Criminal Justice Test 2 Flashcards

Law
Terms Definitions
Courtroom subculture
cooperative
delinquent
violated the criminal law
Congregate System
New York System
Federal speedy trial act Date?
1974
Double bunking is OK
Rhodes v.Chapman
(1981)
Constitutional law
Supreme court of the land
Define: Organization:
a consciously coordinated social entity, with a relative identifiable boundary, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.Consciously Coordinated: management.Social Entity: organizations are composed of people who interact with one another and with other people in other organizations.Relatively Identifiable Boundary: organization's goals and the public served.
Psychological Explanations
Sigmund Freud proposed psychoanalytic theory that crime is caused by unconscious forces and drives.Struggle among id, ego, and superego
Sensational crime news stories provide a fairly accurate image of the types of crime by which the average citizen is victimized.
False
first prison
Philadelphia's Walnut Street Jail (1790)
Where was common law developed?
In early civilizations.
Clearance Rate
a traditional measure of investigative effectiveness that compares the number of crimes reported or discovered to the number of crimes solved throught arrest or other means (such as death of the suspect)
Subpoena
Court Order requiring a witness to appear in court at a specified time and place.
Trail Stages
1. Trial Initiation2. Jury Selection3. Opening Statements4. the Presentation of Evidence5. Closing Arguments6. The judge’s charge to the jury7. Jury deliberations8. the Verdict
legal guilt
guilt proven or provable in court
Warrant
In the criminal proceedings, a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording the officer peotection from damages if he or she performs it.
A criminal trial is governed by procedural law and ______.
Precedent
real evidence
evidence that consists of physical material or traces of physical activity.
perspective
a technique of depicting volumes and spatial relationships on a flat surface.
infraction
a breaking of a law or obligation, violation
Crime
An act that violates criminal law and is punishable by criminal sanctions
Crime Control Model
a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders
McNabb v. U.S.
First Appearance standard is 48 hours
adversary system
getting the truth by fighting in court according to the formal rules of criminal procedure
TERRORIST TYPESState Sponsored
*the gov't is the terrorist*repress minorities*repressive gov't - death squads -currently used by approx 35 countries*those voicing opposition to the gov't are those who are typically targeted
Jails
Solely for the purpose to house people until their punishment were brought out.
Prison Subculture
racial groups, type of offense, inmate politicians, sexual abnormality, repeat offenses, personality differences, gangs,
sentence to incarceration then put on probation
shock incarceration


 Civil justice:


The civil law, the law of civil procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil justice cannot be separated from social justice because the justice enacted in our nation’s civil courts reflects basic American understanding of right and wrong.
Social Justice
An ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to the fundamental notion of fairness and the CULTURAL BELIEFS of right and wrong
What is meant by "hegemonic masculinity"?
Dominant masculinity, usually characterized by work
who is likely to be a victim of crime
men>womenyoung>oldsingle>marriedArfican American>whitelow class>upper/middle
court of last resort
supreme court or us supreme court
If a defendant "stands mute" at their arraignment, what plea will be entered by the judge?
Not guilty
court officer
An officer of the court who: 1 protects the judge, 2 is in charge of the accused person while he is in the courtroom, and 3 looks after the jurors.
Ex post facto law
A law that makes an act criminal after it was commited or retoactively increases the penalty for a crime. 
Types of hate crimes committed
*Most are intimidation and simple assult*more often a person crime as opposed to a property crime
What is latin for crimes that are wrong in themselves?
Mala in se
What is consent?
A defense in criminal law in which the defendant claims the action that caused the injury or death occurred during normal, acceptable standards of conduct.
MODEL PENAL CODE LEVEL OF INTENTNegligent
*should have been aware of risk*charge - involuntarty manslaughter
3 basic types of sexual assault in marriage
1) Nonbattering Rape (40%)
2) Battering Rape (48%)
3) Perverted Rape (6%)
 
**Statistics based on a representative sample of married women in the Boston area**
what doees a typical state prison system consists of:
- one high security prison for long term , high risk offenders
-one or more medium security institutions
-one insitution for adult women
-one or two insitutions for young adults
-one or two specialezed mental hospital-type security priosons for mentally ill prisoner.
-one,or more open type institutions for low risk nonviolent
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Definition:
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