Frotteurism (nc rubbing)
Transvestic fetishism (crossdress)
Paraphilia NOS (not otherwise specified)
abbreviation for "every"
Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
Female and Male Orgasmic Disorders
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
Gender Identity Disorder
Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Male Erectile Disorder
Sex Addiction (not a recognized diagnostic category at this time)
Sexual Masochism and Sadism
Elimination disorder involving repeated passage of feces at inappropriate places.
Often involuntary (may be intentional)
Occurs at least 1x/mth for 3 mths in child 4yrs +
Child is embarrassed & avoids situations that might be embarrassing (camp/sleepovers)
May suffer rejection from peers/parents
describes a therapist's inappropriate emotional reactions to a client.
Freud felt it was detrimental to psychoanalysis and believed a therapist must always be aware of any feelings of CT.
|Newer "atypical" antipsychotics||
e.g. clozapine, risperidone
*alleviates both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
involuntary, repetitive movements) manifesting as a side effect of long-term or high-dose use of antipsychotics.
*have difficulty not moving
elicited by classical conditioning
a neurotransmitter, released by adrenergic nerve terminals in the autonomic and possibly the central nervous system, that has such effects as constricting blood vessels, raising blood pressure, and dilating bronchi.
|What type of drug is Tofranil?||
|When is Major Depressive Episode usually seen if it strictly seasonal?||
|What type of drug is Parnate?||
modifying existing schemes to incorporate new
concerned with voluntary behaviors that are under the control of environmental consequences.
feelings, behaviors, values, ideas. They are traits consistent with the ego. they feel real and acceptable to the consciousness.
disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment.
Perceiving people as inherently selfish, impulsive, and irrational, Freud saw human beings in a negative context. He viewed behavior as a result of unconscious biological and instinctual needs. According to Freud, behavior is determined by sex drives, and adult action is influenced by psychosexual states. A finite quantity of libido is stored in the id.
Freudian psychoanalysis aims to enable the client to discover unconscious conflicts and, once revealed, respond to such conflicts rationally, thus controlling and abating neurotic behaviors. The personality disorder that is characterized by instability, irritability, impulsive anger, and external mood shifts is known as borderline. In the Freudian view, borderline and narcissistic disorders tend to be rooted in traumatic events occurring during the separation/individuation phase of development.
Associated with CBT/Social Learning Theory of Personality. Influenced by Adler.
*ILC (internal locus of control)
*ELC (External Locus of control.
*Functionally related behaviors
*based primarily on ego psychology
*believe change is produced by insight
*emphasis is on importance of therapeutic relationship
*ego functioning is improved through working with client and his environment
Technique used in structural family therapy to facilitate diagnosis and restructuring in the family.
*present at birth
*consists of the person's life and death instincts=source of all psychic energy
*operates on pleasure principle
*uses primary process thinking
Identifying and using the family's values, life themes
|What type of drug is Celexa?||
|What type of drug is Zyprexa?||
|Briefly explain Erikson's eighth stage: Integrity vs Disgust.||
-Satisfying intimacy w/ others & adapts to success and disappointments = end of life w/ ego integrity
-acceptance of own responsibility for what their life was & is.
-w/o this accrued ego integration = dispair w/ dipleasure & disgust
|Which of Maslow's needs dominate in the Neonate phase?||
|What is the most commonly known Dementia?||
|Which of Maslow's needs dominate in Adolescents?||
Client has alternated with depressed & elated
mood for 4 yrs. Her "ups" are never manic & she's
never qualified for Major Depression. (What's her
Thinking purely in extremes, e.g. good versus bad, powerful versus defenseless and so on. he separation of the things the child loves (good, gratifying objects) and the things the child hates (bad, frustrating objects). Klein refers to these things as the good breast and the bad breast.
Associated with OR and Klein
|Universal Life Cycle Transitions||
Transitions experiencing normal changes in roles and attitudes about self and the world
e.g. moving from prenatal to infancy, infancy to childhood, childhood to adolescence, adolescence to adulthood, etc...During each transition, ind. are challenged by specific dev tasks.
associated with crisis
|Side Effects of SSRIs (antidepressants)||
*headaches, dizziness, tremors
e.g. Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil
Associated with Jung. The psyche is comprised of the conscious ego, the personal unconscious and the non-personal unconscious
An acronym to remember the life threatening Causes of Delirum
Hypoperfusion/hypoxia of the brain
|Proloxin (Fluphenazine )||
very potent antipsychotic. Seizures are most dangerous side effect.
Disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we know from what we don’t know, and to follow out logical implications of thought.
e.g.,what would happen next?
refers to early detection and treatment of problems
An acronym to remember symptoms of Obsessive-compulsive personality
Cannot discard worthless objects
Excludes leisure due to devotion
Reluctant to delegate to others
|STEP and STET||
Systematic Training for Effective Parenting and Systematic Training for Effective Teaching
*programs based on Adler's approach
* Assume that all behavior is goal directed and purposeful
*misbehavior is children has one of four goals: attention, power, revenge, or to display deficiency
ind. employed by an agency to investigate illegal/unethical activities
|Which of Maslow's needs dominate during Childhood?||
Safety & Love/Belonging
|What type of drug is Wellbutrin?||
2nd Generation Antidepressant
|What is this psychological test...Standford-Binet?||
Intelligence test for children
True or False In Oppositional Defiant Disorder,
the rights of others and age-appropriate social
rules are violated.
makes use of resistance by asking client to pay closer attention to or exaggerate undesirable thoughts or behaviors.
An acronym to remember symptoms of Schizotypal personality disorder (Personality Disorder)
Experiences unusual perceptions
Eccentric behavior or appearance
Constricted or inappropriate affect
Unusual thinking or speech
Lacks close friends
Ideas of reference
Anxiety in social situations
Rule out psychotic or pervasive
|Distress Tolerance Skills||
onstitute a natural development from mindfulness skills. They have to do with the ability to accept, in a non-evaluative and nonjudgmental fashion, both oneself and the current situation. Although the stance advocated here is a nonjudgmental one, this does not mean that it is one of approval.
Acceptance without pushing for change
confrontive form of therapy, e.g. RET. models responsible bx for clients. views transference as detrimental to therapy process
|The Ecological Perspective||
transactional view of the relationship between a person and their environment.
* a person and his environment are believed to engage in circular exchanges in which each reciprocally effects the other over time
*believes both problems and needs result from these exchanges.
1. Ego--grounded in reality, the ego mediates between the id and the super-ego.
2. Id--the primitive, selfish aspect which demands immediate gratification.
3. Super-ego--the internalization of parental interjections.
|Systems Analysis Model||
studies the impact of other organizations and the environment on a program and investigates variables that may be related to program changes
Shows up around age 3-4 and most speech therapists feel that stuttering before age three is normal childhood dysfluency.
When a parent is concerned about stuttering around that time period, provide parent education.
|The non-personal unconscious||
archetypes that influence behavior but are not available to consciousness).
|Name the 5 anxiety disorders of childhood/adolescence?||
|What are the signs of Dementia?||
Disturbance involving memory impairment & other cognitve impairments.
|What type of drug is Risperidone? Name one trade name.||
|Briefly described the Post-Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.||
5. Concern w/ individual rights & morality
6. Guided by individual principles based on broad, universal, ethical principles.
|Describe child behavior when parenting style is Permissive.||
Impulsive & Aggressive
Rebellious, low self-reliance & control, impulsive, aggressive, domineering, aimless, low achievement
|What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Somatization Disorder?||
|What is School Phobia?||
A form of separation anxiety.
Allowing kids to stay home only increases the prob
|Feminists Views on therapy||
Diagnosis is usually frowned upon. avoid labels, avoid revictimization, They like self-disclosure.
|Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia||
are so-named because they are considered to be the loss or absence of normal traits or abilities, and include features such as flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), and lack of motivation (avolition).
|Key Concepts in Adler's personality theory||
*Striving for Superiority
*Style of Life
|The Precipitating Factor||
an event that converts a vulnerable state into a crisis state. Can be the same as the hazardous event or follow it. "The Last Straw" before a break.
The 3rd stage of crisis
|Transference in psychoanalysis||
*a form of resistance
*it is an unwillingness to relinquish the fantasy that one's infantile wishes will be gratified
conditions in which a person acts as if he or she has an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms.
Manchausen syndrome (own illness faked)
Manchausen by proxy (other's illnesses faked)
Ganser syndrome(gives absurd answers to simple questions)
|Tx for Conduct Disorder||
more effective when family is included
*parent training programs
*cognitive problems solving skills trning
*parent management training
*functional family therapy
enables pts to document in advance the kind of care they want to receive or not receive at the end stage of their lives in the event that they are no longer able to communicate their preferences at that time.
*associated with durable powers of attorney (a spokesperson) and self-determination (1991 self determination act that says pts have a right to advance directive
|Three Ego States||
At any given time, a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture of behaviours, thoughts and feelings. Typically, according to TA (Berne), there are three ego-states that people consistently use:
1) Parent ("exteropsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions. For example, a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked.
2) Adult ("neopsyche"): a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that cloud its operation. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality.
3) Child ("archaeopsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. For example, a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor, and crying or pouting, as they used to when scolded as a child. Conversely, a person who receives a good evaluation may respond with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. The Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy.
Associated with TA and Berne
|Freud's Developmental Theory||
proposes that an ind. personality is formed during five psychosexual stages of development. During each stage, the id's libido (sexual energy) is centered in a different part of the body.
|Briefly explain Erikson's fourth stage: Industry vs Inferiority.||
School Age (6-11)
-want to work/learn w/ others
-learns to accept instruction
-capacity for work enjoyment
-No recognition for one's efforts = inadequacy and inferiority
|Name some common characteristics of Asian/Pacific Islander families.||
-Confucian & Buddhist philosophy influence
-Hierarchical & patriarchical family w/ strict roles.
-Shame used to maintain norms
-Emotional probs expressed w/ physical complaints
A client says of her SW "She may understand me but she does not know how I feel" This indicates that the client precieves the SW to be weak with regard to..
b) non-possessive warmth
d) accurate empatthy
|Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia||
symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience. They include delusions, auditory hallucinations, and thought disorder, and are typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.
|Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Group of skills||
1) Distress Tolerance Skills
2) Core Mindfulness skills
3) Interpersonal Effectiveness skills
4) Emotion modulation (regulation) skills
|A child acquires the ability to think in logical, cause-and-effect terms, learns to solve the problems of conservation, and can adopt other people's perspectives. According to Piaget's approach to intellectual functioning, the child is in which phase of c||
d. concrete operations
|What is the difference between Parasomnias vs. Dyssomnia?||
Parasomnia- abnormal event that occurs during sleep or between sleep & waking
Dyssomnia- disturbance in amount, timing or quality of sleep.
|What does the psychological test MMPI test for?||
Predominant personality traits or behavior
ABAB research design, casuality is suggested
target behavior reverts to original baseline level
when treatment is withdrawn
Your client is a 10 yr. old boy who is persistently and pervasively irritable. He alienates peers with a negativistic, "grouchy" attitude. Your client should be assessed for...
b) borderline personality disorder
c) impulse control
|Gorksi relapse prevention model||
based on a sequence of warning signs that start long before a recovering alcoholic takes his 1st drink. focus on what leads to relapse.
|Mahler's Stages of Development (Object Relations Approach)||
1) Normal Autism
2) Symbiotic Phase
|Anal Stage of Development||
In the anal phase, from about 18 months to 3 1/2 years of age, such gratification is accomplished through the retention and passing of feces. Maladaptive bx/fixation at this stage produces anal retentive bx such as stinginess, selfishness, obsessive-compulsive bx or anal expulsive bx such as cruelty, destructiveness, messiness.
|What theorist is considered client centered?||
Carl Rogers - the right environment
|Anorexia Nervosa, binge eating/purging type||
when the person has regualrly engaged in episodes of binge eating and/or purging during the current anoretic episode.
|What are Love & Belonging needs?||
Assurance one is loved, worthy, and acceptable. Demand unconditional acceptance.
|If a panic attack is caused by a substance what is it called?||
Substance Induced Anxiety Dis
After developing a problem formulation, you and your client should select an intervention method that has demonstrated efficacy for treatment of that particular problem. This means that you will be using an intervention method that...
a) will be effective
has been shown to be effective when used by others.
|Ego analysts view of maladaptive behavior||
Believe healthy behavior is under the conscious control of the ego. Pathology ensues when ego loses its autonomy from the id or reality.
Acording to Margaret Mahler (an object relations theorist), "individualism" involves:
a. establishing relationships with others
b. incorporating the unconscious aspects of one's personality into the conscious aspects
c. achieving unity of the f
d. recognizing the separate existence of self and others.
|What types of drugs are used to Tx Specific Phobia & Social Phobia?||
Beta Blockers (propanolol)
-tx stage fright
Paxil- for social phobia
|How do racism & sexism create deficits in social power Directly?||
Block access to good health services and deny valued social roles.
|You have been assigned to provide case management services to a homeless F, age 66, who has had a long standing problem with alcohol dependence. She is in denial about the nature of her alcohol related problems, and receives a great deal of reinforcement||
emphasize an educational approach that encourages an exploration of substance use in general terms.
|Kubler Ross' Theory of Death and Dying||
Stages pass through as they move toward death
(D)anny (A)sked (B)arbara to (D)ance (A)t the party
A homosexual client reaches out to shake your hand at the end of the first interview.
As a general policy and personal preference, you do not shake hands with your clients. In the second meeting, the client accuses you of being homophobic because you see
a. explain your policy and preference to the client.
|What is a Simple Phobia & when is typical onset?||
Persistent irrational fears of a specific objects, activity or situation.
Onset usually = late teens or early adulthood
|Your client is overly compliant. He is very sensitive to cues indicating what your values and preferences are. As a result, he acts as if he accpts your advice and suggestions without question, even though you would expect disagreement based on other thin||
"You're accepting a lot of my advice without question, but I sense that you disagree"
(Iceberg analogy to remember 4 episodes of BD)
Mania - BP1 (Severe) - think of the tip of the iceburg.
Hypomania - BP2 (+2)(Cyclothymia) - think of treading just above the water line
Minor Depression (Dysthymia) (+2) - person is just below the surface, chronic, long term
Major Depressive episode - BP2- this person immediately and just recently sunk deep in the depression.
|If a patient is noncompliant w/ their Typical Antipsychotic meds what can be done to increase compliance?||
A deconoate form that can be injected 1x every 2-4 weeks.
Esp. haloperidol (Haldol) & fluphenazine (Prolixin).
You should only use a DX of adjustment d/o with depressed mood for a client in crisis if the symptoms were
a) caused by a stressor
b) either caused or triggered by a stressor
c) caused by a presonality predisposition, and triggered by a stressor
d) due to
either caused or triggered by a stressor
|In HIV infected people, what is the most common cause neuropsychological impairment?||
Direct infection of the HIV virus into the brain tissue. This produces cognitive, personality and motor symptoms
|Your client is a 55 yr. old M with a problem of alcohol dependence and dysthymic d/o. He comes to see you in crisis, complaining of problems with inappropriate anger, appetite disturbance, low self esteem, and social withdrawal. Which of the following wou||
attend at least 2 recreational groups at least 1 x per week for two months by May1.
Major Depressive Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety Disorder due to a general medical condition
Panic disorder (with and without a history of agoraphobia), Agoraphobia (with and without a history of panic disorder)
Phobia (largest category of AD)
Social Phobia and Specific Phobia
Acute stress disorder
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
Autistic Disorder (Autism)
Disorder of Written Expression
Expressive Language Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Separation Anxiety Disorder
Stereotypic Movement Disorder
Transient Tic Disorder
|Describe Parkinsonian sydrome.||
Triad of signs
Cogwheel feel to joint
Masklike facies, diminished expressiveness
e.g. support and reassurance
*effective in reducing anxiety/guilt and increasing self esteem and instilling hope. Makes client's mental/emotional energies more available for problem-solving
associated with Freud's psychosexual stages and ID. The Id has a libido
relating to body sensations.
all kinds of feelings including tactile, visceral and emotional
*associated with program evaluation
*evaluates expected results and may include studying a client's perceptions of a program
abbreviation for "three times daily"
a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
|What type of drug is Aventyl?||
|What type of drug is Nardil?||
|At what ages does Freud's "Phallic/Oedipal" psychosexual stage occur?||
An individual who believes, despite evidence to the contray, that feelings, thoughts or actions are imposed by an external source, is suffering from:
maintains homeostasis in systems theory
regards behavior as being largely motivated by a person's future goals rather than determined by past events
*associated with Adler
Goal oriented, circumscribed, focused, and directed towards specific problems or symptoms. Specific goals and number of sessions are predetermined. Primary goal is removal of specific symptoms. Focuses on the genetic past. At times confused with crisis intervention but is different because it has roots in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and crisis intervention focuses on genetic present.
The basic techniques and goals include addressing specific symptoms, assess of past, and focus on unconscious issues.
A defense mechanism. Defined as transference of emotion felt toward an individual or object to another similar person or thing.
Organized according to relationship between figure and ground.
Figure = what stands out in a person's experience & is regulated by his or her needs
Ground = entire context of phenomenologically relevant variables from which a figure emerges
An acronym to remember Generalized anxiety disorder (anxiety disorder)
Tension in muscles
Hyperarousal (or irritability)
relationships among agency personnel are voluntary
Prior to the onset of an illness
|How long is Prolonged Separation Anxiety?||
|Which of Maslow's needs dominate in Adulthood?||
In working with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the MOST frequently encountered defense mechanism is:
|Object Relations Techniques||
*provide client w/ support, acceptance
*Mirroring (clnt can see own positive reflection)
*Parallel process-special type of mirroring that occurs when dynamics from client's life are repeated in therapeutic relationship
|Origins of Crisis||
there are three categories:
1) Situational Crises
2) Maturational Crises
3) Crises due to cultural values/social factors
modified version of MBO. Stands for Management Objectives and Results. Focuses on key results areas. Evaluates job output and personal development
A defense mechanism. Defined as the channeling of socially-inappropriate impulses into socially-acceptable behaviors.
An acronym for remembering the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Anxiety Disorder)
aimed at preventing problems before they occur in the first place
diagnosis when there is insufficient information to make a firm diagnosis but sufficient info to make a tentative "working" diagnosis. Provisional dx should only be made if ur sure that the full criteria for the suspected disorder will be met when u get the missing info.
Tendency for any system to react toward the restoration of the status quo in the event of any change.
|In what therapeutic approach does a therapist intentionally stay neutral?||
|Traditional (Typical) Antipsychotics||
*more effective for treating positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, etc.) of schizophrenia
*induced a neuroleptic state
*performs math equations (add & subtract.) with the data
a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system in response to stress, as anger or fear, and acting to increase heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and carbohydrate metabolism.
|Define the Superego.||
Seat of Conscience
Guilt (if too strong = always guilty)
|What type of drug is Ludiomil?||
2nd Generation Antidepressant
|What drug is used most often in overdoses?||
Introjection, Retroflection & Confluence are from
Gestalt, disturbances in healthy growth
means client has more than one diagnosis on Axis 1
upsets homestasis and permits a more functional balance to emerge
The client relates a dream's manifest content (what happens in a dream) and then free associates to the elements of the dream to identify its latent (unconscious) content.
Helps uncover unconscious conflicts and motives.
|Instrumental Hedonistic Orientation||
Stage 2 in proconventional morality.
That which satisfies their own needs is moral.
|High Context Communication||
*relies heavily on restricted codes (ebonics), culturally defined meanings and nonverbal messages
*characteristic of minority groups
*self-image/worth tied to the group (collectivism)
|Sympathic Nervous System||
associated with the inhibition of smooth muscles
*it would cause relaxation of the bronchioles
the child develops a permanent sense of self and object
|Ego Defensive Functions||
resolves conflicts. Similar to ego functions of Freud.
|Ego Autonomous Functions||
adpative functions such as speech, learning, memory, and perception.
represents the "conflict free eho sphere".
Process used to determine whether a particular change effort was worthwhile.
Evaluations are classified as:
1) Formative (monitoring)
2) Summative (impact)
In social work, the primary focus is on formative.
an agreement entered into by both client and therapist to pursue specific changes that the client desires. Unhealthy childhood experiences could damage the Adult or Parent ego states, which would bring discomfort to an individual and/or others in a variety of forms, including many types of mental illness.
Associated with TA and Eric Berne
|Explain Avoidant Behavior||
Kids avoid making new friends or strangers to an extent that it interferes w/ development of peer relationships & social fxning.
|Name the "neurovegatative" or "classic" symptoms of depression.||
Changes in appetite & weight
Decrease in energy
Decrease in sexual desire/fxn
|What type of drug is Neurontin? What disorder is it used to treat?||
|What type of drug is Tegretol? What disorder is it used to treat?||
|Describe Autism symptoms, including age of diagnosis.||
Onset before age 3.
Failure to dev. relatedness to parents & others.
As infants- no social smile, avoid eye contact, no cuddle.
Kids- fail to dev. normal language & may use non-verbal
Activities are rigid, repetitive, w/o variety.
Over/under response to sensory stimuli.
|Briefly described the Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.||
3. Good boy/girl orientation
4. Obeys laws/obligations/duties & Rules are rules; avoid guilt
|List the needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from lower to higher level.||
Love & Belonging
|Describe the Permissive parenting style.||
Permit free expression
Don't monitor activities
Rarely exert firm control over behavior
Anxiety is not the most likely factor in the etiology
of male erectile disorder, instead you would
*Stage 2 - Mahler's stages of dev.
*Occurs if the infants needs were met in the normal austism phase.
*Occurs from the 2nd to 8th mo. of life
*infant is fused with mother and doesn't differentiate between "I" and "not I".
*Confusion of self and other
*over time, comes to see diff. between pleasure/pain of her experiences with others
A CB technique that consists of three phases:
1) education - help client understand his responses in stressful times
2)Skill acquisition - help client acquire & rehearse coping skills
3) application - have client apply the skills
focused on the impact of the structure and dynamics of society on personality development
one or more of the diagnostic criteria for substance dep. are still met but the full criteria are no longer met.
|Holmes and Rahe's Scale||
*measures the severity of psychosocial stressors
*aka life events scale/social readjustment scale
*highest stressor, death of a spouse/child, then divorce, then marital separation, imprisonment, personal injury...
*includes over 40 life changes.
|central nervous system||
the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.
|Briefly explain Erikson's seventh stage: Generativity vs Self-Absorption.||
-grows out of the intimacies of adulthood
-interest in establishin & guiding the next generation
-lack of generativity = self-absorption, stagnation, & personal impoverishment
|What is the time frame for a diagnosis of Brief Psychotic Disorder?||
Behavioral therapist tells client with anxiety
disorder to engage in anxiety-arousing behavior,
what is the goal?
NEUTRALIZE anticipatory anxiety that is the real
source of the client's problem
Which of the following is the least advisable goal to recommend to your 37 yr old client with dysthymic d/o?
a) reduce irritability
b) develop realistic concern over physical health
c) reduce anxiety
d) decrease activity level
decrease activity level
|Marlatt's Relapse Prevention Model||
A CB theoretical model that emphasizes the role of cognitions (especially attributions) and the situational factors that precede relapse.
*abstinence violation effect
*successful recovery from relapse is associated with blaming external factors rather than internal
|What is the cause of Delirium?||
General medical condition or substance use or both.
Usually a medical emergency
|What is this psychological test...Draw-A Person Test?||
Provides info. about a child's self image.
|What does the "Conscious" hold?||
Mental activities of which we are fully aware.
To reduce potential threats on a research design of
internal validity the investigator will be concerned
maturation, history, and statistical regression
|Your client is a 37 yr old M who has avoided air travel since the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. He says that air travel is much too dangerous because terrorists have relativey easy access to airplanes and because the potential damage and publicity value is so||
|How are beginning social workers most commonly supervised?||
Using a teaching model...live supervision. observing a session in progress
|The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (Vineland II)||
designed to evaluate personal and social skills of individuals with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, brain injury, or dementia. Also assists in the development of educational and tx plans.
*used for individuals from birth to age 90.
|Hierarchy of Defense Mechanisms||
Begins with least adaptive DMs to the higher functioning "mature" DMs:
1) Psychotic DM
2) Immature DM
3) Neurotic DM
4) Mature DM
|What is the main drug used to treat Bipolar Disorder?||
Lithium (a mood stabilizer)
|What are some Manic symptoms seen in Bipolar Disorder?||
Decrease need for sleep/increased energy
Abrubt change of topic
Disorganize, flamboyant, bizarre activities
|Name 4 disorders that by definition are rxns.||
2. Acute Stress Disorder
3. Adjustment Disorder
In terms of interpersonal relationships, a person
with schizotypal personality disorder is most...
to express unhappiness about a lack of relationship
but to act in ways that suggest a lack of interest in
When taking a Psychodynamic approach to therapy, with a Self Psychology emphasis, you should provide an anxious, adult client with...
a) an opportunity to develop an adequate selfobject by nonjudgementally empathizing with the client's affective experienc
an opportunity to develop an adequate selfobject by nonjudgementally empathizing with the client's affective experience
|Crises due to cultural values/social factors||
come from factors related to race, gender, age. e.g, crises arising from aberrant behavior of others like crime, infidelity, incest, or residential relocation
|What are the properties of the Superego?||
Uses internal and external rewards or punishments to control and regulate id impulses.
|What must be done when a Native American child is being placed in foster care or adopted?||
Contact the administrative office of the child's tribe. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 give jurisdiction to tribal authorities.
When a SW and a client are of different racial backgrounds, what is the MOST important factor in determining the success of treatment by the SW?
a. the SW ability to identify with the client
b. the client's ability to experience transference toward the SW
the SW awareness of self
|Erickson's 8 Stages of Man||
(T)ina (A)sked the 4 (Is) to got to (I)celand...
Trust v.s Mistrust (0-1)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-2)
Initiative vs. Guilt (2-6)
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
Identity vs. role confusion (13-18)
Intimacy vs. Self-absorbtion (19-39)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40-65)
Integrity vs. Despair (65-death)
*coincides w/ freud's psychosexual stages
|What are the age specific criteria for a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder?||
> 18 years
Symptoms present < 15 years
(<18 = Conduct Disorder)
While assessing a 10 yr. old, you rule out an
Oppositional Defiant Disorder diagnosis when you
find out that he...
Stealing money out of classmates' bookbags
(rights of others & social rules are violated)
Your new client tells you that she has experienced a serious trauma involving a violent assault. In order to reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD you and the client should use a crisis intervention approach in which you...
a) focus on disclosing the e
focus on disclosing the events, explore troubling reactions, identifying coping strategies
|What are the 6 types of social power according to social psychologists?||
*associated with French and Raven
(C)andy (E)njoys (R)ich (R)occo because he's (Loaded) and (I)talian
|What is required for a diagnosis of ADHD?||
Symptoms must occur in at least 2 different settings/situations. Symptoms can increase during stress or decrease in a strictly controlled or novel situation.
Your client is a person of about your age who appears to feel somewhat attracted to you. The client responds to your warmth and acceptance as if it were an attempt at seduction. You should...
a) explore the client's history of sexual abuse or harassment b
comment on how the thrapy relationship is an intimate relationship and distinguish it from other intimate relationships
|Why is a family map used in structural family therapy?||
to facilitate the diagnosis of the family
Your new client is a 26 yr. old carpenter who is troubled by depression. In order to determine whether or not he has a major depressive d/o vs dysthymia, you will need to find out..
a) whether or not he experiences vegetative symptoms of depression
if he is depressed most of the day nearly every day.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Shared Psychotic Disorder
*most mathematically sophisticated
*absolute zero means complete absent of characteristic being measured.
*can multiply and divide ratio scores
*determines how much more or less of a characteristic one subject has compared to another.
abbreviation for "bedtime" in medication instructions
emphasizes "output variables" or the outcome of program services. Also called summative data.
|What condition can Hypothyroidism mimic?||
The recognition, attention or responsiveness that one person gives another. Strokes can be positive (nicknamed "warm fuzzies") or negative ("cold pricklies"). A key idea is that people hunger for recognition, and that lacking positive strokes, will seek whatever kind they can, even if it is recognition of a negative kind. We test out as children what strategies and behaviours seem to get us strokes, of whatever kind we can get.
|Impulse Control Disorders||
Intermittent Explosive Disorder
Trichotillomania (pull out hair)
abbreviation for "four times daily"
|respondeat superior doctrine||
"vicarious liability" defines legal liability of supervisors for the job related actions of their supervisees. Both held accountable.
|At what ages does Freud's "Oral" psychosexual stage occur?||
|What type of drug is Marplan?||
Kids display aggressiveness by patterns of obsinate but generally passive behavior. Appear to conform, but provoke adults/other kids. Use negativism, stubborness, dawdling, procrastination to show aggression.
Symptoms: Bizarre behavior, impaired communication, impaired social interaction, & restricted repertoire of activities & interests w/o delusions or hallucinations.
Possible Autistic Disorder
bxs automatically stimulated by certain stimuli
application of operant conditioning. performance of a bx increases because it is followed by termination (removal) of an unpleasant stimulus.
A mental image of self.
*associated with Object Relations.
Ecstasy, a hallucinogenic. may induce dreamy state, and delusions, hallucinations
emotional release resulting from the recall of unconscious material. Paves the way for insight
provides payment for medical and hospital services to indivs. who cant afford them.
uses pts financial resources and health factors to determine eligibility
Adopting the family's affective and behavioral style
Meaningless repetition of what is said by others.
Often seen in those with Autism
|What type of drug is Zoloft?||
|Describe Rhett's Disorder.||
Development of persistent & progressive developmental regression after a period of normal development.
Onset prior to age 4- usually 1-2 yrs of age.
Stereotypic hand movements
Probs w/coordination of gait & trunk movement
Profound mental retardation
Severe expressive & receptive language development
|When someone with Factitious disorder produces physical symptoms the disorder is called...||
A neo-freudian theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change. Developed by Eric Berne.
Believes each person has validity, importance, equality of respect.
The aims of change under TA are autonomy (freedom from childhood script), spontaneity, intimacy, problem solving as opposed to avoidance or passivity, cure as an ideal rather than merely 'making progress', learning new choices.
Associated with the contract, life (or childhood) script, games, strokes, the three ego states (PAC model)
*focused on the importance of relationships throughout the lifespan
*recognized the role of cognitive factors in personality dev.
*distinguished 3 modes of cognitive experience: prototaxic, parataxic, syntaxic
*feels maladaptive bx is attributable to parataxic distortions
|Crisis Treatment Techniques||
Dynamic and Developmental Understanding
|Crisis Treatment Techniques||
San Diego Police Department (SDPD)
ind. believes that passages from books, newspapers, or other messages as specifically directed at him or her
A defense mechanism. Defined as a retreat to an earlier stage of development.
|Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)||
a life-threatening neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs. It generally presents with muscle rigidity, fever, autonomic instability and cognitive changes such as delirium, and is associated with elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Treatment is generally supportive.
To avoid a fatal outcome, medication must be stopped immediately when symptoms are noticed.
An acronym to remember symptoms of Substance dependence (addiction disorder)
Activities are given up or reduced
Dependence, physical: tolerance
Dependence, physical: withdrawal
consequences, physical or
Can’t cut down or control use
Duration or amount of use is greater
An acronym to remember symptoms of Alcohol abuse (Addiction Disorder)
Have you ever felt you should
CUT DOWN your drinking?
Have people ANNOYED you
by criticizing your drinking?
Have you ever felt bad or
GUILTY about your drinking?
Have you ever had a drink first
thing in the morning to steady
your nerves or get rid of a
|The Right Environment||
*associated with Rogers
*consists of three facilitative conditions: (1) accurate empathic understanding (2) unconditional positive regard (3) genuineness (congruence)
|Adler's Individual Psychology||
*originally followed Freud, but disagreed with some assumptions
*adopted a telelogical approach
*each person has a set of motives, traits, values, interest, etc.
*any individual can be fully understood only by seeing with her eyes and listening with her ears.
*idiographic approach to study of personality
An acronym to remember symptoms of Narcissistic personality disorder
Need to be special
Dreams of success and power
Others (unable to recognize
Sense of entitlement
focuses on eliminating opposition to a cause, plan, or organization by assimilating into the group favoring the plan, cause, or org.
"if u can't beat em, co-opt them!"
co-opting inds = informal
co-opting org. groups = formal
An acronym to remember symptoms of Schizoid personality disorder
Detached or flattened affect
Indifferent to criticism or praise
Sexual experiences of little interest
Tasks done solitarily
Absence of close friends
Neither desires nor enjoys
Takes pleasure in few activities
the acetic acid ester of choline, C7H17NO3, released and hydrolyzed during nerve conduction and causing muscle action by transmitting nerve impulses across synapses.
|What type of drug is Desyrel?||
2nd Generation Antidepressant
|What type of drug is Serzone?||
2nd Generation Antidepressant
|What causes Endogenous Depression?||
Depression caused by biochemical imbalance rather than a psychosocial stressor or external factor.
|What class of drugs are prescribed for hyperactivity in kids?||
|Mistaken Style of life||
characterized by goals reflecting self-centeredness, competitiveness, and striving for personal power.
*associated with Alder
|Primary Process Thinking||
Thinking that involves forming a dream, hallucination, or other mental image of an object that would satisfy the needs of the id
An acronym to remember the symptoms of Borderline personality disorder
Paranoia or dissociation under stress
Labile intense relationships
Vulnerability to abandonment
Emptiness (feelings of)
An acronym to remember the symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder
Disturbance of identity
Paranoia or dissociation
Abandonment (fear of)
Emptiness (feelings of)
|What is most associated with a positive outcome in therapy?||
symptoms of depression and then mania. One or more manic or mixed episodes, usually, but not always, accompanied by a hx of major depressive episodes.
e.g. client has been suffering"on and off for about a year w/ depression and suddenly develops symptoms of mania"
|The Conners Rating Scale-Revised||
identifies hyperactivity and other behavioral problems in children age 3 to 17. Evaluates problem bx by obtaining reports from teachers and parents. For adolescents, the instrument also includes a self-report scale.
|Peripheral Nervous System||
includes autonomic and somatic nervous systems
how people perceive and understand the world
*sensory representations for self-expression and learning
"i see", "I hear you"
|Autonomic Nervous System||
regulates the activities of the visceral muscles and glands
*associated with involuntary movements
*consists of parasympathic and sympathic branches
involve a non anticipated event beyond a person's control.
They can arise from 1)physical or personal (disability, diagnosis of serious illness), 2) social or interpersonal (e.g. death of family member), 3) material or environmental (natural disaster)
When evaluating a treatment for children suffering from serious behavioral disorders, to overcome the ethical problems associated with the use of a wait-list control group. The best research design would be which of the following:
a. single subject
a. single subject
|When does PTSD occur?||
At any age.
Following a psychologicall distressing event that is outside the range of usual human experience
Period of time before the onset of a serious illness during which there may be subtle symptoms.
EX: before the onset of a full-blown psychotic episode, a patient may manifest a somewhat guarded, suspicious & angry affect as well as disorganized behavior & thought processes
|What type of drug is Ritalin? What is it typically used to treat?||
Hyperactivity in Kids
|What are the three levels of the mind?||
|What are physiological needs?||
Those that maintain the physical organism.
Biological needs- food, water, oxygen, body temp, medical care.
W/O these they will die
|What is included on Axis I?||
**May be more than one
|Your client has shared with you a long history of conflict with her husband. Recently, however, the sessions have focused on her son who is currently in his first yr of high school. Although it appears that her son has adjusted to the transition successfu||
Occurs during the first three years of life. During these years the core of the child’s personality is formed.
Related to Object Relations
Key figure in the development of the Object Relations approach. She emphasized the processes by which an infant assumes her own physical and psychological identity.
Used to identify the nature of a client's style of life. Obtain info about the client's family constellation, fictional (hidden) goals, "basic mistakes" (distorted beliefs), and earliest memories.
*lifestyle of person fixed by age 6?
*associated with Adler
*emerges at end of 1st yr of life
*characterized by logical, sequential, internally-consistent, and modifiable thinking.
*associated with neo-freudian, Sullivan
|Antisocial Personality Disorder||
Cannot be diagnosed to someone under the age of 18. An adolescent must be given conduct dx diagnoses
a deceleration of the rate of head growth and small hands and feet. Head grows smaller, loses skills already learned. Stereotypic, repetitive hand movements such as mouthing or wringing are also noted. Symptoms of the disorder include cognitive impairment and problems with socialization, the latter during the regression period. Socialization typically improves by the time they enter school. Usually caused (95% or more) by a de novo mutation in the child (so it is NOT inherited from either parent.
Can look like autism and cerebral palsy. Symptoms include:
* screaming fits
* panic attack
* inconsolable crying
* avoidance of eye contact
* lack of social/emotional reciprocity
* general lack of interest
* markedly impaired use of nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction
* loss of speech
* Balance and coordination problems, including losing the ability to walk in many cases
|The person in situation system||
associated with the psychosocial model
|Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)||
Has 4 priorities of behavioral change:
1) decrease suicidal bxs/ideation
2) decrease bxs that interfere w/ tx
3) - bx that interferes w/ quality of life
4) increase coping and relational skills
An acronym to remember the symptoms of Mania
Flight of ideas
|Life Instincts (EROS)||
Drive for self preservation and sexual gratification
|What type of drug is Cylert? What is it typically used to treat?||
Hyperactivity in Kids
|Explain Margaret Mahler's "Object Constancy" phase in object relations theory||
24-38 mths = Consolidation of individuality & object constancy.
-substitute of reliable internal image during absence; inception of unified self-image
|What is included on Axis V?||
GAF- Global Assessment of Functioning.
**No impairment in fxn due to physical/environmental limitations.
|What two main classes of drugs are used to Tx GAD?||
Anxiolytic Drugs(Minor Tranqs)
You will be using a cognitive restructuring approach to help your cient, Mr G, a 25 yr old man, eliminate or reduce his generalized anxierty. In using this approach you should...
a) explore what the client believes about the orgins of his anxiety
identify the client's misinterpretations which lead to the anxiety.
|Process of Analysis||
The way in which the analysis' targets are analyzed. Uses a combo of:
|Psychotic Disorders (timelines for symptoms to dx)||
Brief Psychotic (1 day-1 mo)
Schizo somatoform (1mo-6mos)
Schizophrena - 6mos and on....
|Why are Benzodiazepines used to Tx GAD over barbituates?||
Less abuse potential
|When is Stranger Anxiety the strongest?||
6-8 months (up to 14 months)
|What does Bipolar Disorder look like?||
Distinct period of mood elevation usually followed by a major depressive episode.
Manic episodes began suddenly & escalate.
Possible rapid shifts from elevated mood-anger-depression.
Possible suicidal thoughts
The primary difference between PTSD &
Adjustment Disorder is that in the former...
The symptoms are usually more severe
|Mr. and Mrs J., a couple in their late 60's, seek help because of recent changes in Mr. J's behavior. According to his wife he started having problems of immediate recall 3 yrs ago just before his 66th birthday. Nothing appeared to change until last yr. w||
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
Developed by Albert Ellis. One of 1st CB theory therapies.
Views behavior as a chain of events - A-B-C where A is the external event to which the individual is exposed; B is the belief that the individual has about A, and C is the emotion or behavior that results from B. An emotional response to an external event is due to beliefs about the event rather than the event itself. Neurosis is caused by repetition of irrational beliefs.
Techniques used: modeling, behavior rehearsal, problem-solving, in-vivo desensitization, rational emotive imagery, and cognitive homework assignments. Works well with anxiety disorders/phobias
|External Locus of Control||
Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events.
For example, those with a strong external locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck, or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously; hence, they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades.
|Assessment of a crisis||
Focus of assessment should be on the immediate problem. No time or need to explore client's past hx in great depth. See IIE-DI (I Die). Can also include:
-recent medical/psych hx
-assess MH status
-assess for substance abuse
-assess for suicide risk
-assess for danger to others
An African American family presents for family therapy. From a systems perspective, it would be most advisible to:
a. focus on multi generational issues.
b. see each family member individually.
c. use behavorial techniques.
d. educate the family members a
a. focus on multi generational issues.
|What symptoms might be seen in older children with Major Depressive Episode?||
Refuse cooperation in family & social activity
Use of substances
Less attention to appearance
|Explain Overanxious Disorder and how it may be expressed||
Kids have diffuse fears & worries w/ no specific cause. Worry excessively about many things.
Anxiety may be expressed as headaches, respiratory distress, etc.
In developing a diagnostic formulation for a 27 yr. old client who appears to be in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia, the mental status exam is useful in determining..
a) the cause of the individual's symptoms
b) the factors which trigger the onset of
the nature of the individual's mental state at a point in time
|Assumptions of Psychodynamic Theorists||
1) They view human bx as motivated by unconscious processes
2) They regard early development as having a profound affect on adult functioning
3) They propose that there are general (universal) principals that explain personality development & behavior
4) They consider insight into unconscious processes to be a key component of psychotherapy.
|Assumptions of Psychodynamic Theorists||
A "general" and a "principle" walk into a bar talking about "personality development and behavior". They are trying to gain "insight" into why there is an "unconscious" "adult" following them.
|What is the best solution to a child refusing to go to school due to parent-child attachment issues?||
Send the child to school
If you are using the classic DBT model with a borderline personality disorder client, you would provide and/or arrange for the client to receive
a) an eclectic combination of interventions involving weelky group and individuals sessions over a 1 yr period
an electric combination of interventions involving weekly group and individuals sessions over a 1 yr. period.
|Acute stress disorder vs. PTSD||
ASD - symptoms start within 4 weeks of the trauma & last for at least 2 days but no longer than a month.
If symptoms persist beyond 4 weeks (1 month) then it is PTSD.
"a few weeks" of symptoms would be ASD
|If symptoms are indicative of both a more pervasive disorder (i.e. Schizophrenia) & a less pervasive disorder (i.e. Dysthymia) how do you diagnose?||
Only the more pervasive disorder is diagnosed if both its defining symptoms & associated symptoms are present.
|You are providing therapy, using a Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy approach, with a recently divorced 35 yr old M whose ego functioning is generally weak. He has been having difficulty making decisions and managing a pervasive sense of inadequacy and guilt s||
free up psychic energy to better cope with his challenges in the real world
|What is drug of choice to treat bipolar disorder?||
Lithium. it reduces manic symptoms and represses mood swings,
Carbemezapine is used for pts with bipolar II disorder or when lithium was ineffective or pt doesnt like lithium
|What must be done BEFORE making a psychiatric diagnosis?||
Rule out a medical cause.
When a substance or general medical cond. can account for the symptoms it preempts the diagnosis of any other disorder that could produce the symptoms.
|An 11 yr. old client with conduct d/o has been physically abused and lacks a sense of empathy for others whom he has abused. He also lacks a sense of safety and security and is socially isolated. In order to help the child develop a greater sense of emapt||
help the client become conscious of, and verbalize, what it was like to be victamized himself.
|What must be done prior to making a psychiatric diagnosis?||
Rule out a medical cause for the symptoms.
|When is the only time a person can be INVOLUNTARILY committed?||
If they are a harm to themself or others.