Criminal Justice I Flashcards

Terms Definitions
insubstantial or insignificant:
Chief Justice- John RobertsStevensScaliaKennedySouter
women usually kill?
their male partners
Testimonial Evidence
Information obtained through interviewing and interrogating individuals about what they saw, heard, or know.

 Evidence-based practice:

Crime-fighting strategies that have been scientifically tested and are based on social science research.
Criminal Sanction that requires the offender to repay the victim or society or both for damage caused by the criminal act.
Influences to Discretion
1. environmental
2. departmental
3. circumstances
Prima Facie Evidence
Evidence established by law
Party appeal lower courts decisionQuestion of Law
Appellate courts
Preliminary hearing:

A proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided: 1.  Whether a crime was committed, 2. Whether the crime occurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court, and 3. Whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
greatest good for the greatest amount of people. (threat of pain against criminal to insure the pleasure of society)
Exculpatory Evidence
Includes all information that is material and favorable to the accused defendant because it casts doubt on the defendents guilt or on the evidence the govt intends to use at trial.
Short-term effects of marital rape
-Sense of shame
-Feeling of "dirtiness"
police officers use their authority to deprive people of their liberty or property
Aggravated Assault
Attempting or causing serios bodily harm
Social justice encompasses both fairness and cultural beliefs about?
right and wrong
defendant pleas guilty for less chargers(90% of all cases)
Plea bargain
defense attorney
The lawyer who represents the defendant.
intermediate sanctions
the use of split sentencing shock probatio or parole shock incarceration, community service,intersive supervison or home confinement in lieu of other more traditonal sanction such as imprisonment
Hate Crime
a criminal offense committed against a person, property, or society that is motivated in whole or in part by the offender's bias against race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or ethnicity/national origin
Criminal Justice System
The Various sequential stages through which offenders pass from initial contact with the law to final disposition, and the agencies charged with enforcing the law at each of these stages.
the seizing and detaining of a person by lawful authority
Organized Crime
refers to a framework within which criminal acts are committed rather than acts themselves
Criminal justice
In the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law.
determinate sentencing
punishment in wihch an offender is given a fized term that may be reduced by good time or gain time. EX: offenders convicted of the same degree of burglary would be sentenced to the same length of time behind bars.
less severe punishment leading to more people in CJS
Net Widening
a rule or body of rules of conduct inherent in human nature and essential to or binding upon human society
Types of crime? (3)
1. Felony (most serious)2. Misdemeanor (less than 1 year in jail)3. Violation (up to 15 days in jail)
Tennessee v. Garner
new policy concerning the use of deadly force. only allowed when a suspect threatens the officer with a weapon or there is probable cause to believe that the suspect has committed a crime involving the infliction or threatened infliction of serious physical harm.
changes brought about through the victim's right movement
states have established victim-witness assistance programs-some added to state constitutions
*logical outcome of behavior*must prove intent to commit act
Relevant Evidence
Evidence that applies to the matter in question
no death penalty for juvenile under 16
Thompson v. Oklahoma
The black curtain
Which is NOT a benefit associated with higher education for police officers?
in a felony case, a pretrial stage at which a judge determines whether there is probable cause
Mertin Strain Theory's five modes of adaption
conformity, innovation, retreatism, ritualism and rebellion
autonomic nervous system
the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions.
restorative vs. retributive justice
crime is a harm to individuals and their relationships vs. crime is a violation of the criminal law and all of society is the victim
What are the law enforcement agencies with policing powers?
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the National Park Service, the National Forrest Service, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the US Air Marshals.
What are the categories of murder?
They are dependent on whether or not they had intent to cause malice. Murder means you had intent to harm, manslaughter means you did not.
Traditional view of rape vs. feminist view
The women did something to bring it on herself.
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