Critical Thinking midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
emotive argument
expresses views
inclusive "or" means..
denial of another statement
language used to facilitate understanding
different interpretations of the degree of the word (ex rich)
Connote; Attributes of subjectex) Friend - loyal, common interest, support
Lexical Definition
Textbook definition( dictionary definition)
favoritism for oneself and the beliefs, values, and traditions and groups with which one identifies
the intension plus the emotional impact of a term
sound argument
valid and premises are true
specificity of conclusion
less specific, stronger argument
only true when both are true
uses one term in two ways
ad hominem abusive
directly attacks opponents character
truth and falsity are properties of....
An argument that is stated incompletely, the unstated part of it being taken for granted
the agreement of an idea with reality
a term or expression with an indefinate extension
the claim(s) in an argument that support the conclusion
argument (functional)
a composition whose primary function is to persuade a person be appealing to the person's reasoning capacity
disjunctive syllogism *valid*
p or qnot ptherefore q
factual dispute
disagreement of actual state of affairs
weak induction
premises relevant, but not strong enough to support the conclusion
number of similarities
more similarities strengthens the argument
persuasive definition
Produces a favorable or unfavorable attitude towards the definiendum. ex) Abortion means the ruthless murdering of innocent human beings.
Word or group that is being defined
Straw Man
Arguer distorts opponents argument to make it easier to attack, ends distorted argument, and concludes that argument is over
a compound statement that is usually built using the phrase "if...then" only if, assuming, so long as, provided that, if
The study of methods and principles used to distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning
Categorical Syllogism
3-line argument where all statements are categorical statements. Unless there is clear evidence that that the statment is intended to inductive, always treated as deductive.
interpretive issue
an issue concerning the meanings of things
sufficient condition
a characteristic or set of characteristics required for membership in the word's extension
false dichotomy
an either/or statement with no 3rd option
ambiguity (fallacy)
interpretation of word is crucial to the point made
one entire sentence can be read two ways (ex man helps dog bite victim)
whole has the properties, so must the parts
weak analogy
Analogy isn't strong enough to support conclusion. ex)Harper's new car is blue and gets excellent gas mileage. Tom's new car is also blue. So, it probably gets excellent gas mileage.
Extensional definitions
Denotative. Assigns a meaning to a term by indication the members of the class that the definiendum denotes.
Argument Against Person
2nd person in argument directly attacks the other person HIMSELF
Appeal to Pity
Arguer attempts to support a conclusion by evoking pity from reader with irrelevant facts
Fallacies of Weak Induction
-6 Types-Connection between premises and conclusion is not strong enough to support itself
"only if" sentences must be rearranged for symbolism so that the "only if" is in _________ of the sentence
the middle
Any group of propositions in which one proposition (conclusion) is claimed to follow from the others(the premises)
Disjunctive Proposition
type of compound proposition One does not assert either of its components. Rather one asserts that at least one of the componets is true. EX: "Clinton will be censured of impeached by congress"
a type of argument that may seem correct, but proves on examination not to be so
Modus tollen
A valid sound argument form of deductive reasoning: "If A then B; not B; therefore not A"Sometimes called "Denying the consequent"
Argument from Authority
Inductive argument that asserts a claim and then supports it by citing a presumed athority who has said that the claim is true.
Inductive argument
An argument where the conclusion is claimed or intended to follow probably or likely from the premise.
Casual argument
An inductive argument that asserts or denies that something causes or has caused or will cause something else. Ex: She didn't answer the phone, she must not be home.
argument (structural)
a composition consisting of a set of claims one of which, called the "thesis" or "conclusion", is supported by the other(s) called the premise(s)
fallacy of accident
applies a general rule to an irrelevant case (ex cutting is bad, doctors cut people, therefore doctors are bad)
modus ponens *valid*
if p then q, p, therefore q
sufficient condition
a is sufficient for bif a then b
etymological definition (intensional)
Assigns a meaning by disclosing the word's ancestry in other languages. ex) Democracy derives from the Greek words demos, meaning populace and kratos, meaning power.
appeal to unqualified authority (weak induction)
Argument from unreliable authority.
Informal Fallacies
Found only by looking at content of argument
conditional is made up of...
and antecedent and a consequent
A is false
I is unkE is unkO is true
Stipulative Definition
a proposal to use the definiendum to mean what is meant by the definiens. Directive rather than informative. not true or false.
Argument by elimination
A deductive argument that seeks to logically rule out various possibilities until only a single possibility remains.
logical priority
a kind of order among issues where one issue presupposes a resolution of a second issue, the second is logically prior to the first
only false when a is true and b is false
verbal dispute
using a term in different ways (can be ambiguity or vagueness)
hasty generalization
Occurs when a sample is not large or random enough to assume the conclusion.
Demonstrative (Ostensive) Definition (Denotative)
Illustrative, pointing at an object to define
a disjunction is false....
only if both disjuncts are false, otherwise it is true
General Statment
A statement form of "all a's are b's; Most a's are b's.
necessary and sufficient condition
a is necessary and sufficient for ba if and only if b
Definition of genus and difference
Identifies genus (main) term and a difference word(s) that, when combined, give meaning of term
A conjunction is true if...
both conjuncts are true, and false otherwise
Principle of charity test
If it is unlcear whether the argument is Inductive or deductive, the argument should be interpreted in whatever way is most favorable to the arguer.
Appeal to People - Direct
When talking to large group of people. excites emotions in crowd to get them to accept conclusion
destructive dilemma *valid*
(if p then q) and (if r then s)not q or not stherefore not p or not r
An inductive argument is strong if...
the truth of its premises makes more likely the truth of its conclusion
Intension of a general term
is the set of attributes shared by all and only those objects denoted by the term
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