CTEL 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
discourse structures
preconceived, oversimplified generalization abt thnic religious group, race, gender
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (social language)SDAIE
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
unstressed, barely pronounced (toneless) neutral vowel (e.g. "a" in about; "e" in taken)
social-interactionist theories
meaningful opportunitiesto negotiate meaning with others and to construct comprehensible output in the target language
quadrant B
meaningful but cognitively demanding
CELDT test
California English Language Development Test- to identify new students who are ELL, determine their level of proficiency, and assess their progress.- student score on this test corresponds to the California ELD standards- measures 4 language domains: listening, speaking, reading, and writing- given w/in 30 days of enrollment
indiv. sounds that form speech
excessive pride in my own heritage/culture
refers to the origin, classification, characteristics of a people
structure of language beyond sentence level (connection of sentences, information organized oral or written) "once upon a time..."
language variation
dialects, historical, social, and academic
the "building blocks of meaning" contained in each word; ex: "Abolitionist" = aboli + tion + ist + s; can be one or multi-syllabic
Limited English Proficient / Fluent English Proficient
2 letters representing single phoneme ("ch")
study of the origins of words
intragroup discrim
first generation vs 2nd or later
happens within ONE PERSON when they can manage equally well between both cultures. Switch back and forth easily.
sends notice of and holds regular meetings to formulate and respond to parents' recommendations
key terms for CTEL 1
"meaningful""audience and purpose""promote development""scaffolding"

The following are found in which structure of language:
rules that govern correctness of a sentence
parts of speech
pattern relations that govern the way words in a sentence come together
simple to complex sentences
rules need to be explicitly taught beginning at the intermediate level
must be practiced orally and in written form

the study of the meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases and sentences
the basic building blocks of meaning units in a language; the smallest unit for meaning, 2 types of morphemes: bound and free morphemes such as "er in player or play" respectively
types of formative assessment
teacher questioningfeedback through gradingpeer assessmentself-assessmentformative use of summative assessment
study of parts of words (smallest units of meaning)- suffixes, prefixes, etc.
words that sound alike (to, two, too)
2 different vowel sounds produced when tongue moves from one vowel sound to another vowel in the same syllable (e.g. mouse, join)
Sociolinguistic Competence
refers to ones proficiency in recoginizing the apprpriate language and non verbal communication for a specific context.
avoiding relativism
No culture's values, ethics, or morals as a whole may be judged as inherently superior or inferior to another's
advises the school site council on the development of the Single School Plan for Student Achievement
Free morphemes
Free = independent, can stand alone  (elephant, in, straw)
communicative competence
ability to use appropriate language in any given setting
acadamic language variation
content specific, general academic and cross-curricular, terms, jargon
How can phonology inhibit communication?
Incorrect pronounciation inhibits clearity; EL maynot be able to differentiate certain in English sound if it doesnot exist in his L1; EL may not be able to identify a question being produced from stressing the intonation patterns of a statement
borrowed words
words that English has adopted from other cultures/languages
Bilingual Education Models -- ELD
English Language Development1. Pull-Out ELD2. ELD Class Period3. Content-Based ELD4. Sheltered Instruction (SDAIE)
language "register"
diff. styles of language for diff. purposes:- formal vs. informal- passive vs. direct
context clues
the use of information surrounding an unknown word or group of words to identify the unknown word.
Quadrant C
Quadrant C contains written notes and directions,
conversations; activities in this quadrant require a higher level of comprehension
comprehensible input
when a student is able to totally understand the material in a meaningful and emotional way and is able to relay that knowledge in a meaningful way
Krashen's acquisistion-learning hepothesis
2 indepdent systems of second language performance; acquisition piece is a subconscious process similar to how children acquire their L1; learning piece is the formal learning of language, conscious knowledge of the language and rules
1975 "Lau Remedies"
guidelines that told districts how to identify and evaluate children w/ limited English skills, what instructional treatments to use, when to transfer students to all-English classes, and what professional standards teachers needed to meet.
Some examples of American/Western gestures/signs that mean something totally different in other cultures
- thumbs up- 'OK' signothers?
syntactic clues
hints based on syntax that help a reader decode and comprehend a text.
Language Experience Approach
an approach learning language that is rooted in student experience; employs various strategies to get students to write and tell their "stories" (writing, speaking, etc.); wholistic, constructivist, contextualized;
Synthesizing Language Rules
The term describes the processing of learning parts
language or language rules and then combining them to enhance understanding
of the language as a whole. Synthesizing includes invoking prior knowledge and
adding it to the newly acquired knowledge, thus enhancing understanding of the
new information.

Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language

touching, styles (registers), dialect, figures of speech, silence

can cause misunderstandings (head patting)
student, teacher, principal all different registers
idioms are hard for EL learners
everything is interpreted differently
ice-berg graphic organizer
BICS on the surface, CALP under the surface and CUP under CALP, the idea is to ensure student delopment is proportional in both, CUP may grow faster
Reading Strategy #1: Transferring Literacy from L1 to L2
certain concepts and skills transfer to L2, such as: knowledge of text structure; use of cues to predict meaning; use of semantic and syntactic knowledge
formative vs. summative assessment
formative - assessment done before the summative (final) assessment to check progress of student and make adjustments to instruction
Culturally Responsive Teaching -- definition/values
1. making learning more appropriate and effective for ELL2. validating/incorporating their culture and backgrounds3. using cultural knowledge and experiences to help connect kids to curriculum
irregular sight words
"of" (it's not pronounced like it looks)
SDAIE Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English
Special teaching strategies for EL learners that make use of graphic organizers, visuals, manipulatives, real objects and
materials (e.g. a real cash register or a real kitchen) and interactive
teaching/group learning.
Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language
gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, distance between speakers (proxemics)
influenced by culture
can be offensive to other cultures
even smiling is culturally different
lack of eye contact can show respect
relationship b/w phoneme and grapheme
sometimes a phoneme (sound) has many graphemes (letters to denote it); AND, sometimes many phonemes can come from one grapheme.
Phonemic Awareness Tasks: segmentation
student identifies each sound heard in a word
Castaneda v. Pickard (1981)
key ruling: when ready to re-classify students from EL to fluency, cannot use one standard of proficiency; must take different achievements into account; there must be a pedagogically sound plan for LEP students;
Identification Procedures for English Learners
- the home-language survey (HLS)- interviews- student takes English Language Proficiency Test (ELPT)- letter is sent to parents w/ the results
Culturally Responsive Teaching -- key instructional components
1. content goals w/in cultural context2. cooperative environment3. positive classroom climate4. strong student-teacher relationship5. culturally responsive techniques6. authentic performance assessments
Williams v. State of California (2004)
state must provide equal access to education by providing: adequate facilities, credentialed teachers, sufficient instructional materials;
Problems with the coginitive view theory
Problems with this theory occur when L2 learners make assumptions about L2 and the
assumptions are wrong, but are difficult to test or correct.
Reading Strategy #2: the 7 Instructional Procedures
1. environmental print - classroom is full of print2. meaning based - "from known to unknown"3. a silent period - ???4. low-anxiety environment5. motivating activities6. integration of structure and function7. integration of content and literacy
speech functions (5 types of speech to perform tasks)
1. borrowing ?2. requesting3. demanding4. inviting5. questioning
Listening Strategy #2: Listening to Understand
an example would be asking students to listen and then write a correct response or somehow demonstrate comprehension; another successful method of this: TPR
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