LCSW Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Paraphilias
Exhibitionism
Fetishism
Frotteurism (nc rubbing)
Pedophilia
Sexual masochism
Sexual sadism
Transvestic fetishism (crossdress)
Voyeurism
Paraphilia NOS (not otherwise specified)
Q
abbreviation for "every"
Sexual Disorders
Dyspareunia
Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
Exhibitionism
Female and Male Orgasmic Disorders
Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
Fetishism
Frotteurism
Gender Identity Disorder
Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Male Erectile Disorder
Premature Ejaculation
Sex Addiction (not a recognized diagnostic category at this time)
Sexual Masochism and Sadism
Transvestic Fetishism
Vaginismus
Voyeurism
Describe Encopresis.
Elimination disorder involving repeated passage of feces at inappropriate places.
Often involuntary (may be intentional)
Occurs at least 1x/mth for 3 mths in child 4yrs +
Child is embarrassed & avoids situations that might be embarrassing (camp/sleepovers)
May suffer rejection from peers/parents
Countertransference
describes a therapist's inappropriate emotional reactions to a client.

Freud felt it was detrimental to psychoanalysis and believed a therapist must always be aware of any feelings of CT.
Newer "atypical" antipsychotics
e.g. clozapine, risperidone
*alleviates both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
Tardive dyskinesia
involuntary, repetitive movements) manifesting as a side effect of long-term or high-dose use of antipsychotics.
*have difficulty not moving
Conditioned response
elicited by classical conditioning
norepinephrine
a neurotransmitter, released by adrenergic nerve terminals in the autonomic and possibly the central nervous system, that has such effects as constricting blood vessels, raising blood pressure, and dilating bronchi.
What type of drug is Tofranil?
Imiprimine
Tricyclic
When is Major Depressive Episode usually seen if it strictly seasonal?
Oct-Nov
What type of drug is Parnate?
Tranylcypromine
MAOI
Accomodation is
modifying existing schemes to incorporate new
knowledge
Operant Conditioning
concerned with voluntary behaviors that are under the control of environmental consequences.
Ego-Syntonic Traits
feelings, behaviors, values, ideas. They are traits consistent with the ego. they feel real and acceptable to the consciousness.
Disossociation
disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment.
FREUD (MATURATIONIST)
Perceiving people as inherently selfish, impulsive, and irrational, Freud saw human beings in a negative context. He viewed behavior as a result of unconscious biological and instinctual needs. According to Freud, behavior is determined by sex drives, and adult action is influenced by psychosexual states. A finite quantity of libido is stored in the id.

Freudian psychoanalysis aims to enable the client to discover unconscious conflicts and, once revealed, respond to such conflicts rationally, thus controlling and abating neurotic behaviors. The personality disorder that is characterized by instability, irritability, impulsive anger, and external mood shifts is known as borderline. In the Freudian view, borderline and narcissistic disorders tend to be rooted in traumatic events occurring during the separation/individuation phase of development.
Julian Rotter
Associated with CBT/Social Learning Theory of Personality. Influenced by Adler.

Core concepts:
*ILC (internal locus of control)
*ELC (External Locus of control.
*Behavior Potential
*Functionally related behaviors
Psychosocial model
*based primarily on ego psychology
*believe change is produced by insight
*emphasis is on importance of therapeutic relationship
*ego functioning is improved through working with client and his environment
Enactment
Technique used in structural family therapy to facilitate diagnosis and restructuring in the family.
ID
*present at birth
*consists of the person's life and death instincts=source of all psychic energy
*operates on pleasure principle
*uses primary process thinking
Tracking
Identifying and using the family's values, life themes
What type of drug is Celexa?
SSRI
2nd gen
What type of drug is Zyprexa?
Olanzapine
Atypical Antipsychotic
New
Briefly explain Erikson's eighth stage: Integrity vs Disgust.
Senescence (Maturity)
-Satisfying intimacy w/ others & adapts to success and disappointments = end of life w/ ego integrity
-acceptance of own responsibility for what their life was & is.
-w/o this accrued ego integration = dispair w/ dipleasure & disgust
Which of Maslow's needs dominate in the Neonate phase?
Physiological
What is the most commonly known Dementia?
Alzheimer's
Which of Maslow's needs dominate in Adolescents?
Self-esteem
Client has alternated with depressed & elated
mood for 4 yrs. Her "ups" are never manic & she's
never qualified for Major Depression. (What's her
diagnois)
Cyclothymic Disorder
Splitting
Thinking purely in extremes, e.g. good versus bad, powerful versus defenseless and so on. he separation of the things the child loves (good, gratifying objects) and the things the child hates (bad, frustrating objects). Klein refers to these things as the good breast and the bad breast.

Associated with OR and Klein
Universal Life Cycle Transitions
Transitions experiencing normal changes in roles and attitudes about self and the world

e.g. moving from prenatal to infancy, infancy to childhood, childhood to adolescence, adolescence to adulthood, etc...During each transition, ind. are challenged by specific dev tasks.

associated with crisis
Side Effects of SSRIs (antidepressants)
*Gastrointestinal Probs
*frequent urination
*insomnia
*anxiety
*headaches, dizziness, tremors
*sexual Dysfunction

e.g. Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil
Psyche
Associated with Jung. The psyche is comprised of the conscious ego, the personal unconscious and the non-personal unconscious
WWHHHHIMPS
An acronym to remember the life threatening Causes of Delirum

Wernicke’s encephalopathy
Withdrawal
Hypertensive crisis
Hypoperfusion/hypoxia of the brain
Hypoglycemia
Hyper/hypothermia
Intracranial process/infection
Metabolic/meningitis
Poisons
Status epilepticus
Proloxin (Fluphenazine )
very potent antipsychotic. Seizures are most dangerous side effect.
Socratic Questioning
Disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue thought in many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truth of things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts, to distinguish what we know from what we don’t know, and to follow out logical implications of thought.

e.g.,what would happen next?
Secondary Prevention
refers to early detection and treatment of problems
SCRIMPER
An acronym to remember symptoms of Obsessive-compulsive personality
disorder

Stubborn
Cannot discard worthless objects
Rule obsessed
Inflexible
Miserly
Perfectionistic
Excludes leisure due to devotion
to work
Reluctant to delegate to others
STEP and STET
Systematic Training for Effective Parenting and Systematic Training for Effective Teaching

*programs based on Adler's approach
* Assume that all behavior is goal directed and purposeful
*misbehavior is children has one of four goals: attention, power, revenge, or to display deficiency
Ombudsman
ind. employed by an agency to investigate illegal/unethical activities
Which of Maslow's needs dominate during Childhood?
Safety & Love/Belonging
What type of drug is Wellbutrin?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What is this psychological test...Standford-Binet?
Intelligence test for children
True or False In Oppositional Defiant Disorder,
the rights of others and age-appropriate social
rules are violated.
False-Conduct Disorder
Paradoxical Intention
makes use of resistance by asking client to pay closer attention to or exaggerate undesirable thoughts or behaviors.
ME PECULIAR
An acronym to remember symptoms of Schizotypal personality disorder (Personality Disorder)

Magical thinking
Experiences unusual perceptions
Paranoid ideation
Eccentric behavior or appearance
Constricted or inappropriate affect
Unusual thinking or speech
Lacks close friends
Ideas of reference
Anxiety in social situations
Rule out psychotic or pervasive
developmental disorders
Distress Tolerance Skills
onstitute a natural development from mindfulness skills. They have to do with the ability to accept, in a non-evaluative and nonjudgmental fashion, both oneself and the current situation. Although the stance advocated here is a nonjudgmental one, this does not mean that it is one of approval.

Acceptance without pushing for change
Reality Therapy
confrontive form of therapy, e.g. RET. models responsible bx for clients. views transference as detrimental to therapy process
The Ecological Perspective
transactional view of the relationship between a person and their environment.

* a person and his environment are believed to engage in circular exchanges in which each reciprocally effects the other over time
*believes both problems and needs result from these exchanges.
Personality Structure
1. Ego--grounded in reality, the ego mediates between the id and the super-ego.

2. Id--the primitive, selfish aspect which demands immediate gratification.

3. Super-ego--the internalization of parental interjections.
Systems Analysis Model
studies the impact of other organizations and the environment on a program and investigates variables that may be related to program changes
Stuttering
Shows up around age 3-4 and most speech therapists feel that stuttering before age three is normal childhood dysfluency.

When a parent is concerned about stuttering around that time period, provide parent education.
The non-personal unconscious
archetypes that influence behavior but are not available to consciousness).
Name the 5 anxiety disorders of childhood/adolescence?
Separation Anxiety
Avoidant Behavior
Overanxious Disorder
PTSD
Simple Phobia
What are the signs of Dementia?
Disturbance involving memory impairment & other cognitve impairments.
What type of drug is Risperidone? Name one trade name.
Atypical Antipsychotic
Risperdol
Briefly described the Post-Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Adult
5. Concern w/ individual rights & morality
6. Guided by individual principles based on broad, universal, ethical principles.
Describe child behavior when parenting style is Permissive.
Impulsive & Aggressive
Rebellious, low self-reliance & control, impulsive, aggressive, domineering, aimless, low achievement
What is the relevant time frame for symptoms for a diagnosis of Somatization Disorder?
Several Yrs
What is School Phobia?
A form of separation anxiety.
Allowing kids to stay home only increases the prob
Feminists Views on therapy
Diagnosis is usually frowned upon. avoid labels, avoid revictimization, They like self-disclosure.
Negative symptoms of Schizophrenia
are so-named because they are considered to be the loss or absence of normal traits or abilities, and include features such as flat or blunted affect and emotion, poverty of speech (alogia), inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia), and lack of motivation (avolition).
Key Concepts in Adler's personality theory
*Inferiority Feelings
*Striving for Superiority
*Style of Life
*Social Interest
The Precipitating Factor
an event that converts a vulnerable state into a crisis state. Can be the same as the hazardous event or follow it. "The Last Straw" before a break.

The 3rd stage of crisis
Transference in psychoanalysis
*a form of resistance
*it is an unwillingness to relinquish the fantasy that one's infantile wishes will be gratified
Factitious disorders
conditions in which a person acts as if he or she has an illness by deliberately producing, feigning, or exaggerating symptoms.

Types:
Manchausen syndrome (own illness faked)
Manchausen by proxy (other's illnesses faked)
Ganser syndrome(gives absurd answers to simple questions)
Tx for Conduct Disorder
more effective when family is included
*parent training programs
*cognitive problems solving skills trning
*multisystemic therapy
*parent management training
*functional family therapy
Living Will
enables pts to document in advance the kind of care they want to receive or not receive at the end stage of their lives in the event that they are no longer able to communicate their preferences at that time.
*associated with durable powers of attorney (a spokesperson) and self-determination (1991 self determination act that says pts have a right to advance directive
Three Ego States
At any given time, a person experiences and manifests their personality through a mixture of behaviours, thoughts and feelings. Typically, according to TA (Berne), there are three ego-states that people consistently use:

1) Parent ("exteropsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel, and think in response to an unconscious mimicking of how their parents (or other parental figures) acted, or how they interpreted their parent's actions. For example, a person may shout at someone out of frustration because they learned from an influential figure in childhood the lesson that this seemed to be a way of relating that worked.

2) Adult ("neopsyche"): a state of the ego which is most like a computer processing information and making predictions absent of major emotions that cloud its operation. Learning to strengthen the Adult is a goal of TA. While a person is in the Adult ego state, he/she is directed towards an objective appraisal of reality.

3) Child ("archaeopsyche"): a state in which people behave, feel and think similarly to how they did in childhood. For example, a person who receives a poor evaluation at work may respond by looking at the floor, and crying or pouting, as they used to when scolded as a child. Conversely, a person who receives a good evaluation may respond with a broad smile and a joyful gesture of thanks. The Child is the source of emotions, creation, recreation, spontaneity and intimacy.
Associated with TA and Berne
Freud's Developmental Theory
proposes that an ind. personality is formed during five psychosexual stages of development. During each stage, the id's libido (sexual energy) is centered in a different part of the body.
Briefly explain Erikson's fourth stage: Industry vs Inferiority.
School Age (6-11)
-want to work/learn w/ others
-learns to accept instruction
-capacity for work enjoyment
-No recognition for one's efforts = inadequacy and inferiority
Name some common characteristics of Asian/Pacific Islander families.
-Confucian & Buddhist philosophy influence
-Hierarchical & patriarchical family w/ strict roles.
-Shame used to maintain norms
-Indirect communication
-Emotional probs expressed w/ physical complaints
A client says of her SW "She may understand me but she does not know how I feel" This indicates that the client precieves the SW to be weak with regard to..
a) genuiness
b) non-possessive warmth
c) acceptance
d) accurate empatthy
accurate empathy
Positive symptoms of Schizophrenia
symptoms that most individuals do not normally experience. They include delusions, auditory hallucinations, and thought disorder, and are typically regarded as manifestations of psychosis.
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) Group of skills
1) Distress Tolerance Skills
2) Core Mindfulness skills
3) Interpersonal Effectiveness skills
4) Emotion modulation (regulation) skills
A child acquires the ability to think in logical, cause-and-effect terms, learns to solve the problems of conservation, and can adopt other people's perspectives. According to Piaget's approach to intellectual functioning, the child is in which phase of c
d. concrete operations
What is the difference between Parasomnias vs. Dyssomnia?
Parasomnia- abnormal event that occurs during sleep or between sleep & waking
Dyssomnia- disturbance in amount, timing or quality of sleep.
What does the psychological test MMPI test for?
Predominant personality traits or behavior
ABAB research design, casuality is suggested
when...
target behavior reverts to original baseline level
when treatment is withdrawn
Your client is a 10 yr. old boy who is persistently and pervasively irritable. He alienates peers with a negativistic, "grouchy" attitude. Your client should be assessed for...
a) depression
b) borderline personality disorder
c) impulse control
Depression
Gorksi relapse prevention model
based on a sequence of warning signs that start long before a recovering alcoholic takes his 1st drink. focus on what leads to relapse.
Mahler's Stages of Development (Object Relations Approach)
1) Normal Autism
2) Symbiotic Phase
3) Differentiation/Separation-Individuation
4) Integration/Rapprochement
Anal Stage of Development
In the anal phase, from about 18 months to 3 1/2 years of age, such gratification is accomplished through the retention and passing of feces. Maladaptive bx/fixation at this stage produces anal retentive bx such as stinginess, selfishness, obsessive-compulsive bx or anal expulsive bx such as cruelty, destructiveness, messiness.
What theorist is considered client centered?
Carl Rogers - the right environment
Anorexia Nervosa, binge eating/purging type
when the person has regualrly engaged in episodes of binge eating and/or purging during the current anoretic episode.
What are Love & Belonging needs?
Assurance one is loved, worthy, and acceptable. Demand unconditional acceptance.
If a panic attack is caused by a substance what is it called?
Substance Induced Anxiety Dis
After developing a problem formulation, you and your client should select an intervention method that has demonstrated efficacy for treatment of that particular problem. This means that you will be using an intervention method that...
a) will be effective
has been shown to be effective when used by others.
Ego analysts view of maladaptive behavior
Believe healthy behavior is under the conscious control of the ego. Pathology ensues when ego loses its autonomy from the id or reality.
Acording to Margaret Mahler (an object relations theorist), "individualism" involves:
a. establishing relationships with others
b. incorporating the unconscious aspects of one's personality into the conscious aspects
c. achieving unity of the f
d. recognizing the separate existence of self and others.
What types of drugs are used to Tx Specific Phobia & Social Phobia?
Beta Blockers (propanolol)
-tx stage fright
Paxil- for social phobia
How do racism & sexism create deficits in social power Directly?
Block access to good health services and deny valued social roles.
You have been assigned to provide case management services to a homeless F, age 66, who has had a long standing problem with alcohol dependence. She is in denial about the nature of her alcohol related problems, and receives a great deal of reinforcement
emphasize an educational approach that encourages an exploration of substance use in general terms.
Kubler Ross' Theory of Death and Dying
Stages pass through as they move toward death
1) Denial
2) Anger
3) Bargaining
4) Depression
5) Acceptance

(D)anny (A)sked (B)arbara to (D)ance (A)t the party
A homosexual client reaches out to shake your hand at the end of the first interview.
As a general policy and personal preference, you do not shake hands with your clients. In the second meeting, the client accuses you of being homophobic because you see
a. explain your policy and preference to the client.
What is a Simple Phobia & when is typical onset?
Persistent irrational fears of a specific objects, activity or situation.
Onset usually = late teens or early adulthood
Your client is overly compliant. He is very sensitive to cues indicating what your values and preferences are. As a result, he acts as if he accpts your advice and suggestions without question, even though you would expect disagreement based on other thin
"You're accepting a lot of my advice without question, but I sense that you disagree"
Bipolar Disorder
(Iceberg analogy to remember 4 episodes of BD)
Mania - BP1 (Severe) - think of the tip of the iceburg.

Hypomania - BP2 (+2)(Cyclothymia) - think of treading just above the water line

Minor Depression (Dysthymia) (+2) - person is just below the surface, chronic, long term

Major Depressive episode - BP2- this person immediately and just recently sunk deep in the depression.
If a patient is noncompliant w/ their Typical Antipsychotic meds what can be done to increase compliance?
A deconoate form that can be injected 1x every 2-4 weeks.
Esp. haloperidol (Haldol) & fluphenazine (Prolixin).
You should only use a DX of adjustment d/o with depressed mood for a client in crisis if the symptoms were
a) caused by a stressor
b) either caused or triggered by a stressor
c) caused by a presonality predisposition, and triggered by a stressor
d) due to
either caused or triggered by a stressor
In HIV infected people, what is the most common cause neuropsychological impairment?
Direct infection of the HIV virus into the brain tissue. This produces cognitive, personality and motor symptoms
Your client is a 55 yr. old M with a problem of alcohol dependence and dysthymic d/o. He comes to see you in crisis, complaining of problems with inappropriate anger, appetite disturbance, low self esteem, and social withdrawal. Which of the following wou
attend at least 2 recreational groups at least 1 x per week for two months by May1.
Variables
= observations
Affective/Mood Disorders
Bipolar Disorder
Cyclothymic Disorder
Dysthymic Disorder
Major Depressive Disorder
Anxiety Disorders
PTSD
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety Disorder due to a general medical condition
Panic disorder (with and without a history of agoraphobia), Agoraphobia (with and without a history of panic disorder)
Phobia (largest category of AD)
Social Phobia and Specific Phobia
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Acute stress disorder
Childhood Disorders
Asperger's Disorder
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
Autistic Disorder (Autism)
Conduct Disorder
Disorder of Written Expression
Encopresis
Enuresis
Expressive Language Disorder
Mathematics Disorder
Mental Retardation
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Pica
Reading Disorder
Rett's Disorder
Rumination Disorder
Selective Mutism
Separation Anxiety Disorder
Stereotypic Movement Disorder
Stuttering
Tourette's Disorder
Transient Tic Disorder
Describe Parkinsonian sydrome.
Triad of signs
*Tremor
*Rigidity
*Slowed Movement
Cogwheel feel to joint
Masklike facies, diminished expressiveness
Sustainment Interventions
e.g. support and reassurance
*effective in reducing anxiety/guilt and increasing self esteem and instilling hope. Makes client's mental/emotional energies more available for problem-solving
Libido
Sexual Energy

associated with Freud's psychosexual stages and ID. The Id has a libido
Kinesthetic
relating to body sensations.

all kinds of feelings including tactile, visceral and emotional
Outcome model
*associated with program evaluation
*evaluates expected results and may include studying a client's perceptions of a program
TID
abbreviation for "three times daily"
serotonin
a neurotransmitter, derived from tryptophan, that is involved in sleep, depression, memory, and other neurological processes.
What type of drug is Aventyl?
Nortriptyline
TCA
What type of drug is Nardil?
Phenelizine
MAOI
At what ages does Freud's "Phallic/Oedipal" psychosexual stage occur?
3-6
An individual who believes, despite evidence to the contray, that feelings, thoughts or actions are imposed by an external source, is suffering from:
a. delirium
b. delusion
c. dissociation
d. dysphoria
delusion.
Negative Feedback
maintains homeostasis in systems theory
Teleological
regards behavior as being largely motivated by a person's future goals rather than determined by past events

*associated with Adler
Brief Psychotherapies
Goal oriented, circumscribed, focused, and directed towards specific problems or symptoms. Specific goals and number of sessions are predetermined. Primary goal is removal of specific symptoms. Focuses on the genetic past. At times confused with crisis intervention but is different because it has roots in psychoanalytic psychotherapy and crisis intervention focuses on genetic present.

The basic techniques and goals include addressing specific symptoms, assess of past, and focus on unconscious issues.
Displacement
A defense mechanism. Defined as transference of emotion felt toward an individual or object to another similar person or thing.
Gestalt Pattern
Organized according to relationship between figure and ground.

Figure = what stands out in a person's experience & is regulated by his or her needs

Ground = entire context of phenomenologically relevant variables from which a figure emerges
WATCHERS
An acronym to remember Generalized anxiety disorder (anxiety disorder)

Worry
Anxiety
Tension in muscles
Concentration difficulty
Hyperarousal (or irritability)
Energy loss
Restlessness
Sleep disturbance
informal organization
relationships among agency personnel are voluntary
Premorbid
Prior to the onset of an illness
How long is Prolonged Separation Anxiety?
18 months
Which of Maslow's needs dominate in Adulthood?
Self-actualizing
In working with adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the MOST frequently encountered defense mechanism is:
a. denial
b. intellectualization
c. devaluation
d. projection
denial
.
Object Relations Techniques
*provide client w/ support, acceptance
*Mirroring (clnt can see own positive reflection)
*Parallel process-special type of mirroring that occurs when dynamics from client's life are repeated in therapeutic relationship
Origins of Crisis
there are three categories:

1) Situational Crises
2) Maturational Crises
3) Crises due to cultural values/social factors
MOR
modified version of MBO. Stands for Management Objectives and Results. Focuses on key results areas. Evaluates job output and personal development
Sublimination
A defense mechanism. Defined as the channeling of socially-inappropriate impulses into socially-acceptable behaviors.
Worry WARTS
An acronym for remembering the symptoms of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Anxiety Disorder)

Wound up
Worn-out
Absentminded
Restless
Touchy
Sleepless
Primary Prevention
aimed at preventing problems before they occur in the first place
provisional dx
diagnosis when there is insufficient information to make a firm diagnosis but sufficient info to make a tentative "working" diagnosis. Provisional dx should only be made if ur sure that the full criteria for the suspected disorder will be met when u get the missing info.
Homeostasis
Tendency for any system to react toward the restoration of the status quo in the event of any change.
In what therapeutic approach does a therapist intentionally stay neutral?
Psychoanalysis
Traditional (Typical) Antipsychotics
e.g. Haldol
*more effective for treating positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, etc.) of schizophrenia
*induced a neuroleptic state
Interval Scale
*performs math equations (add & subtract.) with the data
epinephrine
a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla upon stimulation by the central nervous system in response to stress, as anger or fear, and acting to increase heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Define the Superego.
Seat of Conscience
Ego Ideal
Guilt (if too strong = always guilty)
What type of drug is Ludiomil?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What drug is used most often in overdoses?
Benzodiazepines
Introjection, Retroflection & Confluence are from
which Therapy?
Gestalt, disturbances in healthy growth
Dual Diagnosis
means client has more than one diagnosis on Axis 1
Positive feedback
upsets homestasis and permits a more functional balance to emerge
Dream Analysis
The client relates a dream's manifest content (what happens in a dream) and then free associates to the elements of the dream to identify its latent (unconscious) content.

Helps uncover unconscious conflicts and motives.
Instrumental Hedonistic Orientation
Stage 2 in proconventional morality.
That which satisfies their own needs is moral.
High Context Communication
*relies heavily on restricted codes (ebonics), culturally defined meanings and nonverbal messages
*characteristic of minority groups
*self-image/worth tied to the group (collectivism)
Sympathic Nervous System
associated with the inhibition of smooth muscles

*it would cause relaxation of the bronchioles
Object Constancy
the child develops a permanent sense of self and object
Ego Defensive Functions
resolves conflicts. Similar to ego functions of Freud.
Ego Autonomous Functions
adpative functions such as speech, learning, memory, and perception.

represents the "conflict free eho sphere".
Program Evaluation
Process used to determine whether a particular change effort was worthwhile.

Evaluations are classified as:
1) Formative (monitoring)
or
2) Summative (impact)

In social work, the primary focus is on formative.
The Contract
an agreement entered into by both client and therapist to pursue specific changes that the client desires. Unhealthy childhood experiences could damage the Adult or Parent ego states, which would bring discomfort to an individual and/or others in a variety of forms, including many types of mental illness.

Associated with TA and Eric Berne
Explain Avoidant Behavior
Kids avoid making new friends or strangers to an extent that it interferes w/ development of peer relationships & social fxning.
Name the "neurovegatative" or "classic" symptoms of depression.
Changes in appetite & weight
Sleep disturbance
Fatigue
Decrease in energy
Decrease in sexual desire/fxn
What type of drug is Neurontin? What disorder is it used to treat?
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
What type of drug is Tegretol? What disorder is it used to treat?
Carbamazepine
Anticonvulsant
Bipolar Disorder
Describe Autism symptoms, including age of diagnosis.
Pervasive DD.
Onset before age 3.
Failure to dev. relatedness to parents & others.
As infants- no social smile, avoid eye contact, no cuddle.
Kids- fail to dev. normal language & may use non-verbal
Possible Echolalia.
Activities are rigid, repetitive, w/o variety.
Over/under response to sensory stimuli.
Briefly described the Conventional level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development.
Early Adolescence
3. Good boy/girl orientation
4. Obeys laws/obligations/duties & Rules are rules; avoid guilt
List the needs in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs from lower to higher level.
Physiological
Safety
Love & Belonging
Esteem
Self-Actualization
Describe the Permissive parenting style.
Lax
Few demands
Permit free expression
Don't monitor activities
Rarely exert firm control over behavior
Anxiety is not the most likely factor in the etiology
of male erectile disorder, instead you would
suspect...
Psychological cause
Symbiotic Phase
*Stage 2 - Mahler's stages of dev.
*Occurs if the infants needs were met in the normal austism phase.
*Occurs from the 2nd to 8th mo. of life
*infant is fused with mother and doesn't differentiate between "I" and "not I".
*Confusion of self and other
*over time, comes to see diff. between pleasure/pain of her experiences with others
Stress Inoculation
A CB technique that consists of three phases:

1) education - help client understand his responses in stressful times
2)Skill acquisition - help client acquire & rehearse coping skills

3) application - have client apply the skills
Fromm's focus/Neo-Freudian
focused on the impact of the structure and dynamics of society on personality development
"Partial" remission
one or more of the diagnostic criteria for substance dep. are still met but the full criteria are no longer met.
Holmes and Rahe's Scale
*measures the severity of psychosocial stressors
*aka life events scale/social readjustment scale
*highest stressor, death of a spouse/child, then divorce, then marital separation, imprisonment, personal injury...
*includes over 40 life changes.
central nervous system
the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.
Briefly explain Erikson's seventh stage: Generativity vs Self-Absorption.
Adulthood
-grows out of the intimacies of adulthood
-interest in establishin & guiding the next generation
-lack of generativity = self-absorption, stagnation, & personal impoverishment
What is the time frame for a diagnosis of Brief Psychotic Disorder?
<1 month
Behavioral therapist tells client with anxiety
disorder to engage in anxiety-arousing behavior,
what is the goal?
NEUTRALIZE anticipatory anxiety that is the real
source of the client's problem
Which of the following is the least advisable goal to recommend to your 37 yr old client with dysthymic d/o?
a) reduce irritability
b) develop realistic concern over physical health
c) reduce anxiety
d) decrease activity level
decrease activity level
Marlatt's Relapse Prevention Model
A CB theoretical model that emphasizes the role of cognitions (especially attributions) and the situational factors that precede relapse.
*abstinence violation effect
*successful recovery from relapse is associated with blaming external factors rather than internal
What is the cause of Delirium?
General medical condition or substance use or both.
Usually a medical emergency
What is this psychological test...Draw-A Person Test?
Provides info. about a child's self image.
What does the "Conscious" hold?
Mental activities of which we are fully aware.
To reduce potential threats on a research design of
internal validity the investigator will be concerned
with
maturation, history, and statistical regression
Your client is a 37 yr old M who has avoided air travel since the 9/11/01 terrorist attack. He says that air travel is much too dangerous because terrorists have relativey easy access to airplanes and because the potential damage and publicity value is so
fear
How are beginning social workers most commonly supervised?
Using a teaching model...live supervision. observing a session in progress
The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, second edition (Vineland II)
designed to evaluate personal and social skills of individuals with mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, brain injury, or dementia. Also assists in the development of educational and tx plans.

*used for individuals from birth to age 90.
Hierarchy of Defense Mechanisms
Begins with least adaptive DMs to the higher functioning "mature" DMs:

1) Psychotic DM
2) Immature DM
3) Neurotic DM
4) Mature DM
What is the main drug used to treat Bipolar Disorder?
Lithium (a mood stabilizer)
What are some Manic symptoms seen in Bipolar Disorder?
Inflated self-esteem
Decrease need for sleep/increased energy
Loud/rapid speech
Abrubt change of topic
Distractibility
Restless
Increased sociality
Disorganize, flamboyant, bizarre activities
Name 4 disorders that by definition are rxns.
1. PTSD
2. Acute Stress Disorder
3. Adjustment Disorder
4. Bereavement
In terms of interpersonal relationships, a person
with schizotypal personality disorder is most...
to express unhappiness about a lack of relationship
but to act in ways that suggest a lack of interest in
intimate contacts.
When taking a Psychodynamic approach to therapy, with a Self Psychology emphasis, you should provide an anxious, adult client with...
a) an opportunity to develop an adequate selfobject by nonjudgementally empathizing with the client's affective experienc
an opportunity to develop an adequate selfobject by nonjudgementally empathizing with the client's affective experience
Crises due to cultural values/social factors
come from factors related to race, gender, age. e.g, crises arising from aberrant behavior of others like crime, infidelity, incest, or residential relocation
What are the properties of the Superego?
Uses internal and external rewards or punishments to control and regulate id impulses.
What must be done when a Native American child is being placed in foster care or adopted?
Contact the administrative office of the child's tribe. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 give jurisdiction to tribal authorities.
When a SW and a client are of different racial backgrounds, what is the MOST important factor in determining the success of treatment by the SW?
a. the SW ability to identify with the client
b. the client's ability to experience transference toward the SW
the SW awareness of self
Erickson's 8 Stages of Man
(T)ina (A)sked the 4 (Is) to got to (I)celand...

Trust v.s Mistrust (0-1)
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-2)
Initiative vs. Guilt (2-6)
Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
Identity vs. role confusion (13-18)
Intimacy vs. Self-absorbtion (19-39)
Generativity vs. stagnation (40-65)
Integrity vs. Despair (65-death)

*coincides w/ freud's psychosexual stages
What are the age specific criteria for a diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder?
> 18 years
Symptoms present < 15 years
(<18 = Conduct Disorder)
While assessing a 10 yr. old, you rule out an
Oppositional Defiant Disorder diagnosis when you
find out that he...
Stealing money out of classmates' bookbags
(rights of others & social rules are violated)
Your new client tells you that she has experienced a serious trauma involving a violent assault. In order to reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD you and the client should use a crisis intervention approach in which you...
a) focus on disclosing the e
focus on disclosing the events, explore troubling reactions, identifying coping strategies
What are the 6 types of social power according to social psychologists?
*associated with French and Raven

1) Coercive
2) Expert
3) Reward
4) Referent
5) Legitimate
6) Informational

(C)andy (E)njoys (R)ich (R)occo because he's (Loaded) and (I)talian
What is required for a diagnosis of ADHD?
Symptoms must occur in at least 2 different settings/situations. Symptoms can increase during stress or decrease in a strictly controlled or novel situation.
Your client is a person of about your age who appears to feel somewhat attracted to you. The client responds to your warmth and acceptance as if it were an attempt at seduction. You should...
a) explore the client's history of sexual abuse or harassment b
comment on how the thrapy relationship is an intimate relationship and distinguish it from other intimate relationships
Why is a family map used in structural family therapy?
to facilitate the diagnosis of the family
Your new client is a 26 yr. old carpenter who is troubled by depression. In order to determine whether or not he has a major depressive d/o vs dysthymia, you will need to find out..
a) whether or not he experiences vegetative symptoms of depression
b) whe
if he is depressed most of the day nearly every day.
Affective Disorders
Depression
Dysthymia
Mania
HypoMania
Psychotic Disorders
(BaDaSSeSS)
(BaDaSSeSS)

Brief Psychotic Disorder
Delusional Disorder
Schizoaffective Disorder
Schizophrenia
Schizophreniform
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Ratio Scale
*most mathematically sophisticated
*absolute zero means complete absent of characteristic being measured.
*can multiply and divide ratio scores
*determines how much more or less of a characteristic one subject has compared to another.
*
HS
abbreviation for "bedtime" in medication instructions
Product Data
emphasizes "output variables" or the outcome of program services. Also called summative data.
What condition can Hypothyroidism mimic?
Depression
Strokes
The recognition, attention or responsiveness that one person gives another. Strokes can be positive (nicknamed "warm fuzzies") or negative ("cold pricklies"). A key idea is that people hunger for recognition, and that lacking positive strokes, will seek whatever kind they can, even if it is recognition of a negative kind. We test out as children what strategies and behaviours seem to get us strokes, of whatever kind we can get.
Impulse Control Disorders
Intermittent Explosive Disorder

Kleptomania

Pathological Gambling

Pyromania

Trichotillomania (pull out hair)
QID
abbreviation for "four times daily"
respondeat superior doctrine
"vicarious liability" defines legal liability of supervisors for the job related actions of their supervisees. Both held accountable.
At what ages does Freud's "Oral" psychosexual stage occur?
0-1
What type of drug is Marplan?
Isocarboxazid
MAOI
Oppositional Disorder
Kids display aggressiveness by patterns of obsinate but generally passive behavior. Appear to conform, but provoke adults/other kids. Use negativism, stubborness, dawdling, procrastination to show aggression.
Patient: Child
Symptoms: Bizarre behavior, impaired communication, impaired social interaction, & restricted repertoire of activities & interests w/o delusions or hallucinations.
Possible Autistic Disorder
Respondent behaviors
bxs automatically stimulated by certain stimuli
negative reinforcement
application of operant conditioning. performance of a bx increases because it is followed by termination (removal) of an unpleasant stimulus.
Self-Representation
A mental image of self.
*associated with Object Relations.
MDMA
Ecstasy, a hallucinogenic. may induce dreamy state, and delusions, hallucinations
Catharsis
emotional release resulting from the recall of unconscious material. Paves the way for insight
Medicaid
provides payment for medical and hospital services to indivs. who cant afford them.

uses pts financial resources and health factors to determine eligibility
Mimemis
Adopting the family's affective and behavioral style
Echolalia
Meaningless repetition of what is said by others.
Often seen in those with Autism
What type of drug is Zoloft?
Sertraline
SSRI
2nd gen
Describe Rhett's Disorder.
Females only
Development of persistent & progressive developmental regression after a period of normal development.
Onset prior to age 4- usually 1-2 yrs of age.
Stereotypic hand movements
Probs w/coordination of gait & trunk movement
Profound mental retardation
Severe expressive & receptive language development
When someone with Factitious disorder produces physical symptoms the disorder is called...
Munchausen Syndrome
Transactional Analysis
(TA)
A neo-freudian theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and personal change. Developed by Eric Berne.

Believes each person has validity, importance, equality of respect.

The aims of change under TA are autonomy (freedom from childhood script), spontaneity, intimacy, problem solving as opposed to avoidance or passivity, cure as an ideal rather than merely 'making progress', learning new choices.

Associated with the contract, life (or childhood) script, games, strokes, the three ego states (PAC model)
Sullivan's focus/Neo-Freudian
*focused on the importance of relationships throughout the lifespan
*recognized the role of cognitive factors in personality dev.
*distinguished 3 modes of cognitive experience: prototaxic, parataxic, syntaxic
*feels maladaptive bx is attributable to parataxic distortions
Crisis Treatment Techniques
Sustainment
Direct Influence
Person-Situation Reflection
Dynamic and Developmental Understanding
Crisis Treatment Techniques
San Diego Police Department (SDPD)
Referential Delusion
ind. believes that passages from books, newspapers, or other messages as specifically directed at him or her
Regression
A defense mechanism. Defined as a retreat to an earlier stage of development.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)
a life-threatening neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs. It generally presents with muscle rigidity, fever, autonomic instability and cognitive changes such as delirium, and is associated with elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK). Treatment is generally supportive.

To avoid a fatal outcome, medication must be stopped immediately when symptoms are noticed.
ADDICTeD
An acronym to remember symptoms of Substance dependence (addiction disorder)

Activities are given up or reduced
Dependence, physical: tolerance
Dependence, physical: withdrawal
Intrapersonal (Internal)
consequences, physical or
psychological
Can’t cut down or control use
Time-consuming
Duration or amount of use is greater
than intended
CAGE
An acronym to remember symptoms of Alcohol abuse (Addiction Disorder)

Have you ever felt you should
CUT DOWN your drinking?
Have people ANNOYED you
by criticizing your drinking?
Have you ever felt bad or
GUILTY about your drinking?
Have you ever had a drink first
thing in the morning to steady
your nerves or get rid of a
hangover (EYE-OPENER)?
The Right Environment
*associated with Rogers
*consists of three facilitative conditions: (1) accurate empathic understanding (2) unconditional positive regard (3) genuineness (congruence)

acronym...GUA
Adler's Individual Psychology
*originally followed Freud, but disagreed with some assumptions
*adopted a telelogical approach
*each person has a set of motives, traits, values, interest, etc.
*any individual can be fully understood only by seeing with her eyes and listening with her ears.
*idiographic approach to study of personality
GRANDIOSE
An acronym to remember symptoms of Narcissistic personality disorder

Grandiose
Requires attention
Arrogant
Need to be special
Dreams of success and power
Interpersonally exploitative
Others (unable to recognize
feelings/needs of)
Sense of entitlement
Envious
Co-optation
focuses on eliminating opposition to a cause, plan, or organization by assimilating into the group favoring the plan, cause, or org.

"if u can't beat em, co-opt them!"

co-opting inds = informal
co-opting org. groups = formal
DISTANT
An acronym to remember symptoms of Schizoid personality disorder

Detached or flattened affect
Indifferent to criticism or praise
Sexual experiences of little interest
Tasks done solitarily
Absence of close friends
Neither desires nor enjoys
close relationships
Takes pleasure in few activities
acetylcholine
the acetic acid ester of choline, C7H17NO3, released and hydrolyzed during nerve conduction and causing muscle action by transmitting nerve impulses across synapses.
What type of drug is Desyrel?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What type of drug is Serzone?
2nd Generation Antidepressant
What causes Endogenous Depression?
Depression caused by biochemical imbalance rather than a psychosocial stressor or external factor.
What class of drugs are prescribed for hyperactivity in kids?
Psychostimulants
Mistaken Style of life
characterized by goals reflecting self-centeredness, competitiveness, and striving for personal power.

*associated with Alder
Primary Process Thinking
Thinking that involves forming a dream, hallucination, or other mental image of an object that would satisfy the needs of the id
IMPULSIVE
An acronym to remember the symptoms of Borderline personality disorder

Impulsive
Moodiness
Paranoia or dissociation under stress
Unstable self-image
Labile intense relationships
Suicidal gestures
Inappropriate anger
Vulnerability to abandonment
Emptiness (feelings of)
DESPAIRER
An acronym to remember the symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder


Disturbance of identity
Emotionally labile
Suicidal behavior
Paranoia or dissociation
Abandonment (fear of)
Impulsive
Relationships unstable
Emptiness (feelings of)
Rage (inappropriate)
What is most associated with a positive outcome in therapy?
Therapeutic Alliance
Bipolar I
symptoms of depression and then mania. One or more manic or mixed episodes, usually, but not always, accompanied by a hx of major depressive episodes.
e.g. client has been suffering"on and off for about a year w/ depression and suddenly develops symptoms of mania"
The Conners Rating Scale-Revised
identifies hyperactivity and other behavioral problems in children age 3 to 17. Evaluates problem bx by obtaining reports from teachers and parents. For adolescents, the instrument also includes a self-report scale.
Peripheral Nervous System
includes autonomic and somatic nervous systems
Nonlinguistic Programming
how people perceive and understand the world
*sensory representations for self-expression and learning

"i see", "I hear you"
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates the activities of the visceral muscles and glands
*associated with involuntary movements
*consists of parasympathic and sympathic branches
Situational Crises
involve a non anticipated event beyond a person's control.

They can arise from 1)physical or personal (disability, diagnosis of serious illness), 2) social or interpersonal (e.g. death of family member), 3) material or environmental (natural disaster)
When evaluating a treatment for children suffering from serious behavioral disorders, to overcome the ethical problems associated with the use of a wait-list control group. The best research design would be which of the following:
a. single subject
b. cro
a. single subject
When does PTSD occur?
At any age.
Following a psychologicall distressing event that is outside the range of usual human experience
Prodromal
Period of time before the onset of a serious illness during which there may be subtle symptoms.
EX: before the onset of a full-blown psychotic episode, a patient may manifest a somewhat guarded, suspicious & angry affect as well as disorganized behavior & thought processes
What type of drug is Ritalin? What is it typically used to treat?
Methylphenidate
Psychostimulant
Hyperactivity in Kids
What are the three levels of the mind?
Unconscious
Preconscious
Conscious
What are physiological needs?
Those that maintain the physical organism.
Biological needs- food, water, oxygen, body temp, medical care.
W/O these they will die
What is included on Axis I?
Clinical syndromes
V Codes
Developmental Disorders
**May be more than one
Your client has shared with you a long history of conflict with her husband. Recently, however, the sessions have focused on her son who is currently in his first yr of high school. Although it appears that her son has adjusted to the transition successfu
triangulation
Psychological Birth
Occurs during the first three years of life. During these years the core of the child’s personality is formed.

Related to Object Relations
Margeret Mahler
Key figure in the development of the Object Relations approach. She emphasized the processes by which an infant assumes her own physical and psychological identity.
Lifestyle Investigation
Used to identify the nature of a client's style of life. Obtain info about the client's family constellation, fictional (hidden) goals, "basic mistakes" (distorted beliefs), and earliest memories.
*lifestyle of person fixed by age 6?
*associated with Adler
Syntaxic Mode
*emerges at end of 1st yr of life
*characterized by logical, sequential, internally-consistent, and modifiable thinking.

*associated with neo-freudian, Sullivan
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Cannot be diagnosed to someone under the age of 18. An adolescent must be given conduct dx diagnoses
Rett's Disorder/Syndrome
a deceleration of the rate of head growth and small hands and feet. Head grows smaller, loses skills already learned. Stereotypic, repetitive hand movements such as mouthing or wringing are also noted. Symptoms of the disorder include cognitive impairment and problems with socialization, the latter during the regression period. Socialization typically improves by the time they enter school. Usually caused (95% or more) by a de novo mutation in the child (so it is NOT inherited from either parent.

Can look like autism and cerebral palsy. Symptoms include:
* screaming fits
* panic attack
* inconsolable crying
* avoidance of eye contact
* lack of social/emotional reciprocity
* general lack of interest
* markedly impaired use of nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction
* loss of speech
* Balance and coordination problems, including losing the ability to walk in many cases
The person in situation system
associated with the psychosocial model
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT)
Has 4 priorities of behavioral change:

1) decrease suicidal bxs/ideation
2) decrease bxs that interfere w/ tx
3) - bx that interferes w/ quality of life
4) increase coping and relational skills
DIG FAST
An acronym to remember the symptoms of Mania

Distractibility
Indiscretion
Grandiosity
Flight of ideas
Activity increase
Sleep deficit
Talkativeness
Life Instincts (EROS)
Drive for self preservation and sexual gratification
What type of drug is Cylert? What is it typically used to treat?
Pemoline
Psychostimulant
Hyperactivity in Kids
Explain Margaret Mahler's "Object Constancy" phase in object relations theory
24-38 mths = Consolidation of individuality & object constancy.
-substitute of reliable internal image during absence; inception of unified self-image
What is included on Axis V?
GAF- Global Assessment of Functioning.
**No impairment in fxn due to physical/environmental limitations.
What two main classes of drugs are used to Tx GAD?
Benzodiazepines
Anxiolytic Drugs(Minor Tranqs)
Antipsychotics
Buspirone(Buspar)
You will be using a cognitive restructuring approach to help your cient, Mr G, a 25 yr old man, eliminate or reduce his generalized anxierty. In using this approach you should...
a) explore what the client believes about the orgins of his anxiety
b) ident
identify the client's misinterpretations which lead to the anxiety.
Process of Analysis
The way in which the analysis' targets are analyzed. Uses a combo of:

*clarification
*confrontation
*interpretation
*working through
(WICCa)
Psychotic Disorders (timelines for symptoms to dx)
Brief Psychotic (1 day-1 mo)
Schizo somatoform (1mo-6mos)
Schizophrena - 6mos and on....
Why are Benzodiazepines used to Tx GAD over barbituates?
Safer
More effective
Less abuse potential
When is Stranger Anxiety the strongest?
6-8 months (up to 14 months)
What does Bipolar Disorder look like?
Distinct period of mood elevation usually followed by a major depressive episode.
Manic episodes began suddenly & escalate.
Possible rapid shifts from elevated mood-anger-depression.
Possible suicidal thoughts
The primary difference between PTSD &
Adjustment Disorder is that in the former...
The symptoms are usually more severe
Mr. and Mrs J., a couple in their late 60's, seek help because of recent changes in Mr. J's behavior. According to his wife he started having problems of immediate recall 3 yrs ago just before his 66th birthday. Nothing appeared to change until last yr. w
vascualr dementia
Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy
(RET/REBT)
Developed by Albert Ellis. One of 1st CB theory therapies.

Views behavior as a chain of events - A-B-C where A is the external event to which the individual is exposed; B is the belief that the individual has about A, and C is the emotion or behavior that results from B. An emotional response to an external event is due to beliefs about the event rather than the event itself. Neurosis is caused by repetition of irrational beliefs.

Techniques used: modeling, behavior rehearsal, problem-solving, in-vivo desensitization, rational emotive imagery, and cognitive homework assignments. Works well with anxiety disorders/phobias
External Locus of Control
Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events.

For example, those with a strong external locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck, or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously; hence, they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades.
Assessment of a crisis
Focus of assessment should be on the immediate problem. No time or need to explore client's past hx in great depth. See IIE-DI (I Die). Can also include:
-recent medical/psych hx
-assess MH status
-assess for substance abuse
-assess for suicide risk
-assess for danger to others
An African American family presents for family therapy. From a systems perspective, it would be most advisible to:
a. focus on multi generational issues.
b. see each family member individually.
c. use behavorial techniques.
d. educate the family members a
a. focus on multi generational issues.
What symptoms might be seen in older children with Major Depressive Episode?
Sulky
Refuse cooperation in family & social activity
School trouble
Use of substances
Less attention to appearance
Negative
Feeling misunderstood
Restless
Grouchy
Aggressive
Explain Overanxious Disorder and how it may be expressed
Kids have diffuse fears & worries w/ no specific cause. Worry excessively about many things.
Anxiety may be expressed as headaches, respiratory distress, etc.
In developing a diagnostic formulation for a 27 yr. old client who appears to be in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia, the mental status exam is useful in determining..
a) the cause of the individual's symptoms
b) the factors which trigger the onset of
the nature of the individual's mental state at a point in time
Assumptions of Psychodynamic Theorists
1) They view human bx as motivated by unconscious processes
2) They regard early development as having a profound affect on adult functioning
3) They propose that there are general (universal) principals that explain personality development & behavior
4) They consider insight into unconscious processes to be a key component of psychotherapy.
Assumptions of Psychodynamic Theorists
A "general" and a "principle" walk into a bar talking about "personality development and behavior". They are trying to gain "insight" into why there is an "unconscious" "adult" following them.
What is the best solution to a child refusing to go to school due to parent-child attachment issues?
Send the child to school
If you are using the classic DBT model with a borderline personality disorder client, you would provide and/or arrange for the client to receive
a) an eclectic combination of interventions involving weelky group and individuals sessions over a 1 yr period
an electric combination of interventions involving weekly group and individuals sessions over a 1 yr. period.
Acute stress disorder vs. PTSD
ASD - symptoms start within 4 weeks of the trauma & last for at least 2 days but no longer than a month.

If symptoms persist beyond 4 weeks (1 month) then it is PTSD.

"a few weeks" of symptoms would be ASD
If symptoms are indicative of both a more pervasive disorder (i.e. Schizophrenia) & a less pervasive disorder (i.e. Dysthymia) how do you diagnose?
Only the more pervasive disorder is diagnosed if both its defining symptoms & associated symptoms are present.
You are providing therapy, using a Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy approach, with a recently divorced 35 yr old M whose ego functioning is generally weak. He has been having difficulty making decisions and managing a pervasive sense of inadequacy and guilt s
free up psychic energy to better cope with his challenges in the real world
What is drug of choice to treat bipolar disorder?
Lithium. it reduces manic symptoms and represses mood swings,

Carbemezapine is used for pts with bipolar II disorder or when lithium was ineffective or pt doesnt like lithium
What must be done BEFORE making a psychiatric diagnosis?
Rule out a medical cause.
When a substance or general medical cond. can account for the symptoms it preempts the diagnosis of any other disorder that could produce the symptoms.
An 11 yr. old client with conduct d/o has been physically abused and lacks a sense of empathy for others whom he has abused. He also lacks a sense of safety and security and is socially isolated. In order to help the child develop a greater sense of emapt
help the client become conscious of, and verbalize, what it was like to be victamized himself.
What must be done prior to making a psychiatric diagnosis?
Rule out a medical cause for the symptoms.
When is the only time a person can be INVOLUNTARILY committed?
If they are a harm to themself or others.
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