Cranial Nerves 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Type: Optic
Function: Vision
Type: Hypoglossal
Function: Tongue, Speech and Swallowing
Type: Glossopharyngeal
Function: Gag, Swallowing
infraorbital nerve
brach of maxillary nerve-after pterygopalatine fossa, maxillary nerve enter the floors of the orbit, thus becoming infraorbital nerve
lingual n?
branch of poster mandibular division-provides sensory innervation to mucous membrane of anterior 2/3 of tongue, lingual gingiva, and others advjacent to tongue-joined by chorda tympani brach of CN 7 which serves 2 functions (1) special sensory fibers carrying taste from anterior 2/3 tongue (2) preganglionic parasympathetic fibers destined for the submandibular ganglion (secretomotor to submandibular and sublingual and other minor salivary glands)
5 muscles the oculomotor nerve controls
decreasing K+ current by increasing ECF K+ will do what to Vrm
Type: Vagus
Function: Regulation of heart rate, Breathing, Digestive System Activity
long ciliary nerves?
brach of nasociliary nerve-accompany short ciliary n. from ciliary ganglion-pierce sclera around optic n.-are sensory to eyeball, eg cornea
CN7;Name? Function? Hole?
Facial; control facial expression; internal acoustic meatus thru stylomastoid foramen
division of trigeminal nerve that feeds upper jaw and gums along with teeth

mandibular V3
PNS dominant outflow by oculomotor nerve in the eye will cause your pupil to_______.
This will conserve energy and need less O2
vs. fight or flight where pupils do the opposite
trochlear nerve
branches in parotid gland
-temporal branch=muscle of external ear and part of frontalis-zygomatic branch= remainder of frontalis, orbicularis oculi-buccal branch= buccinator, upper half of orbicularis oris and the dilator msucles inserting into upper lip- mandibular branch= muscles of lwoer lip- cervical branch=platysma
Opthalmic V1 3 sensory branches?
-lacrimal nerve-frontal nerve -nasociliary nerves
middle superior alveolar nerve
brach of maxillary nerve-innervates maxillary sinus, molar, and premolar teeth
the additional bend from grinded down articular facets could possible compress these
more positive
innervated by trigminal nerve that is in charge of mastication (chewing) and connects upper hard palate to mandible
temporalis muscle
vagus nerve
cranial nerve 10 that has primarily Parasympathetic activity both to and away from brain
gives motor output to heart, lungs, GI, pharynx and larynx
also provides sensory input from airway, heart, pharynx and larynx-upper parts of respiratory system

Trochlear nerve (CN IV)?
-motor = courses through cavernous sinus and enters orbit through superior orbital fisure;-superior oblique-innervates superior oblique muscle of eye
Outgoing nerves from pterypalatine ganglion -short sphenopalatine
-exits through the sphenopaltine foramen to enter the nasal cavity-supply lateral wall of nasal cavity
nucleous pulposus
this can leak out of vertebral discs into vertebral foramen and put pressure on the spinal cord causing severe pain and or nerve damage
vestibula branch
this part of cranial nerve 8 detects changes in position usually from a turning position and balance from 3 dimensional axis
when this isn't functioning right we feel sick and nauseated
focuses image from outside and projects it onto posterior region of the eye
right half of retina
small bones on top of nose at the bridge of the nose
located at the top of vomer
Cranial Nerve 3: Oculomotor Nerve arises?
Emerges from interpenduncular fossa of the midbrain and travels forward to -pierces dura of triangular field to enter cavernous sinus -travels along lateral sinus wall-leaves through superior orbital fissurep
visceral motor component (parasympathetic) of facial nerve importance?
-responsible for control of all major glands of the head except for parotid gland (auricomotor nerve from otic ganglion which preganglion is V3)
Oculomotor nerve 3 preganglionic parasympathetic?
-fibers travel with inferior division and synapse in ciliary ganglion suspended from nasociliary nerve (brach of trigeminal V1)-post ganglionic fibers pass to the orbit via short ciliary nerves to innervate ciliary muscle and sphincter pupillae muscle of the eye
posterior longitudinal ligament
runs along the posterior aspect of the bodies of the vertebrae. 
this runs thru the canal along the bodies
will not get in your way during spinal b/c it is anterior to spinal cord
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN 9) sensory
pharyngeal plexus (composed of CN 9 sensory, CN 10 motor and sympathetics)-sensory to auditory tube, tympanic cavity, palatine fossa, and nasopharynx -main trunk ends supplying posterior pharyngeal wall while other continue to posterior 1/3 of tongue
Cranial nerve 10: Vagus Nerve arises?
-arises as several rootlets from medulla-in line with and below rootlets of glossopharyngeal-rootlets combine and pass laterally to pierce dura and exit through jugular foramen to neck below
Perceived dysfunction of mandibular nerve (V3)
-loss of senssation on the v3 zone-paralysis of muscles of mastication
Cranial Nerve V-2: Maxillary Nerve (branch of trigeminal) arises?
-Leaves cave and passes anteriorly through posteroinferior portion of cavernous sinus-leaves sinus by passing through foramen rotundum to area of pterygopalatine fossa
each retinal is divided into these two sides
right side of brain
Cranial Nerve 12: Hypoglossal Nerve arises?
-arises from medulla in cleft between the olive and pyramid as several rootlets-rootlets combine, pierce dura, and exit through hypoglossal canal
Clinical test for facial nerve
-test for sweet and saly on anterior 2/3's of tongue-observe tearing with pungent fumes (ammonia)-observe symmetry of face when asked to do facial expressions
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN 9) perceived dysfunction
-damage to this nerve would reduce or inhibit gag reflex and difficulty swallowing-reduce sensation on posterior 1/3 of tongue-blood pressure altered
Cranial Nerve 4: Trochlear Nerve arises?
Only one to arise form dorsum of brainstem. Slender thread from below the inferior colliculus of the midbrain and encircles brainstem to pass anteriorly. -pierces dura of triangular field to enter cavernous sinus -travels along lateral sinus wall-leaves through superior orbital fissure
Clinical test for opthalmic nerve (CN III)?
-test for corneal reflex with wisp of cotton-prick forehead with pin (pain), apply warm and cold objects (temperature)
tongue movement
Olfactory #
Abducent VI
MotorEye movement
For Cribriform plate
cranial nerve V
Cranial Nerve IV
Cranial Nerve II
Optic Nerve
optic (2) function
sensory: vision
jugular foramensensory-taste (post. 1/3 of tongue)motor-swallowing, gag reflex, salivation
Cranial nerve 4
Trocheal nerve
Cranial Nerve II Exit
Long Bones
yellow bone marrow,
diaphysis=shaft. Epiphysis=head). Humerous, radius, ulna, matacarpals,
phalanges, femur, tibia, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges

Cranial Nerve(s) of Hindbrain
Glossopharyngeal (IX)
sensory and motor
O: medulla oblogata
F: (sensory) taste to posterior one-third of tongue, sensation from pharynx, tonsils, carotid arteries
(motor) salivation, swallowing
Cranial Nerve VIII
-Vestibulocochlear-Sensory: hearing, equilibrium (vestibular branch)-S.M.Function: NONE-P.S.M.Function: NONE
Hypoglossal NerveMotor: Intervates intrinsic and extrinsic tongueOrigin: Hypoglossal nucleus in medulla oblongataPathway: Leaves cranium to hypoglossal canal to inferior surface of mandible and tongue
abducenslocation, function
pons;movement of eyeball, proprioception
Hearing and equilibrium (SSA,SSE)
Helps regulate blood gases
Carotid Body
what the Parasympathetic
& Sympathetic divisions do in general

Para SympatheticSympathetic
Olfactory;sensory: smell reception and interpretation
olfactory nerve
nerve associated with smell
Olfactory (I)
O: cerebral cortex
F: sense of smell
Motor Nerves
NERVE # VI (6)-
CN VIII - Vestibulocochlear/auditoryFunction?
Hearing and balance
Function of GSA fibers
sensory from skin
Olfactory - Important in the sensation of smell and joins in under the dorsal cerebral cortex.
replacement of diseased joint with artificial
device called prosthesis

GSE:motor to muscles of tongue (hypoglossal foramen)
Cranial Nerve I
Olfactory Nerve - sensory only
Olfactory receptors pass their axons through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid into olfactory bulb
Olfactory tract runs from the olfactory bulb into cortex
bilateral lesion of hypoglossal
difficulty eating and speaking
trigeminal nerve; sensory infor from nasal cavity, palate, upper teeth, skin of cheek, upper lip, lower eyelid
Vagus X
Sensory / MotorSensory from GI tract/respiratory tree; Motor to larynx, pharynx, parasympathetic; Motor to the abdominal and thoracic organs.
Fiber types of CN IV
GSE, trochlear nucleus
Where does the accessory nerve exit?
Jugular Foramen
have myelin sheath and use saltatory conduction
VII Facial
SSE, SVE, GSA, SVAMotor: 1. Superficial muscles of face, scalp, stapedium2. Superior salivatory nucleus- Submandibular and sublingual salivary glands, nasal, palatine, and lacrimal glands (Lacrimal-DRY EYE)Sensory: 1. Exteroceptive from outer ear2. Deep sensation of face, nasal cavity and soft palate3. Taste buds on Ant 2/3 of tongue- fibers to nucleus solitarius
mid brain
most superior portion of the brainstem
SVA/ GVA innervation of glossopharyngeal
posterior 1/3 of tongue
facial (7) function
motor: muscles of scalpsensory: taste, deep pressure in face
OpticSpecial Sensory Vision
Three fiber types that have brain stem nuclei
Name, (S, M, B): CN IX
Glossopharyngeal, B
What to ligaments connect to
Ligament attaches bone to

9. (IX) Glossopharyngeal Cranial Nerve
Type: Mixed

Origin: Medulla

*Sensory portion: sensation and taste from from posterior 1/3 of tongue.

* Motor portion: movements of pharynx and autonomic fibers to paratoid glands (salivary glands)
Number 4
Trochlear Nerve  
The trochlear nerve provides somatic motor innervation to the superior oblique eye muscle.It is also a pure motor nerve fiber.
columns of subnuclei project where?
levator palpebrae- innervates both muscles on both sidessuperior rectus- colum prjects contralateral eeyemedial rectus, inferior oblique, inferior rectus- column projects ipsilaterlly
Cranial Nerve III Oculomotor
moves muscles of eye and eyelid(somatomotor) and lens and pupil (visceromotor) orgin in the midbrain
What muscle does the trochlear supply motor fibers to?
superior oblique muscle
Cranial Nerve XII Clinical Test
Symmetric tongue protrustion w/o atrophy
post 1/3 on tongue and musc of throat to swallow
VI - somatic motor / somatic (proprioceptive) sensory
Abducens nerve (\"And\")
Accessory nerve (XI)
A mixed nerve orginating in the medulla and the upper cervical portions of the spinal cord. It is primarily a motor nerve which ccontrols voluntary swallowing and movements of the muscels of the head, neck, and shoulders. Its sensory function is to provide info on the position of those muscles.
trochlear nerve
either one of the fourth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the superior oblique muscle of the upper part of the eyeball.
location of hypoglossal nucleus
caudal to rostral medulla, adjacent to midline beneath 4th ventricle.
Sensation from ethmoid and frontal sinuses, anterior cranial fossa meninges, and nose through lateral and medial internal nasal and external nasal nerves
What is the function of the GVE (Visceral Motor) portion of the vagus nerve?
Preganglionic Parasympathetic innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera. Stimulation results in decreased HR, bronchoconstriction, and increased peristalsis.
This nerve slows the heart rate and drops blood pressure.
X - Vagus
pathway od EW nucleus
UMN cortex > cross midline> EW nucleus > ciliary ganglian > papillary sphincter and ciliary musclecrossed system
Sensation from the upper medial eyelid below trochlea
What is the function of the visceral sensory portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Receive information from chemoreceptors in the carotid body to monitor O2 and CO2 tension in circulating blood and from baroreceptors (stretch receptors) in the carotid sinus - monito arterial BP
How many pair of cranial are there
12 - numbered by roman numerals
Cranial Nerve Type IV Clinical Tests
1/6 Cardinal Point of Gaze: Superior Oblique
Fibers ascend dorsomedially toward the floor of the 4th ventricle, hook around abducens nucleus (internal genu of CNVII) and exit from the brainstem on its ventral surface near the caudal border of the pons, at the cerebellopontine angle. Exits the crania
Branchial Motor portion of the Facial Nerve
diagnositc test done on pt to test occulomotor nucleus
papillary light relfex- shine light into eye, both pupils should constrict- consentual light relfex
Where are the UMN for the branchial motor portion of the facial nerve?
Corticobulbar fibers from the motor cortex project bilaterally to muscles of the forehead and contralaterally to muscles of the lower face
What type of joint is most prone to injury

Synovial joint, most freely movable, have a fluid filled
space called a joint cavity

What are the CBOs of the abducens nerve?
Abducens Nucleus - floor of 4th ventricle in pons, near the midline. Motor neurons and interneurons
What is the function of the special sensory portion of the facial nerve?
Tast from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
What would occur if you had a LMNL in the branchial motor portion of the vagus nerve?
Nucleus Ambiguus or vagus n - hoarseness (unilateral loss of function of intrinsic muscles of larynx) and difficulty swallowing due to inability to elevate the soft palate adequately. Performed by observing the post. pharynx at rest and during phonation. Unilateral lesion of CNX causes deviation of the uvula and soft palate to the unaffected side due to unopposed action of the paryngeal constrictors
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Stylomastoid Process
Motor fibers of facial expression, posterior belly of digastric, stylohyoid, and stapedius muscles(M) taste of anterior 2/3rds of tongue (S) parasypmathetic fibers for lacrimal, submandibular, sub lingual, nasal, and palatine glands(PS) Mediates the efferent limb of the corneal (blink) reflex
Sensation from Palate
Auricle and external acoustic meatus
Abducen innervates
lateral rectus
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Somatic Efferent
Superior Orbital Fissure
Cranial Nerve VII
Optic function
Sensory:visual to brain
CN I - OlfactoryFunction?
Cranial Nerve XI
Spinal Accessory
most commonMany dendrites1 axon
Accessory Nerve XI
Origin: Motor- Nucleue in the medulla and cervical part of the spinal cord.
Sensory- Skeletal muscle proprioceptors.
Term:  Motor- skeletal M. of the neck & shoulders.
Sensory-dorsal root ganglia in the cervical region.
hypoglossal (12) function
motor: tongue muscles
Abducens Nerve
Originates: Inferior PonsPasses through: Superior orbital fissureMuscles: Lateral Rectus
1st O
Olfactory- Sense of smell
CN 9
Gag reflex using tongue blade
taste deficit pos 1/3
attachment to mobile end of

-motor - pharyngeal muscles-sensory - posterior tounge, tonsils, pharynx
GVE innervation of glossopharyngela nerve
parotid gland
Facial NerveSensory: Taste from anterior 2/3 of tongueOrigin: Nuclei within ponsPathway: Exits tongue via chorida tympani branch to tiny foramen and geniculate ganglion, enter temporal bone via internal acoustic meatus then stylomastoid to supply musculature, Motor: Aids in muscles of facial expression, increase in secretions of glands
medulla and pons; hearing and equilibrium
Parasympathetic Motor
AKA general visceral efferent
Functions: Parasympathetic innervation of head and thoracoabdominal viscera above splenic flexure
Brainstem Nuclei: Edinger-Westphal nucleus (III), superior-salivatory nucleus (VII), Inferior salivatory nucleus (IX), Dorsal motor nucleus (X)
Do not innervate striated muscle
Second most medial motor column 
Cranial Nerve I CNS Nucleus
Olfactory bulb
Medula Oblongata controls what
Cardiac CenterVasomotor CenterRespirator CenterReflex Center
XI Spinal Accessory
Motor:1. Sternocleidomastoid and portion trapeziusSensory:1. Proprioception
3 sensory nuclei
mesenphalic, chief sensory, spinal nuclei
FacialNerve VII
Afferent - taste of anterior tongueEfferent - voluntary facial musclesautonomic lachrymal, submandibular, sublingual glands.
Eye movement (lateral rectus m.) (GSE)
Where does the hypoglossal nerve exit?
Hypoglossal canal
Mixed- major sensory nerve of face; conducts sensory impulses from skin of face and anterior scalp, from mucosae of mouth and nose, and from surface of the eyes; madibular division also contains motor fibers that innervate muscles of mastication and muscle of floor of mouth
trigeminal test
test sensitivity with cotton balls, test sharp and dull, chewing
Cranial Nerve 1
Olfactory tract - olfactory bulb - olfactory epithelium.
Sensory - smell
GVE of X
parasympathetic of visceral from left cholic flexur up
Spinal AccessoryNerve XI
Afferent - noneEfferent - Voluntary motor response of SCM and upper traps.
Trochlear (IV)
Origin & Course: Fibers emerge from midbrain and exit from skull via superior orbital fissure.

Function: Primarily motor- provides somatic motor fibers to superior oblique muscle (an extrinsic eye muscle).
Testing: Tested in common with cranial nerve III.
General Visceral Afferent
CNs: IX, X
Function: Inputs for control of cardiorespiratory and digestive functioning 
Brainstem Nuclei: Nucleus solitarius (caudal portion, cardiorespiratory nucleus)
The most medial sensory column (along with special visceral afferent)
Name, (S, M, B): CN XII
Hypoglossal, M
What nerve loops around the abducens nucleus in the facial genu to exit the pons?
Facial nerve
III Occulomotor
GSE, GVE, GSAMostly Motor:3 Parts of Motor Output: 1. Ocular musculature- excep superior oblique, lateral rectus (Most Ipsilateral- superior rectus is contralateral) 2. Levator palpabrae superioris (bilateral) 3. Edinger-Westphal Nucleus- pupillary sphinctor-constrict pupil, ipsilateral ciliary muscles- thickens the lensSensory: Proprioception
Abducens1. Sensory/Motor2. Exits3. Function
1. Motor2. Superior Orb. Fissure,3. Eye Movement
GSA Pathway of trigeminal
sensory receptor > trigeminal ganglia >one of the trigeminal nuclei > cross the midline > VPM > sesnory cortex of pstcentral gyruscrossed system2nd order neuron crosses the midlinedivergin circuit
effect of lesion = loss of eye movement
Fiber types of VII
GVE (superior salivatory nucleus), BE (facial nucleus), GSA, SVA
Name the nucleus for the Glossopharyngeal nerve?
Spinal Trigeminal, Solitarius, Ambiguus, Inferior Salivatory
facial test
ask pt to smile, frown, whistle, raise eyebrows, look for symmetry
Oculomotor (III)
A mixed nerve which orginates in the brain, and runs to the eye. Its motor functions include eye movements, controlling the diameter of the pupil, focusing the lens, and raising the eye lid. Its sensory function to provide info on the position of the eye.
facial nerve
Either one of the seventh pair of cranial nerves composed of motor fibers that control muscles of the face and teste buds except those used in chewing.
extrinsic tongue muscles innervate by hypoglossal
hyoglossus (depresses and retracts, makes dorsum convex)styloglossus (retraction and elevation)genuglossus (inf- protrude, middlie- depress, superior- tip back and down)
Cranial Nerve XII Peripheral Structure Innervated
Intrinsic muscles of tongue, hyoglossus, genioglossus, and styloglossus muscles
trochlear function
muscle that moves the eye and eye lid, pupillary constriction, lens accomidation 4
GVE pathway of IX
motor area > cross the midline > inferior salviotry nucleus > otic ganglion > protid gland
Nerves innervating muscles of the head derived from somites
General Somatic Efferents (Somatic Motor)
What are three branches of the Vagus Nerve?
Pharyngeal Branch
External Superior Laryngeal Branch
Recurrent Nerve Branch
(OF X)
1. Motor to all muscles of the larynx, except cricothyroid and to part of the inferior constrictor
2. Parasympathetic and sensory to larynx below vocal cords, and to the esophagus and trachea
Where are the CBOs of the general sensory portion of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Inferior glossopharyngeal ganglia and spinal nucleus of V
What are the two main branches of the facial nerve and what do they innervate?
Cervicofacial branch (innervates muscles of lower face through buccal, lingual and mandibular branched)
Temporofacial branch (innervates the upper face)
How do you test: CN VII
Test motor function by making faces (smiling, blowing, wrinkling forehead) and closing eyes, test sensory function by testing sweet and salty tastes on the anterior tongue
The componenet of the sensory arm of the corneal reflex
General sensory portion of trigeminal nerve
What is the function of the branchial motor component of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Motor to the stylopharyngeus muscle to elevate the pharynx during swallowing and speech.
What is the ambiguus nucleus of the vagus nerve?
Motor to muscles of the pharynx and larynx
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