatic motor / somatic (proprioceptive) sensory
Trochlear nerve (\"To\")
Facial nerve (VII)
A mixed nerve with motor neurons orginating in the pons. It innervates the muscles of the face, scalp, neck, and salivary glands. Its sensory functions are reception of tast stimuli for the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and the position of face and scalp muscles.
hypoglossal nerve
Either one of the twelfth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the instric muscles of the tongue.
GSA innervation of IX
skin of external ear, internal surface of tympanic membrane, upper pharynx, posterior 1/3 tongue
MUSCULAR INNERVATIONS OF MOTOR BRANCHES OF
FACIAL N. (VII)
Muscles of facial expression via:
1. Temporal br.
2. Zygomatic br.
3. Buccal br.
4. Mandibular br.
5. Cervical br.
Muscles behind the ear and occipitalis m.:
1. Posterior auricular br.
Muscles derived from second branchial (pharyngeal) arch:
Stylohyoid m., posterior belly of digastric m. and stapedius m.
Goes to the smooth muscle and glands of pharynx, larynx, and thoracic and abdominal viscera.
Dorsal Vagal Motor
Loss of sense of smell would indicate damage to this cranial nerve.
I - Olfactory
GSA pathway of IX
sensory receptor > spinal nucleus of V > cross the midline > VPM > sensory cortex
AURICULOTEMPORAL N.
(OF V3)
1. Sensory to skin of ear and temporal region
2. Carries parasympathetic fibers from otic ganglion (IX) to parotid gland
What is the function of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the oculomotor nerve?
Parasympathetic supply to ciliary muscle, constrictor pupillae
Which cranial nerves originate from the Pons? (3)
V (trigeminal), VI (abducens) , VII (facial)
Cranial Nerve X Peripheral Structure Innervated
Skin of external ear, meninges (post. fossa)
Larynx, trachea, gut, aortic arch receptors
Taste buds (posterior oral cavity, larynx)
Gut (to splenic flexure of colon), respiratorystructures
Striated muscles of palate, pharynx, and larynx, heart
What is the function of the visceral motor portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland. Activation leads to increased secretion from the parotid gland.
Three branches of the Trigeminal nerve
This cranial nerve has 3 branches: the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branches.
Name all the cranial nerves that ennervate the tongue and what their function is.
Anterior 2/3 for taste: Facial (CN VII)
Anterior 2/3 for touch: Trigeminal (CN V3)
Posterior 1/3 for taste and touch: Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
Motor function: Hypoglossal (CN XII)
Does Calcitriol lower or raise blood calcium levels
released when calcium blood level is to low
Where are the 3rd order neurons of the general sensory portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Project to the post-central sensory gyrus
If you have weakness in the SCM, is this an Upper or Lower motor neuron lesion?
This is not enough information to tell
What happens if the facial nerves are damaged before the division of the Facial Nerve into two main branches?
The damage will affect the muscles of the entire side of the face (ipsilaterally)
Olfactory
Smell
I
Olfactory

(smell)
Oculomotor nerve #
3
cranial nerve 6
abducens
Reflex Center


coughing,
sneezing, gagging, swallowing, vomiting, saturation, sweating, movements of
tongue and head.





facial expressions
7 facial
V
Trigeminal V
 
Origin: Motor-Nucleus in pons.
Sensory-Opathalmic branch-face and scalp. Maxillary BR -nasal mucosa, oral cavity & face.
Mandibular BR- oral cavity, lower teeth side of head.
Termination:Motor Muscles of massification.
Sensory nuclei in the pons for all the sensory.
 
cranial portion nucleus
nucleus ambiguous
CN III - Oculomotortype?
motor
Cranial Nerve XI Function
Trapezius/sternomastoid
Foramen Rotundum
Trigeminal nerve -Mandibular
olfactory function
sense of smell
Cranial Nerve II
Optic Nerve
functional components of occulomotor
GSE, GVE
vestibulocochlear (8) pathway
inner ear-->pons, medulla
Nerve I
Olfactory
 
fibers from olfactory epithelia go through cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb
 
Sensory: Smell
 
Test: Smelling oils (clove or vanilla)
Cranial Nerve VI Function
Eye Movement
oculomotor
extraocular eye movement, elevation of eyelid, pupil constriction
Frontal lobe
voluntary motor functions
and areas for planning, mood, smell, and social judgment. 




swallowing and head movement
11 Accessory
Cranial Nerve VIII
Vestibulocochlear Nerve (acoustic auditory)
 
Outputs to medulla
 
Vestibular branch - from semicircular canals and utricle/saccule - sense of balance
 
Cochlear branch - sensory from cochlear - sound
Cranial Nerve #3
Name: Oculomotor nerve
Function: Motor to ventral oblique m; dorsal,  ventral, medial rectus mm. of eye, levatorpalpebrae superioris m.
Exit: Orbital fissure
parasympathetic motor innervation to the parotid gland
CN 9
Olfactory bulb
Paired mass of gray matter
Cranial Nerve X Arch
4 and 6
Prime Mover (agonist)
produces most of force




optic function
visual acuity and visual field
I - Olfactory
 
Enters/leaves brain
To/from in periphery
Foramina
Enters: Olfactory Bulbs
 
From: Olfactory epithelium
 
Foramina: Cribriform plate of ethoid
III. OCULOMOTOR NERVE
EYE MOVEMENT;
effect of lesion = 
eye does not move medially, pupil is dialated
Hypoglossal?
XII. Mixed. Fibers arise from medulla and exit from skull via hypoglossal can to travel to tongue
11th A
Accessory- Movement of head and shoulders.
Cranial Nerve VIII Function
Hearing, Sense of Equilibrium
XI
Spinal accessory - Movment of muscles in throat and neck
Spina Bifida
Birth defect due to abnormal development of the neural tube and wertebral
column. Occurs in 1 out of 1000
babies. Risk is reduced by folic
acid supplements early in pregnancy. 
Spina bifida cystica is when a sac protrudes from spine





Accessory
SVE:motor to muscles of neck and forelimb muscles of branchial arch origin (jugular foramen)
Number 6
Action  
Abducens NerveThe abducens nerve carries somatic motor innervation the lateral rectus muscle. It is another pure motor nerve fiber
IX Glossopharyngeal
check gag and swalloing reflex, person is asked to speak and cough. test posterior two thirds of tongue for taste.loss of gag reflexdifficulty in swallowing(dysphagia)loss of taste on posterior two thirds of tonguedecreased salivation
CN III - OculomotorFUNCTION?
adduction (medial rectus) and accommodation (ciliary muscle)
BUCCAL N.
(OF V3)
Sensory to mucous membrane of cheek
Cranial Nerve II Clinical Test
Visual Acuity, Visual Fields
With UMN, is SCM under ipsilateral or contralateral control?
Ipsilateral.
vagus function
muscles of pharynx, larynx and soft palate; sensationin extrenal ear, phaynx, larynx, thoracic and abd viscera; paraysympthetic innervation of thoracic and abd organs
Cranial Nerve 7
Facial.
Both.
Lower pons.
Motor - forehead (bilaterally), lower facial muscles (contralateral), facial expression, speech (lips), and eye blink and stapedius reflex.
Sensory - taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue
Parasympathetic - salivation.
Bilateral(partly) & contralateral (partly)
CN 11 - Accessory
Attaches at the Medulla Oblongata; SOMATIC MOTOR for the Trapezius and the Sternocleidmastoid
pathway of occulomotor nucleus
UMN cortex > cross midline> occulomotor nucleus > extraoccular musclescrossed pathway
CN IV - TrochlearLesions?
diplopia (double vision) while looking down with eye adducted ->difficulty reading and going down stairs
Both Motor and Sensory CNs
V (trigeminal nerve)
VII (facial nerve)
IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)
X (vagus nerve)
Nerves innervating muscles derived from the branchial (pharyngeal arches)
Special Visceral Efferents (Branchial Motor)
Regions of the spinal cord
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral




7. (VII) Facial Cranial Nerve
Type: Mixed

Origin: Lower Pons

Function:
*Sensory portion: taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue.

*Motor portion: all muscles for facial expression, autonomic fibers to lacrimal glands and submaxillary and sublingual (salivary)glands
optic nerve
either one of the second pair of cranial nerves, consisting of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from the retina to the brain.
Number 2
Function
damage  
Optic Nerve
Carries impulses from the retina to thalamus 
The optic nerves join each other in the middle cranial fossa to form the optic chiasm.
Purely sensory
Can cause severe loss of vision 
CN I function and tract
f:smelltract: Olfactory cells of nasal mucosa to Olfactory Bulbs to pyriform cortex
Cranial Nerve I Peripheral Structure Innervated
Olfactory receptors of olfactory epithelium
Splanchnic (visceral) nerve route


a. Effectors
in abdominal cavity are innervated by sympathetic fibers in splanchnic
nerves that lead to 3 major collateral ganglia. celiac, superior and
inferior mesenteric ganglion





CN XII : Lesions
UMN damage - spasticity, weakness and loss of control, tongue deviates to the side opposite to the lesion.
LMN damage - atrophy & paralyisis of the tongue. atrophy of the tongue muscles on the affected side. tongue deviates to the same side as the lesion when produced.
CN X motor component structures innervated
(1) pacemaker & ventricular muscles; (2) smooth muscles of the digestive tract (3) smooth muscles in bronchial tubes (4) muscles of larynx a & pharynx
Cranial Nerve VI Clinical Test
1/6 Cardinal Point of Gaze: Lateral Rectus
Types of Photoreceptors


- cones:
colored vision

- rods: night vision





HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS CN IV
HAVE PT IDENTIFY LIGHT TOUCH WITH COTTONBALL AND PINPRICK AT OPTHMALIC, MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR AND FOR MOTER ASK PT TO CLENCH TEEN AND PALPTE THE MASSETER MUSCLE
What are the 3 major division of the Trigeminal nerve?
Ophthalamic, Maxillary, and Mandibular
Why is olfactory nerve called visceral afferent
Because it assists body in preparing for eating by causing reflex salivation and increase in gastric motility
What does damage to the trochlear nerve result in?
Double vision and deduced ability to rotate eye inferolaterally.
What is the function of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus?
Parasympathetic supply to thoracic and abdominal viscera
BRANCHIAL MOTOR BRANCHES OF VAGUS N. (X)
1. To all muscles of pharynx, larynx, and palate (except the tensor palati and stylopharyngeus)
2. These muscles are all derived from the fourth and sixth branchial (pharyngeal) arches
What is the function of the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the facial nerve?
General sensation from part of the external ear, external surface of tympanic membrane
What occurs if you have an UMNL of the hypoglossal nerve? (Motor cortex and below to the level of the nucleus)
Minimal atrophy and no fasciculations of tongue muscles. Upon protrusion of the tongue, the tongue deviates toward the side of weakness, which is the side OPPOSITE the lesion (due to contralateral innervation of the genioglossus)
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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