Limited English Procifient
Language Experience Approach
Great for older learners.
Create a shared experience.
Ask the group to retell or describe the experience.
Write down the retelling, including the names of contributers
Do a group editing session.
Create a drawing or storyboard
Select high-frequency words to teach
Make flash cards with high frequency words
Select a phonics skill or letter recognition skill to teach and practice
computer-assisted language learning
native English speaker
Sentence-by-Sentence Self-Monitoring: S reads text silently, then aloud, T reads it back exactly the same, discuss miscues
Limited English Speaking
|Six Traits of Writing||
I often voice concerns when sad.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
Formal speaking registers
Native speakers ages 10-12
English learners 5-7 years
specific discipline-specific language
free, appropriate public education
Self-Regulated Strategy Development: students learn strategies for writing, like PLAN and WRITE
|SDAIE Support Configurations||
Language Acquisition Device: Noam Chomsky: Idea that mind contains a language acquisition device that generates rules through the acquistion of grammar.
5 Principles of CALLA
Recognize and build on student's primary knowledge
Provide meaningful learning tasks
Engage in interactive teaching and learning
Focus on learning processes and strategies
Help students evaluate their own learning
Recognize Meaningful Interactive Learning and Assess
formal v. informal registers
Student Oral Language Observation Matrix
measures: grammar, fluency, comprehension. vocabulary, pronunciation
total physical response: association between language and body movement
crosscultural, language, and academic development
Calif. Eng. Language Development Test
Elementary and Secondary Education Act
Universal Design: principles for designing prods/environ for those w/health/lrng issues
Spanish as a second language
|Halliday: Language Functions||
instrumental: getting needs met
regulatory: controlling others' behavior
informative: communicating information
interactional: establishing social relationships
personal: expressing individuality
heueristic: investigating and acquiring knowledge
imaginiative: expressing fantasy
|SDAIE Planning Checklist||
Culturally familiar examples
Gestures and body language
Clear and slower speech
Write down information
Can Good Cows Want Every Valentine's Day Corrupted?
Language comprised of BICS and CALP
4 Quadrants that allow one to assess the level of difficulty of teaching materials/activities for EL's.
BICS at the top
CALP at the bottom
Context embedded on the left
Context reduced on the right
"A" refers to BICS that is context embedded.
"B" refers to BICS that is context reduced.
"C" is CALP that is context embedded.
"D" is CALP that is context reduced.
See this link:
Small phonemic variations that don't change meaning (accents)
common underlying proficiency: L1 and L2 have a shared foundation, and competence in L1 allows for competence in L2(Cummins)
Universal Instructional Design: UD in education. Ensuring access to info, resource, tools for all.
maintenance, or "late exit", bilingual ed
|Balanced literacy instruction for EL's||
systematic, explicit phonics instruction
word attack skills
independent reading of high quality books
|Cognitive and Social Strategies to help 2nd language learners||
encouraging and responding to appeals for assistance
Pitch that changes meaning in words, especially in languages that are tonal
|Denotation v. Connotation||
Denotation: specific, literal image, idea, concept, or object
Connotation: Cultural assumptions that the word or image suggests. Involves emotional overtones, subjective interpretation, socio-cultural values, ideological assumptions
|Checklist for Instructional Materials||
Visuals match text on the page
Supplemental visual supports: posters,studyprints, OT's, photos, reproduction of documents.
Prior knowledge referred to?
Interactive, hands on, demonstrations?
Captions, headers, margin notes that allow for students to read the text in brief?
Questions that engage students at all levels of proficiency?
Graphic Organizers,matrices, webs, Venn Diagrams, story maps, class-note outlines
EL alternatives for homework
Ways to involve the home
Bilingual supports: glossary
|Appropriate instructional materials for EL's||
Differentiation is evident
Includes bridges to other cultures and languages
Culturally respectful and multicultural
No stereotypes, negative portrayals, downplaying of struggles or injustices
literary translations as opposed to literal translations
Matches regional language variations of students
L1 materials reviewed by people who speak the L1
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Calif TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages)
|Teaching Academic Speech Functions||
Many academic speech functions: reporting, greeting, asking, interviewing, ordering, borrowing,paraphrasing, agreeing, disagreeing etc.
Determine which functions are needed
Plan to teach them
Set up authentic situations to use them
Reinforce their use with wall charts and editors' word banks for writing.
|Banks Levels of Multicultural Education||
Additive (Adding pieces to the curriculum
Transformative: deals with issues of historic, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic injustice and equality as a part of the AMerican experience
Social Action: Extension of transformative to include taking action to make a more just and equal society
Smallest unit of sound that makes a difference in meaning.
When phonemes exist in L1 but not L2 negative transfer can occur
When phonomes are shared positive transfer can occur
|Things that inhibit language expression in an EL student||
intonation, pitch, modulation, semantics, syntax, linguistic issues
|Characteristics of Classrooms that Support English Learners' Literacy Development||
Activities are meaningful
Instruction demanding but scaffolded
Instruction built around themes
Print rich environment
No Child Left Behind: does little to help ELL's, emphasizes test results, undercuts best practices, demoralizes Ts, forces schls to test to test and cut programs that help ELL's
|Difference between ELD and ELA||
ELD: English Language Development Standards have four domains: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. Designed in 1999 they describe what EL students must know and be able to do as they develop fluency in the ELA standards. Levels: beginning, early intermediate, intermediate, early advanced, advanced.
ELA: English Language Arts Standards
ELD Standards are by proficiency level
ELA Standards are by grade level
ELD standards are an on-ramp to the ELA standards
|Four critical components of SDAIE||
Content: content and language objectives, clear and meangful, support objectives
Connections: linked to student experiences, examples from student's lives, schema building
Comprehensibility: pictures, graphs, charts, models, diagrams, gestures, labels, dramatizations/variety of learning styles, demonstrations, speech adjustments, clear enunciation, controlled use of idioms, comprehension checks, recitation, paraphrase
Interaction:Lots--productive, of all varieties
|Contexual Factors in Second Language Acquisition||
native language proficiency
knowledge of second language
dialect and register
Study of the ways humans use signs to make meaning.
|Four Principles of Assessing Students with Linguistic and Cultural Differences||
Convene complete multi-disiplinary team
Use pre-referral strategies to determine the source of the difficulties
Determine the language to be used in the assessment/assess language dominance
Conducting a tailored, appropriate assessment of the child. Desire to produce a multi-dimensional assessment
|Features of English||
Compact Language: lots of 2-3 letter words
Adjectives,nouns, verbs have no ending to denote gender
No formal or informal registers
Only one definite article
Lots of multiple meaning words
Lots of homophones
|Syllabic Awareness v Phonemic Awareness||
Syllabic Awareness comes first for Spanish
Phonemic Awareness first for English
|Social Context for Language Learning||
Lev Vygotsky: "zone of proximal development" (the distance between what a language learner can do now and what they will be able to do later)
To develop language should be put in a social context
use lots of role plays
|Tier I, II, III words||
Tier I: common everyday words usually leaned through listening and interacting with peers and adults along with lots of non-verbal clues. These words are not usually taught.Strategies: visual clues, role plays, explain common idioms, cognates and false cognates.
Tier II: Academic words. Rich vocab usually encountered in written text. Must be taught and pretaught before reading. Strategies: gestures, demonstration, pictures, realia, cognates.
Tier III: Specific nomenclature of an academic discipline. Strategies: dictionary, teach Greek and Latin roots, illustrated student dictionaries.
|Differences between ELD and SDAIE||
ELD is a subject, like a foreign language
SDAIE is a set of techniques
ELD focuses on the the elements of the new language
SDAIE focuses on learning new content standards
|Basics of learning how to read||
1. Skill with print. Letters mean something, read from left to right, book held right side up etc.
2. Decoding text requires: semantic knowledge, syntactic knowledge, orthographic shape (looking at groups of letters)