Cranial Nerves 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
X.
Vagus
VI.
Abducent
bone of lower jaw
parietal
# of cranial nerves
olfactory bulb/nerve
III
Type: Oculomotor
Function: Eye Movement
infratorchelar n.?
branch of nasociliary nerve-sensory to skin of upper eyelids, lacrimal sac, and side of nose
Frontal nerve
-divides into -supraorbital nerve which carries sensation from forehead and scalp -supratrochlear nerve carries sensation from bridge of nose, medial part of upper eyelid, medial forehead-courses along roof of orbite towards superior orbital fissure and joined by lacrimal and naso ciliiary
cranial nerve #1
looks like flat paddle that is anterior to olfactory tract
sits on top of cribiform plate which is part of ethmoid bone
holes in cribiform plate is where these nerves innervate
lacrimal bone
cranial nerve #5
very large and split into three divisions
target of dentists
opthalmic V1
peripherally
two blood arteries that usually accompany vital aspects of the body such as the thyroid or spinal column tend to be most plentiful where?
Inerior alveolar nerve?
branch of poster mandibular division-mixed nerve (sensory and motor)-before entering mandiular forament it gives motor branches to mylohyoid muscle and anterior belly of digastric muscle-after entering mandibular foramen is only sensory to mandibular teeth, gingiva, chin, and lower lip-exits mandible as mental nerve
CN9;Name? Function? Hole?
Glossopharyngeal; Taste & Swallowing; Jugular Foramen
CN12;Name? Function? Hole?
Hypoglossal; control tongue movement; Hypoglossal canal
sublingual gland
facial nerve provides controlled production of saliva from this gland in anterior floor of mouth under tongue that is responsible for small part of saliva about 15-20%
it produces mucous secretions that are sticky and slimy
sutures where bones come together have what?
surgeons are articulate in these areas
occipital
Pterygopalatine ganglion arises?
hangs from maxillary division of trigeminal nerve (V2) in ptergypaltine fossa
this will increase the Na+/K+ ATPase activity and therefor decrease serum K+ and increase serum Na+ restoring K+ concentration during stages of hyperkalemia
becomes higher
area where othalmic division V1 stop innervating and cervical plexus and spinal nerves begin to give sensory input
facial nerve
hypoglossal nerve
cranial nerve 12 that controls speech through innervation of the tongue muscles
Vagus Nerve (CN 10) sensory
-external auditory meatus, larynx, thorax, and abdomen (visceral afferents)
CN11;Name? Function? Hole?
Accesory; Motor to SCM and Trapezius; Jugular foramen
b/c of the increased concentration gradient from extra K+ being stored in cell causes the Vrm of that cell to be what?
also does what to speed of K+ flow
no
current has biggest effect
tensor tympany muscle
this muscle is the smallest skeletal muscle in the body
it is innervated by a branch of the facial nerve k/a the chorda tympany
this muscle stabalizes the eardrum in preperation for a very load noise by anticipation
 

parotid gland
cranial nerve 9 helps in controll of saliva production in this gland located on side of face
makes serous saliva that is not sticky about 10-20%
if damaged it will swell and cause inflammatory response d/t heavy blood supply - see this in boxing matches
condsidered PSN output of cranial nerve 9
Outgoing nerves from pterypalatine ganglion -greater paltine nerves
exits greater palatine foramen onto mucosa of hard palate
Maxillary nerve V2 sensory informatin from?
-maxilla and overlying skin-nasal cavity-palate-nasopharynx-meninges of anterio and middle cranial fossa carried to CNS by branches of maxillary of trigeminal
bone in back of skull that makes up the base and the foramen magnum where spinal cord exits the brain
connects to the two parietal bones via the lambdoid suture
lambdoid suture
Hypoglossal (CN XII) perceived dysfunction and clinical test
-lesion results in paralysis of all glossal muscles (except palatoglossus) affected side becomes atrophic-when tongue is protruded out it deviates towards the affected sid eand that side appear shrunken and wrinkled-have patients protrude and retract tongue (if damaged tongue deviates to affected side)
Cranial Nerve 1: Olfactory Nerve arises?
Arises from olfactory trigone on inferior surface of the forebrain. Tract moved forward on anterior cranial folla floor and ends as two swelling (olfactory bulbs) atop cribiform plate. -Pass from bulb through the dura and cribiform plate to roof of nasal cavity below
clinical test for mandibular nerve (V3)
-stroke sensory zone for sensory component -for motor ask patient to clench jaws, open and move side to side against resistance
What do the superior salivatory nucleus of nervus intermedius divide into?
-greater petrosal nerve (to lacrimal and nasal glands)--parasympathetic nerves synapse in pterygopalatine ganglion before innervating lacrimal glands, and of palate and nasal mucosa-chorda tympani (submandibular and sublingual glands)
Cranial nerve 6: Abducens Nerve arises?
-arise from ventral aspect between Medulla and pons-ascends on clivus-pierces dura to run below dura-passes over petrous temporal ride and enters cavernous sinus-passes through sinus below internal carotid arter and exits through superior orbital fissure (orbit)
where are images from left side of view projected onto retina
left half of retina
innervated by opthalmic subdivision V1 of trigeminal nerve and are k/a tear ducts
posterior to coronal suture on parietal bones
Clinical test of V2 (maxillary)
stroke sensory zone of V2 as you would for V1, cotton, pin, then hot and cold
superior and inferior costal facets
transverse costal facets
three connection points of the rib to vertebrae
Perceived dysfunction of facial nerve due loss of special sensory component?
-loss of taste to anterior 2/3's of tongue -lesion to chorda tympani and lingual nerve result in loss of taste, general sensation, and secretionand paralysis of muscles of mastication
Glossopharyngeal
taste;swallowing
XII
Hypoglossal

(tongue)
CN XII
hypoglossal--motor
hypoglossal
hypoglossal canalmotor-tongue
CN I
Olfactory
Olfactory
Cranial nerve Ismell
cranial nerve 1
olfactory
Cranial Nerve II
Optic
ANS
Autonomic Nervous System
VII
Facial

(face, scalp, neck)
V Trigemical
sensations (pain/touch/temperature) are tested with sharp pin and hot/cold objects. corneal reflex (sensory) is tested with a cotton wisp. Motor function is tested by asking the person to open the mouth (against resistance) and to move the jaw from side to side.loss of sensation(pain/touch) impaired corneal reflex. paresthesias (tingling/ itching, and numbness) difficulty in chewing/ shift of jaw to side of lesion when opened
CN VIII
Vestibulocochlear NerveSensory: Conducts impulses for equilibrium and hearingVestibular: Hair cells in inner earCochlear: Cochlea of inner earPathway: Enter cranial cavity through internal acoustic meatus to pons and medulla oblongata
CN VI - AbducensType?
motor
Cranial Nerve Type
Both, Parasympathetic
Myasthenia Gravis
autoimmune disease where
antibodies attack NMJ and bind Ach receptors together in clusters. Fibers
remove the receptors, less and less sensitive to Ach, drooping eyelids and
double vision, difficulty swallowing, weakness of limbs, respiratory failure.
Disease of women between 20 and 40, but all can get.
optic test
snellen eye chart
parietal lobe
primary sensory area
functional components of trigeminal
SVE GSA
trochlear (4) pathway
mesencephalon-->superior oblique muscle of the eye
nerves passing throughsuperior orbital fissure
oculomotortrochlearopthalmicabducens
Cranial Nerve XII
Hypoglossal - Motor
Cranial Nerve I Exit
Cribriform plate
spinal accessory
neck and shoulder movement
Function of skeletal muscles communication
speechexpressionwriting
Bells Palsy
Unilateral Facial ParalysisRapid OnsetFrom edema possibly from viral infection of facial nerve
Nerve 10
Function  
Vagus Nerve
Parasympathetic motor impulses to smooth muscle cells
Carries sensory impulses to the brain from organs 
XI Accessory
 
Enters/leaves brain
To/from in periphery
Foramina
Enters Medulla
 
To: Pharynex, Trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid
 
Foramina: Foramen magnum-to-Jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve #12
Name: Hypoglossal nerve
Function: Motor to tongue
Exit: Hypoglossal canal
parasympathetic motor innervation to the pupil muscles
CN 3
FACIAL (VII)
1. Facial expression (SVE)
2. Lacrimation, salivary gland secretion; vasodilation (GVE)
3. Taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue (SVA)
4. Tiny bit of sensation from external ear (GSA)
Cranial Nerve Type IV Function
Eye Movement
Irregular Bones


sphenoid and ethmoid bones of the
cranium, vertebrae (backbone or spine)





nerve supply to eye muscle
4 Trochlear
VI Abducens
 
Enters/leaves brain
To/from in periphery
Foramina
Enters: Pons
 
To: Extrinsic eye muscle
 
Foramina: Superior orbital fissure
X. VAGUS
SENSATION OF PHARYNX, THORACIC AND ABDOMINAL VISCERA;
effect of lesion = hoarseness, digestive trouble
Vestibulocochlear?
VIII. Purely sensory. Fibers run from inner ear equilibrium and hearing apparatus
5th Touch
Trigeminal- Sensation of head and face.
Cranial Nerve V Exit
Superior orbital fissure (Ophthalmic)
Rotundum (Maxillary)Ovale (Mandibular)
VII
Facial - Movements of muscles in facial expression. Sensation of taste in anterior two thrids of the tounge. Joins Facial nucleus (pons).
Pituitary Dwarfism


Dwarfism has lack of growth hormone, short stature with
normal proportions.





Optic Nerve Function
Vision (SVA)- exits optic canal
Parasympathetic CN
III, VII, IX, X
(3, 7, 9, 10)
CN X sensory function
(1) chemoreceptors; (2) pain receptors; (3) sensations; (4) taste
CN III - OculomotorLesions?
Ptosis (drooping of upper eyelid)
SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL N.
(OF X)
1. External branch-motor to cricothyroid and part of inferior constrictor
2. Internal branch- somatic sensory inside larynx above the level of the vocal cords; parasympathetic to mucous glands
Cranial Nerve II Peripheral Structure Innervated
Retina (ganglion cells)
LMN of trochlear nerve?
Crosses immediately to contralateral side in superior medullary velum - exits dorsal surface of brainstem caudal to inferior colliculus, then curves around brainstem to reach ventral surface
acoustic test
weber and rhines test with tuning fork, whisper test
Cranial Nerve 10
Vagus.
Both.
Medulla.
Motor - pharyngeal branch - all pharynx, (not stylo) & all muscles of palate, (not ten vel palatini)
superior laryngeal nerve - cricothyroid (pitch)
parasympathetic - involuntary muscle control of muscles of bronchi, esophagus, heart, stomach, small intestine and most of large intestine.
Sensory - mediates larynx, pharynx, thorax, & abdomen
Bilateral.
CN 4 - Trochlear
Attaches at the Midbrain; SOMATIC MOTOR for Extrinsic Eye Muscles
II optic
examination of the interior of the eye by ophthalmoscopic visualization. use of eye charts and tests of perpheral vision.loss of vision
Olfactory Nerve (I)
Origin & Course: Fibers arise from olfactory epithelium and run through cribriform plate of ethmoid bone to synapse in olfactory bulbs
 
Function: Purely sensory- carries afferent impulses associated with sense of smell.
 
Testing: Person is asked to sniff aromatic substances and identify.
General Somatic Sensory/afferent
CNs: V(primary input from here), VII, IX, X
Functions: touch, pain, temperature, position, vibration sense for face, sinuses, meninges
Brainstem Nuclei: Trigeminal nuclei 
The middle sensory column (not most lateral or most medial)
 
What type of innervation does the hypoglossal nerve receive?
GSE (Somatic Motor)
Structural Proteins of muscle contraction
Myosin and actin are
contractile proteins. They do the work of shortening the muscle.




For cranial nerve XII give the name, whether it is sensory, motor , or mixed and its function
Hypoglossal
Motor
Tounge Muscles
trochlear nerve
Either one of the fourth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the superior oblique muscle of the upper part of the eyeball. e.g. looking down, in toward
Nerve Number 1
Name
Function
What does damage cause? 
Olfactory Nerve
Carries impulses of smell from olfactory receptors to olfactory bulbs of the frontal lobe
Damages causes the loss of the ability to smell
Purely sensory nerve fiber 
CN III parasympathetic function and structure innervated
f: pupil constrictionsi: ciliary muscle and pupillary constrictor muscles
Cranial Nerve V CNS Nucleus
Spinal nucleus, Main sensory nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of CN V
 
Motor nucleus of CN V
Function of skeletal muscles Movement
of body parts and organ contents
spinal accessory nerve
Either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers from the spinal cord that innervate the pharyngeal, trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid muscles, and motor fibers from the brain that join the vagus to innervate the thoracic
Cranial Nerve IV Trochlear
moves the eyeball medially, origin in the midbrain
Cranial Nerve XI Peripheral Structure Innervated
Striated muscles of larynx [Aberrant vague branches] sternocleidomastoid and portion oftrapezius muscles
Which cranial nerve(s) include pathways for the parasympathetic nervous system?
III - Oculomotor
VII - Facial
IX - Glossopharygeal
X - Vagus
What is the function of the oculomotor nerve?
Chiefly motor nervessomatic motor fibers to four of the 6 extrinsic eye muscles
What would present with a patient with an UMNL in the branchial motor portion of the facial nerve?
Involves corticobulbar fibers to facial nucleus - loss of voluntary control of lower muscles of facial expression contralateral to lesion; muscles of the forehead remain intact due to bilateral innervation by the corticobulbar fibers
What does the adrenal
medulla secrete






- neurotransmitters
in the form of hormones into blood rather than onto other neurons.






o 
Catecholamines. 85 % Epinephrine. 15%
Norepinephrine





What is the clinical testing for the olfactory nerve?
Person asked to sniff aromatic substances and identify each.
What is the function of the branchial motor portion of the trigeminal nerve?
Motor to muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, tensor (velli) palatini, mylohyoid and anterior belly of digastric
What is the function of the solitarius nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve?
Visceral sensory from the carotid body and sinus. Taste for posterior 1/3 of tongue
What presents if you have a LMNL of the accessory nerve?
Nucleus and below will result in weakness of the SCM and upper trapezius muscle ipsilaterally. Patients have inability to shrug shoulder, weakness with upward rotation of scapula, weakness rotating head to opposite side.
Oculomotor
CN-III
CN XI
Accessory
Vagus
Visceral sensation/movement
Iolfactory
sensory - nose
Trochlear innervates?
Superior oblique
 
CN2
 
Name?
Nerve Type(s)?
Exiting Foramen?
Function?
 
 
 
Optic Nerve
Sensory/Afferent
Optic Canal
VISION
Cranial Nerve VI
Abducens
Hypoglossal canal

Hypoglossal (XII)
Cranial Nerve X
Vagus
4th TO
Trochlear- eye movement
Cranial Nerve VIII Type
Sensory
Hypothalamus
Hormone secretionControls pituitary glandThermoregulation, food and
water intake, sleep and circadian rhythms, memory, emotional behavior. 



Acoustic/Vestibulocochlear
VIII
Sensory
Sensory fibers for hearing and balance
Assess: whisper test, weber test, rinne test
X
Vagus Nerve X
 
Origin: Motor-Nucleus in the medulla & cervical part of spinal cord.
Sensory-receptors in thoracic and abdominal viscera.
Term:motor- Thoracic and abdominal viscera
Sensory- Nuclei in the medulla and pons.
Cranial Nerve #9
Name: Glossopharyngeal nerve
Function: Taste sensation from cd 1/3 of tongue; parasymp. fibers to parotid & zygomatic salivary glands; sensory to pharynx & carotid sinus; motor to pharyngeal mm.
Exit: Tympano-occipital fissure
Vagus Nerve
Originates: MedullaPasses through: Jugular ForamenMuscles: All smooth muscle, Sup. Med. and Inf. Constrictors, and all Laryngeal muscles (except cricothyroid)
8th Any
Acoustic- Hearing and balance
CN 8
Vestibulocochlear
 
Gross hearing, pt occludes one ear
stand opp occluded ear
whisper words or numbers for pt to repeat
Chondrosarcoma
slow growing cancer of
hyaline cartilage




Cranial Nerve(s) of Midbrain
III, IV
VI
Abducens VI
 
Origin: Motor - nucleus in the pons.
Sensory- proprioceptors in lateral rectus muscle.
Termination: Motor Lateral rectus muscel .
Sensory - Nucleus in the pons.
movement of superior oblique
down and out
CN X
Name: Vagus /Source: medulla /Designation: Sensory/Motor/Course: jugular foramen
oculomotorlocation, function
red nucleus of midbrain; proprioception, constriction of pupil
CN II
AKA Optic nerve
Functional Category: special somatic sensory
Function: Vision
Exits from skull: optic canal (?)
CNS Nucleus: lateral geniculate nucleus
Peripheral ganglia: none
Peripheral Structure innervated: retina (ganglion cells)
 
Function: Carry information from retina to the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus and to the extrageniculate pathways
-Portion of visual pathway in front of the optic chiasm = optic nerve
-Portion of visual pathway beyond this = optic tract
CN 2
Optic Nerve
 
snellen chart for visual acuity
one eye at a time
Visual fields
fundoscopic, fundus for sharp optic disc
A/V 2:3, cup to disc 1:2
Gouty Arthritis
Excess uric acid build-up,
uric acid is a normal waste product excreted in urine, excessive production or
slow secretion, urate crystals form in soft tissues and joints-pain




V Trigeminal
GSA,SSE: Sensory: Spinal, Pontine, Mesencephalic1. Supply skin of face,scalp,and mem of oral and nasal cavities2. Muscles of mast, sensation from gums, teeth and hard palate Ophthalmic, Maxillary, MandibularMotor: 1. Muscles of mast, tensor veli palati- swallow, tensor tympani- sound, mylohyoid, ant digastric- tongue
Cranial Nerve XI
Accesory
 
Motor neurons arise in medulla and spinal cord
 
Motor with some proprioception
 
So both cranial and spinal elements
 
Cranial branch - joins vagus to soft palate, pharyns, larynx
 
Spinal branch - into neck and runs trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles
nucleus associated with SVE of glossopharyngeal nerve
nucleus ambiguous
Cranial Nerve I Olfactory
smell (olfactory bulbs)special sensegoes directly to the cortex, bipasses the brainstem and thalamus
ACCESSORY
NERVE # XI (11)-
MOTOR -
CRANIAL - THROAT AND LARYNX FOR SPEECH AND SWALLOWING
SPINAL - NECK AND BACK
Special Visceral Afferent 
CNs: VII, IX, X
Functions: Taste
Brainstem Nuclei: nucleus solitarius (rostral portion, gustatory nucleus)
The most medial sensory column (along with general visceral afferent)
Name the nucleus for the abducens nerve
Abducens
How many spinal nerves are their
31 pairs
glossopharangeal function
taste, sensation in pharynx and tongue, pharyngeal muscles, swallowing
diencephalon
the thalamus and the hypothalamus make up the diencephalon
postganglionic fibers of EW nucleus go to?
ciliary ganglion
Vestibularcochlear (auditory)Nerve VIII
Afferent - hearing, balanceEfferent - none
Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
Origin & Course: Fibers run from inner-ear equilibrium and hearing apparatus, housed in temporal bone, through internal acoustic meatus to enter pons.
 
Function: Purely sensory- vestibular branch transmits impulses associated with sense of equilibrium from vestibular apparatus and semicircular canals; cochlear branc transmits impulses associated with hearing from cochlea.
 
Testing: Hearing is checked by air and bone conduction using a tuning fork.
Location of preganglionic and postganglionic cell bodies and what they innervate (inferior salivatory nucleus)
preganglionic: inferior salivatory nucleus (IX), innervate inferior salivatory nucleus via the lesser petrosal nervepostganglionic: cell bodies in otic ganglion, innervate salivatory gland via auriculotemporal n.
Name, (S, M, B): CN I
Olfactory, S
X
Vagus - Control of hearth, lungs, and abdominal organs. Sensation of pain with viscera. Movement of throat muscles.
XII Hypoglossal Nerve
Motor: 1. Intrinsic and Extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Acessory1. Sensory/Motor2. Exits3. Function
1. Motor2. Jugular3. SCM and Trapezius
GVE pathway from Vagus
Motor cortex > hypothalmic autonomic pathway > dorsal motor nuclei > enteric ganglia >thoeracic/abdomen viscera
VII. FACIAL NERVE
TASTE ON TONGUE, MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
effect of lesion = can't taste, smile, frown, wink
Innervation of vagus, with exceptions
tongue (except palatoglossus- XII), palate (except tensor palati- V), and pharynx (except stylopharyngeus - IX)
This component of the vagus nerve is the motor arm of the gag reflex
Branchial Motor
trochlear test
eye movements ( make an H) and accomidation 4
accessory nerve
Either one of the eleventh pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers araising from the medulla and spinal cord.
how occulomotor, trochlear, and abducen work together
abducen nerve contains lateral rectus neurons and internuclear neurons
WHAT IS CN V AND VI
TRIGEMINAL AND ABDUCENS
Name the nucleus for the trigeminal nerve.
Trigeminal (Spinal, Mesencephalic, Principal Sensory) and Motor Nucleus of V
V - V1= somatic sensory, V2= somatic sensory, V3= somatic sensory / somatic sensory, somatic (proprioceptive) sensory
Trigeminal Nerve (\"Touch\")
SVA/ GVA pathway of IX
sensory receptors > solitary nuclei > PBN > VPM > cortex
HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS CN VIII
HAVE PATIENT CLOSEEYES AND INDICTE WHEN A TICKING WATCH IS HEARD,AND TEST EACH EAR. CAN USE AN AUDOIOMETER. THE VESTIBULAR PORTION IS NOT USUALLY DONE BUT IF A PROBLEM WITH VERITGO THEN DO CALORIC TEST- WATER IN EAR
Nerves which carry sensation from the special senses of taste and smell.
Special Visceral Afferents (Special Sensory)
Where does the Accessory Nerve (CN 11) emerge from and is it motor, mixed or sensory?
Medulla and spinal cord

Motor
OPHTHALMIC DIVISION OF TRIGEMINAL N. (V1)
Sensory  to face, meninges adn scalp above palpebral fissure and part of nose. Three major branches:
1. Lacrimal n.
2. Frontal n.
3. Nasociliary n.
Where are the UMN for the accessory nerve?
Corticobulbar fibers from the contralateral (traps) and ipsilateral (SCM) motor cortex traveling with the corticospinal pathway. Provide conscious control of SCM and upper traps
What are the sensory functions of the Vagus Nerve (CN 10) and what does it innervate
Sensory: Taste, hunger/fullness and stomach discomfort

Innervates: Thoracic and abdominal viscera, root of tongue, larynx and pharynx.
How do you test: CN V
Test motor function by clenching jaw muscles and palpating masseter and temporal muscle for firmness, test sensory with corneal reflex and using sharp, dull, and soft touching on the face
Where are the 2nd order neurons located for the visceral sensory portion of the vagus nerve?
Nucleus of solitary tract in medulla. Neurons from the nucleus solitarius synapse on 3rd order neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, reticular formation and hypothalamus for reflexive control of cardiovascular, respiratory and GI functions.
HOW WOULD YOU ASSESS CN III, IV, AND VI
ASK PATIENT TO FOLLOW THE EXAMINERS FINGER HORIZONYALLY AND VERTICALLY ALSO CHECK FOR PUPILLARY CONTRICTION,BY SHINING A LIGHT, AND TO TEST FOR CONVERGENCE MOVE FINGER TWORD EYE AND THEN AWAY FOR ACCOMMODATION.
How many cranial and spinal nerves are there
12 cranial and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
/ 175
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online