CTEL 3 Flashcards

Second language acquisition
Terms Definitions
legal status
refugee/immigrant/undocumented
discourse competence
acronyms
CIA, NASA etc.
ELAC
English Learner Advisory Committee
Cummins Quadrant
cognitively demanding?cognitively undemanding?context embedded?context reduced?
Pluralism
coexistence of multicultural traditions within a single society; members of diverse cultural groups have equal opportunities for success, where cultural similarities and differences are valued.
intergroup
differences among individuals from different cultural backgrounds
Krashen
acquisition vs learning?monitor - natural orderinput = i+1low affective filter reduces level of anxiety
Syntax
grammatical relationship between words and phrases within sentences. (word order, word agreement)
Enculturation
process through which individuals learn the patterns of their own culture.
NCLB
No Child Left Behind Act
CUP
common underlying proficiencyL2 & L1 shared foundation
key terms for CTEL 3
"affective filter""adapt""heterogenerous group""views""approaches to learning""culturally inclusive""comfortable"
scaffolding
dividing the task into smaller, manageable subcomponents and sensitively withdrawing assistance when it is no longer required
Structure of Language
includes: phonology morphology syntax semantics register
bound morphemes
cannot stand alone (prefixes, suffixes)  
Cummin's quadrants
4 quandrants with cognitively undemanding at the top and demanding at the bottom, while context-embedded materials locate on the left and context-reduced on the right
TPR
a listening to understand strategy called Total Physical Response which emphasizes body movement to aid understanding; teacher says and then models the concept in a physical action.
SEI program
Structured English Immersion- post Prop 227 approach (backlash against BL progams- one year w/ ESL trained teachers- goal: quick transition out
strategies for modifying materials to meet needs of EL
strategies for involving families and community
phases of acculturation
honeymoon, culture shock, adaptation, acceptance
affective filter
raise the self-esteem of english learners and fcilitate their acquisition f English
DLAC
develops a district master plan for educational programs/services for ELs
semantics
The following are found in which structure of language:


meaning
individual words and longer units (phrases and sentences)
sentence frames
DIFFICULTIES: multiple meaning words, false cognates, idioms language ambiguities
TEACH:  what transfers
BE AWARE: of what does not transfer
8 inflectional morphemes
ing, ed, s(plural), s(possessive), s(subj-verb agreement) en, er, est
lexical morpheme
free morpheme; compound morhpeme such as "bed time"
dialect variation
not just accents, but pronunciation and vocabulary also such as soda=pop and couch=daveneau
pragmatics
the study of communication in social context; includes three major communication skills: using language for diff. funtions; adapting lang. to the situation; following rules of conversation.
blends
words formed from parts of two different words (ex: smog, stagflation, brunch)
Biculturalism
being able to function successfully in two cultures
4 phases of language acquisition
1. silent/receptive/preproduction phase2. early production phase (1-2word phrases)3. speech emergence - simple sentences4. intermediate language proficiency - longer, more complex sentences
Quadrant B
Quadrant B is
math, science, visual projects and activities tied to content. A medium level of
comprehension is required.
define acculturation
adapt to second culture without giving up first culture. this should be the primary goal of education.
assimilation
A process in which an individual or group ompletely takes on the traits of another culture, leaving hehind the original cultural identity and being completely absorbed into the new cultural tradition
culture
the sum total of ways of living, including values, beliefs, esthetic standings, linguistic expressions, patterns of thinking, behavioral norms, and styles of communicaton, which a group of people has developed to assure its survival in a particular physical and human environment
morphology
study of the structure of words and the smallest meaningful units that comprise them
Krashen's monitor hypothesis
the monitor act as an editor
suffixes
bound morphemes that occur at the ends of words (ex: -able or -ism)
what pragmatics involves
things like: body language, intonation, stress, pitch, etc.
'receptive vs. productive' skills
receptive = listening and readingproductive = speaking and writing
Examples of Idioms
expressions like:- let's "touch base"- "you can take that to the bank"- "can you eyeball it"- use a little "elbow grease"- "you hit the nail on the head"
schemata (or schema)
one's prior knowledge or preconceived ideas; someone's mental categories; "schema-building" is an EL scaffolding technique
Quadrant D
Quadrant D (tied to academic success, incidentally) requires a high level of
comprehension and contains such things as test-taking, presentations, lecturing
and other abstract topic discussions and interactions.
cultural term for pragmatics
sociolinguistic factors = ____ in language ed terminology
cognitive factors
1. first major point is learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes; the pedigogical implication is embed learning of facts and skills with natural,special memory; the best practice for this piece is discrete language skills can be taught if embedded in real world activities2. the second major point to consider is at least 2 types of memories rote and spatial; the pedigological implication is that teaching includes novel experiences and taps into the spatial learning system; best practices include implementing acitivities associate with visual, aural, and kinesthetic abilities; always consider the various learning styles-dependend and independent or learning strategies (techniques)
constructivism contemporary theory
learner is viewed as an information constructor using their own objective reality; interact with others, social learning, problem based learning, scaffolding..
allophones
sounds in a language that do NOT make difference in meaning; ex: DOG, DAWG, DOUGH-G (regional pronunciation differences)
Bilingual Education Models -- Immersion Bilingual Education
provides academic and language instruction in two languages from K-12; the goal is proficiency in two languages; AKA 'additive bilingualism'; popular in Canada among middle-class in Quebec, etc.
Choral response
I think this is a technique to reinforce phonic awareness and vocab; teacher has student recite words like when I: "Oligopoly"
inflectional endings
sounds which are added to words to indicate tense, possession, number or comparison
Performance Based assessment
 The student completes a task using what he/she has
learned (often graded by rubric or checklist). Loke OCR
Transformative Approach
a theory that in order to learn one must be aware of his or her thoughts or feelings regarding the world around us. Lessons are designed to allow students to see things from others' perspectives. This enhances multicultural learning environment.
intonation patterns
rise at the end of a question, the rise and fall in pitch of the voice in speech
stages of acquisition of L1
babbling stage, holographic (one word such as dog), two-word stage ( car go) similar to beginning stage for EL, telegraphic (more than 2 words such as Katy built house) similar to early intermediate stage for EL
Listening Strategy #3: Listening for Communication
emphasizes the 'interactional' aspects of language
Engl. Language Proficiency Test
- not grade level specific- not associated w/ content- tests fluency of language- test 4 domains of language
Examples of "culturally supported traits" can impact educational process
1. cooperation vs. competition2. use of language3. verbal v. nonverbal communication4. role of silence5. discourse styles6. oral v. written language
Contrastive Analysis tool
a way to adjust instruction by first understanding how L1 and L2 are similar/different (e.g. what might be some transferable skills, phonemes that don't transfer, etc.)
positive/negative language transfer
positive: skills used in L1 that transfer to L2 acquisition (e.g. reading left to right; common phonemes)negative transfer: L1 skills that do not transfer to L2 (e.g., some phonemes, word-order -- syntax)
Reinforcement Theory of language aquisition
Suggest that children learn language based on their experience.For example, when a child says the wrong word and the adult corrects the child, the damonition helps the child remember the correct language. Problems with this theory include the observation that children with parents who have inciorrect grammar may still learn to speak with the correct grammar.
How can morphology inhibit communication?
misunderstanding the root can lead to false meaning; incorrect comprehension
Speaking Strategy #1: Opportunities For Discourse
giving students ample opportunities to talk to each other, express themselves, solve problems, play, develop relationships, etc.
Bilingual Education Models -- Maintenance Bilingual Education (MBE)
proficiency in both languages is goal; quick transition to mainstream classes is not the goal; mostly implemented at elementary grade level; AKA "late exit" programs; emphasis on fostering connection to heritage and culture
universal access vs. universal design
universal access = the concept of planning lessons to ALL students (even EL) can participate and benefituniversal design = "barrier free" design that helps ALL
ELD class vs. SDAIE class
ELD class/program -- students are LEARNING how to read, write, listen, speak in Academic English; Focus is on learning English SDAIE class -- students are USING academic English skills to learn content; focus is on learning CONTENT (but mindful of academic language development goals)
Title III of the NCLB Act of 2001
provides funding for language instruction programs for limited English proficient and immigrant students, provided these students "meet the same challenging State academic content and achievement standards as all students. . ."
5 social functions of language
1. to amuse (telling a joke), 2. to inform (newscast), 3. to control/command (sit down), 4. to persuade (selling a product), and 5. to apologize (I'm so sorry for bumping into you)
Serna v. Portales Municipal Schools (1972)
the first case in which the federal courts began to enforce Title VI of the Civil Rights Act; a federal judge ordered instruction in native language and culture as part of a desegregation plan.
What are some of the implications of syntactic rules?
students need to be exposed to different sentence patterns from simple to compound/complex both oral and written in order to acquire the patterns; they can be taught after the language acquisition process in order for students to monitor their development
synonyms vs. antonyms
same meaning vs. opposite meaninge.g. joy/happiness; good/bad
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