Directed Reading-Thinking Activity
Thinking aloud as one reads.
adequate yearly progress
mildly mentally retarded
Language Acquisition Device
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
native speakers up to age 3-4
English learners 6 mo. to 2 years
phonological: (precise pronunciation)
syntactical: (shorter sentences, less subordination)
semantic: more concrete, basic vocab
pragmatic: more frequent pauses, exaggerated stress and intonation
discourse: self-repetition, slower rate
Common Underlying Language Proficiency
Concept knowledge transfers across languages
Building up L1 pays off in L2
Additive v. subtractive bilingualism
L1 is an asset: concepts transfer, cognates, bilingual dictionary
Advancement Via Individual Determination: high school "untracking" to help low-achieving Ss get into college prep classes
Calif. Dept. of Ed.
computer-mediated communication: the role of computers in facilitiating virtual communication
separate underlying proficiency: proficiency in Eng. is separate from proficiency in a primary language
|Four Domains of Language||
Modeling (Think alouds, metacognition)
Contextualization (Thematic instruction)
Schema building (build on background knowledge)
Primary language support (Preview in L1, audio summaries, pair same L1 students, dual language programs, tech)
Use media, tech resources, and other visual supports: video, posters,pictures, bilingual dictionary
Formative and summative assessment and reteaching (use alternate ways for students to show what they know)
Model bridges while setting context and schema for metacognition, text representation, and primary language support
Thumbs up/thumbs down
Explain to your team in your L1
Point to object
Create a model
School district establish own reclassification criteria but must include:
Proficient on all CELDT subtests not lower than intermediate
Passing score on state achievement test
Teacher input (grades, write-ups, conferences)
|Stages of development||
Preproduction: Silent period, context clues are critical
Early production:1-3 word combos, recite simple poems or songs
Speech emergent: more complex/sentences with syntactical errors
Intermediate fluency: sustained conversation, some self-correction
Identification of sub-groups.
Has had side-effect of narrowing curriculum.
identify English Learners
Measure their English proficiency
Include EL's in state testing, including academic testing in grades 3-8
Must include EL's in AYP
Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives for ELL's must be set and measured and included in AYP.
Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: cognitive, social-affective and metacognitive strategies plus academic language
California Teacher of English Learners
Lang Assessment Scale measures oral-lang skills in Eng and Spanish
Emergency Immigrant Education Program, part of NCLB, provides assistance to dists whose enrollment at least 3% immigrants, or at least 500 Ss.
Equal Education Opportunities Act, guarantees schools will act to overcome lang barriers that impede equal participation
foreign language in elem school
National Assessment of Educational Progress
Either ___ or ____ Why?
Who, what, where, when, why, how?
Word analysis, Fluency, Systematic Vocabulary Development
Literary Response and Analysis
|Tips for error correction||
high frequency errors
errors that block meaning
How to correct:
Model back correct wording
Encourage peer editing
Make notes of errors and conduct group editing
Anticipate errors by previewing text
Provided citizenship for African Americans but also affected citizenship rights for all Americans.
National Clearinghouse for Eng Lang Acquisition
Bilingual Syntax Measure measures oral prof in Eng or Spanish grammatical structures & lang dominance
Meaningful linguistic unit, can be a word or part of a word.
Prefixes, individual words, contracted word forms, inflections
|Examples of Inclusion||
Cooperative learning that raises student's status
Encourage use of primary language
Modeling of other languages by teacher and other students
|Cataneda v. Pickard||
Set standards for EL programs:
Must have a sound plan.
Must have the staff to carry out the plan.
Must evaluate how well the plan works.
Didn't require this but did require that "appropriate action to overcome language barriers" be taken.
In a fully phonemic orthography, a grapheme corresponds to one phoneme. However this is very much the exception. In spelling systems that are to some extent non-phonemic, such as in English, multiple graphemes may represent a single phoneme. These are called digraphs (two graphemes for a single phoneme) and trigraphs (three graphemes). For example, the word ship contains four graphemes (s, h, i, and p) but only three phonemes, because sh is a digraph. Conversely, a single grapheme can represent multiple phonemes, or no phonemes at all in the case of 'silent' letters: the English word "box" has three graphemes, but four phonemes: /ˈbɒks/.
Furthermore, a particular grapheme can represent different phonemes on different occasions, and vice versa. For instance in English the sound /f/ can be represented by 'F', 'f', 'ff', 'FF', 'ph', 'PH', 'Ph', 'gh', 'GH', and in some place names of Welsh origin by 'Ff'; while the grapheme 'f' can also represent the phoneme /v/ (as in the word of).
Electricity, electrician, electric uses c to represent: s, sh, k
|dialect v. language||
80% or more commonality=dialect
less than 80% commonality=language
Test of Eng as a Foreign Language
|Internal Elements of Culture: Non-verbal communication||
|Purpose of SDAIE||
1. Learn content standards
2. Improve language skills as a byproduct
|Activating prior knowledge||
Use culturally familiar examples to build concept background
Use primary language
Build on what students already know
|Principles of Universal Design||
In Building Design
Flexibility in use
Simple and intuitive
Tolerance for error
Low physical effort
Size and space for approach and use
Fitting instruction to student needs
Preplanning instruction through lesson plans that serve as well-designed blueprint
Build shared background
Preview vocab and preteach it
Use L1 supports as necessary
Match visuals with text
Use graphic organizers
|Modifying language without simplification||
Slow rate of speech
gestures and body language
Explain idioms or multiple meaning words
Behaviorists claim that the mind is a blank slate: a learner must be filled with content during the course of teaching. Strict principles of timing, repetition, and reward led to classroom methodology that incorporated extensive drill and practice of language components, from sounds to complex sentences. Audiolingualism: oral practice is key, repetitious training with teacher using correct grammatical forms. Direct Teaching and Mastery Learning: small units of language to learn, discrete facts, sequences, rules, immediate feedback to remediate (correct pronunciation, word recognition, low-level comprehension.
|Applying Universal Access to English Learner Instructional Materials||
Building shared background
Previewing vocabulary and pre-teach it
Using L-1 resources to support comprehension
Matching visuals and illustrations to the text
Using graphic organizers to access higher levels of thinking without sole reliance on words
Using individualized technology
Achieving Universal Access
Know student's proficiency levels
Have repetoire of teaching techniques to draw on
Plan ahead and reflect afterwards
A script is what linguists call a predictable pattern of rules for the use of language:
Topic focus and relevance
Classroom discourse (teachers talk 70% of time, when ask for questions they are short with little wait time)
|Flyiing Carpet Beetle||
The most dastardly form of carpet beetle.
|Formative Assessment-Early Intermediate||
Is this a ___ or a _____?
One word answer/short answer
Make a list
Steps in a sequence
Complete a sentence frame or template
Complete a graphic organizer
|Content Based ESL/ELD||
Use content of various disciplines to teach language with a primary emphasis on language development
|The Natural Approach||
Develop language skills in a natural context. Students acquire language through interaction in authentic, and meaningful learning experiences.
Comprehension precedes production. Students don't produce speech until they are comfortable doing so.
Production occurs in stages
Emphasis is on meaning not correct form early on
Keep anxiety level low.
Find out what is out there so that linkages can be made and services can be accessed.
|Lau v. Nichols||
Schools have to do more than just provide equality in terms of books, classrooms, teachers, and curriculum. They have to help kids understand English so they can participate fully in learning academic subject matter.
|Raising the status of L1||
Use L1 with parents and other adults
L1 resources tied to textbooks
Seal of biliteracy
|Listening and Speaking Activities for ELD||
TPR with basic commands
TPR with pictures
Reading stories aloud with picture clues
Completing cartoon strip dialogues
Listening in English and retelling in L1
Matching pictures and words
Word sorting based on phonics or concepts
Naming characters from stories or pictures
Associating sentences to pictures
Drawing objects from discussion
Following a set of directions
Reading aloud to complete a task, recipe, or art project
Patterned responding using audio-lingual strategies
Sequencing events based on pictures or familiar short narratives
|Things to consider when developing vocabulary||
Learners need to be able to:
define the word
use the word
know the word's multiple meanings
decode and spell the word
|Parents rights under NCLB||
right to know why their child is being placed in EL classes
right to be involved in the decision-making process under Title III
right to be notified of a child being placed in Title III program within 30 days of the beginning of the school year.
|Strategies to help EL in development of vocabulary||
learning words in a rich, engaging context (word lists don't work very well)
structural analysis (looking at roots, prefixes, suffixes)
word attack skills