Cultural Anthropology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
superstructure
behavioral/mental
pausing
between words
evolution ecology
original affluent society
foragers
True/False
 
In bilateral/bilineal kinship descent groups all relatives are recognized only on the grandmothers descent line.


False
pastoralists
herders of domesticated animals
world's largest religions
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Chinese traditional religion
Buddhism
True/False
 
 
 
Private Law is often times referred to as Tort Law
 
 
 
 
True
language
primary communication; based on symbols; only humans have the capacity to discuss past, future, and experiences
Velar stop
"k" or "g" sound
polyandry
one wife more male spouses
adaptive strategies
foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism, industrialism
Ethno-etiology
a culturally specific causal explanation for health problems and suffering
Weatherford
Economic Deterioration of Bolivia--- indulgent behavior here affects peoples lives there
observation
gathering information through study, usually visual
Barbarism
pottery making
domestication of plants and animals
iron tools
polygamy
polytheism
Culture Shock
a condition of disorientation affecting someone who is suddenly exposed to an unfamiliar culture or way of life or set of attitudes
domestication
a process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic make-up of a population of plants or animals
redistribution
distribution of wealth by pooling resources, then reallocating with no expectation of reciprocity. 3rd party exchange.
diglossia
language with "high" (formal) and "low" (informal) dialects; for example - German has du and Sie
Dependence Training
children that are compliant, dependent, and cooperative
cultural materialism
Marvin Harris; determines human thought and behavior; provides explanations for comparisons in groups; environment & ppl = 1; relies on ETIC
framing
Establishing a cognitive boundary that marks certain
behaviors as "play" or as "ordinarily life."
Religion
Organized beliefs in the supernatural that rationalize rituals aimed at interpreting and controlling aspects of the universe otherwise beyond human control.
commodification
cheaper, uniform, less unique and original products
royal marriage
In ancient Hawaii, brother-sister marriage was part of that culture's beliefs about mana
and sacredness
-European royalty practice endogamy based on cousin marriage
Royal endogamy also had latent economic function
Caste Systems
closed, hereditary system of stratification, often dictated by religion
stratified society
characterized by formal, permanent social and economic inequality in which people are denied access to wealth, power, and prestige.
Purposes of marriage
reproduction, social reproduction (reproducing one's desired society within a household), and inter-group alliance
Culture change occurs through: a. innovation b. invention c. diffusion d. all of the above
D
matrilocality
less common then patriolocality; says that married couples live in the wife’s community and their children grow up in their mother’s village; keeps related women together
Diffusion
Mechanism for change-one or more members of society diffuse their major cultural advances to other members of society and so on to other societies.
Cosmology
Ideological system. Seeks to explain order and meaning and people's places within the universe.


Phrarty


A unilineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether or not they really do
ritual
behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; rituals are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
Phonemics
the branch of linguistics that studies the meaningful groups of sounds in a language
linguistic pluralism
policy of tolerance of linguistic diversity within a particular context.
Levirate
The marriage custom whereby a widow marries a brother of her dead husband.
social stratification
system of social classifications in which various statuses are viewed as unequal to one another
cultural transmission
the passing of culturally relevant knowledge
social structure
the rule gonverned relationships with all their right and obligations that hold members of a society together ( households, families, associations, and power relations, including politics
Ju-Wasi
(San or Bushmen)
Live in flexible bands; sometimes there are respected elders but generally all share goods and food. Example: spear points and arrow heads
(closest example of egalitarian society)
Standards or rules about what is acceptable behavior are referred to by social scientists as:
Norms.
acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Matrilineal
System in which lineage is traced through the mother and maternal ancestors.
Moray (examples)
murder (bottom of foot/step on coin/touch head)
Business Anthropology
The anthropological study of global capitalism and how to market effectively internationally. Includes market research, and also improves international communication.
Cultural Relativism
Stresses the importance of analyzing cultures in their own terns rather than in terms of the culture of the anthropologist.
the study of human social development
cultural anthropology
Revolution
An attempt to overthrow an existing form of political organization
sworn virgins
In Albania ( on mediterannian coast)
Qamile Steme's father died and she had to cut her hair and take on the roll of her father.
Hegemony
a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing its values and accepting its naturalness
ultimate problems
Universal human problems, such as death, the explanation of evil and the meaning of life, transcendent values that can be answered by religion.
square
sign for person of nonspecific gender in kinship diagram
witches
societies with loose or weak political system often believe in witches. (no police but witches keep people in line.)
blended family
a married couple raising children together from their previous unions
Linguistic Labor
Jobs that only require linguistic abilites, and also train linguistic abilites
 
Example: Call centers in india
Neocolonialism
the persistence of profound social and economic entanglements linking former colonial territories to their formal colonial rulers despite political sovereignty
social classes
system of social stratification based on income or possession of wealth & resources. Individual social mobility is possible
tonality
in music, scale systems and their modifications
Agriculture
A mode of production that involves growing crops with the use of plowing, irrigation, and fertilizer.
polytheism
belief in several deities who control aspects of nature
Tribes
About 500 people; they share similar language and customs.
Reciprocity
- a relation of mutual dependence or action or influence
James Carrier
argues that since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the production and distribution of goods have become impersonal, that the spread of industrial and commercial capitalism has meant the spread of alienated objects and relations. Carrier labels goods that carry no special meaning commodities, and to distinguish them from what he calls possessions. Gifts, says Carrier, must be possessions before they carry meaning in exchange. For Carrier, the problem is how, in a world filled with impersonal, alienated commodities - goods without history, so to speak - can we turn these things into personal items with meaning and history in possessions that carry something of the buyer's identity? We convert commodities into possessions and gifts, says Carrier, by a process of appropriation. Shopping itself, says Carrier, is a way of appropriating commodities.
Binomial Nomenclature
Two name system for classifying all organisms of earth
Genus and Species
Humans= Homo sapiens
Sacred ritual
enactment of beliefs expressed in myth and doctrine, i.e. communion
fraternal polyandry
a woman weds a group of brothers
Cultural Anthropology
also known as social or sociocultural anthropology. The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures
formal economics
type of economics rooted in ideology that everyone is rational - adam smith ect
Patrilineal
system in which one belongs to one's father's lineage. It generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well.
syntax
the way words are arranged to make sentences
cousin marriage
forbidden in some culture, favored in others.
social mobility
upward or downward change in one's social class position in a stratified society
Power
The ability to impose one's will on others
Western Biomedicine
a healing approach based on modern western science that emphasizes technology for diagnosing and treating health problems related to the human body
Linguistic Anthropology
Studies language in its social and cultural context, across space and over time.
Hypodescent
the principle that a child of mixed descent is automatically classified as minority
Eskimo Kinship System
System of kinship terminology, also called lineal system, that emphasizes the nuclear family by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin.
cultural universals
those general cultural traits found in all societies of the world
village head
leadership position in a village (as among the Yanomami where the head is always a man); has limited authority; leads by example and persuasion
Age Grade
An organized category of people based on age; every individual passes through a series of such categories over his or her lifetime.
Cultural Constructs-
Models of behavior and attitudes that a particular culture transmits to its members.
symbolic perspective of culture
culture is based on arbitrarily assigned meanings that are shared by a society
-unique gestures performed
bride service
groom agrees to do labor for a specified period of time
ex. hunting gathering societies provide met for brides family
Structural Adjustment Programs
Economic policies that the World Bank, the IMF and similar organizations require Third World governments to pursue in order to qualify for loans from these lending organizations. These policies usually include the devaluation of local currency against the dollar, reduction of trade restrictions, removal of price controls, and reduction of state subsidies for social services.
mode of production
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
When members of a population can be divided into separate groups based on clear differences in a given trait (we used pencil height in class), we call this _____________.
discrete variation.
Identification
An attempt to beomce a part of that culture.
Goods & services
The objects (goods) and the actions (services) that people value and produce to satisfy human wants.
market exchange
the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand
Achieved status
A position or rank that is earned through the efforts of an individual.
"The Hunters"
A movie made by John Marshall This film follows the hunting of a giraffe by four members of the Ju/'hoansi (a !Kung Bushmen tribe) over a 13-day period in the Kalahari desert. (Tracked Giraffe for 5!!!! Days)
avunculocal residence
residence of a married couple with the husbands mothers brother
egalitarian socities
no idividual or group is barred from access to material resources or has power over others: inheritance means nothing, principles of generalized or balanced reciprocity in the exchange of goods and services, associated with bands or tribes
Defense of Primates
Living in trees allows for protection from many predators; males can and do defend women and children
roles of cattle in Indian culture
-Traction
-Source of fuel
*Cattle dung in cooking
-Fertilizer
-Milk
*Economic livelihood
-Floor covering
-Meat
*If they do not eat beef, how come?
*It is a multi-ethnic country
*Other ethnic groups in India eat them
-Leather
*Hide used to produce leather products
reasons for breakdown of nuclear family in America
Divorce, Industrialization - work communters, Women don't have to get married or have kids now
Christian anthropologists
how can we bridge the gap of eternity between these people & Jesus
How to do a Comparison*
1. Construct a testable hypothesis that can be proven wrong2. determine relative degree of importance3. determine presence/absence of formal legal system
Gibbons
a type of ape. Asian. Arms too long to walk on knuckles.
Understand a cross-cultural situation, provides insights for ministry, helps understand processes of conversion, makes gospel relevant, adaptation into another culture.
What are the advantages in studying Cultural Anthropology?


The term "core values" refers to


those values which are emphasized by a particular culture
The term food collection refers to the subsistence practice of obtaining:
Wild plants and wild animals.
basic elements of participant observation
1. Live with or close to the people being studied
2. Interact with them on a day-to-day basis
3. Stay for a long period of time
-10-24 months in order to obtain an anthropology PhD
4. Learn the group's language
5. Write field-notes or diary
reason for few conflicts in foraging societies
Major source of conflict that we find in our society is missing in the smaller community - private property and restricted access to resources are absent; collective ownership
Phenotype
Interaction
emphasizes alteration
Properties of Culture
-shared
-learned
-symbolic
-adaptive
-integrated
-transmitted cross-generationally
-changes
Quadraped
having four feet
Cultural Linguistics
(ethnolinguistics)
-study of replationship between culture and language
⋅language and culture impact (but dont determine) how pl perceive and think about the world
(i.e. some cultures that live in snow will have many words for the word 'snow' ∴ shows snow was important to them; now days we have a lot of words for technology)
-study how grammatical structures change/ impact how pl think
⋅spanish: differnt suffiix for male and female
⋅some indian language: different suffix for shape of objects
∴language tuned them to think about things a certain way; very big impact on how we percieve the world
stigmatized speech
ways of speaking
Marco Polo
First participant observer
caste
hereditary social group associated with a particular occupation; a permanent place in a hierarchy
globalization
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
Descent
Culturally defined relationships based on birth and nurturance.
monogamy
marriage to only one person
Evolution
Genetic change over sucessive generations. Gradual change through time.
paleoanthropologists
anthropologists specializing in the study of human evolutionary history
Morality
good vs. evil
right vs. wrong
State
form of sociopolitical organization based on formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification
ways of interacting with supernatural
fasting
prayer
meditation
vision quest
pilgrimage
sacrifice
Sapir-Whorf hypotheses
grammatical categories lead speakers to think in different ways; language shapes but does not restrict thought; cultural changes can produce changes in thought and language (contrary to S-W)
ethnology
comparative study of society and culture
onomatopoetic
words that imitate a non-linguistic sound: ring, ding, howl, moo
ethnicity
identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
periphery
the world's least privileged and powerful countries
emic
approach of studying a culture's behavior from the perspective of an insider
AMH
first emerged in Africa between 300,000 to 160,000ya and then spread throughout the OW & NW
Culture
people's learned and shared beliefs behaviors and beliefs
multiculturalism
view of
cultural diversity as valuable
and worth maintaining
-Multiculturalism seeks ways for
people to understand and interact
with a respect for differences
James Brain
The Ugly American Revisited- Ignorance, arrogance and ethnocentrism of aid officials causing harm to US interests abroad [USAID with huge projects to make profits and seem spectacular],
Nomadic
wandering tribe who migrates from place to place
monotheism
worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being
Orthopraxy
"correct practice;" the prohibition of deviation from approved forms of ritual behavior
Clan
An extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological.
Adolescence
A culturally defined period of maturation from the time of puberty until adulthood.
Homo-Floresiensis
Found in Philippines
3 feet tall
Mini Homo Erectus
Hunted pygmy elephants
Spear points
Some say they're pygmies
Gifts
according to the lecture, gifts create ongoing social ties through an expectation of reciprocity. Sometimes when we receive a gift from someone we feel obligated to return the favor. In the Gebusi, they receive Knaft with gifts every time that he visited in hopes that he also brought them gifts.
tacit culture
cultural knowledge that people lack words for; learn it mostly by practice and imitation; sounds you can distinguish and utter
Biological Variation
the results of human physical (biological) ADAPTATION to the physical enviornment
in which a population residesAND
GENETIC INHERITANCE via the evolutionary processes of genetic drift , gene flow and natural selection
Repatriation
returning of art and artifacts to cultures when they were obtained illegally or immorally
sororate
widower marries sister of his deceased wife
Social Class
non-material markers of class identity which groups people into "classes"
avunculocal (rules of residence)
live with uncles family
radical re-localization
-goal is to gain culturally appropriate toughness
-(e.g., scarification in New Guinea;
Boot Camp; Law School in the US)
Avunculocality
Husbands and wives are expected to live with or near the husband's mother's brother in 4 percent, or the uncle's place.
(biopsychological) functionalism
(Malinowski) inborn human needs are the driving force in the development of social institutions. all parts work together to maintain the whole
Polynesia
Mana was attached to status hierarchy of society- people with more status had more mana
law
Formal rules of conduct that, when violated, effectuate negative sanctions.
Ethnic group
Categories of people who see themselves as sharing an ethnic identity that differentiates them from other groups or from the larger society as a whole
archaeology
the systematic study of the material remains of human behavior in the past. Archaeologists reconstruct the prehistory and early history of societies and their cultures through an examination and interpretation of such things as house foundations, broken tools, and food refuse.
Participant Observation
In ethnography, the technique of learning about a group of people through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time. Primary means of conducting research.
milpa field
basic subsistence- corn and beans; surplus land= export crops[high risk low return]
Pre-Clovis
holds that human occupation of the Americas predates 13,500 years ago
primate
an individual belonging to subgroup of mammals including lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
economic system
a means of producing, distributing, and consuming goods
anthropology
the study of humanity, including our prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity
Witchcraft
the performance of evil by human beings believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it is intentional or self-aware
Gerontocracy
Age hirecahy dominated by oldest age groups,
E.B. Tylor
religion is evolutionary
as we become more materialistic religions change
Generalized Reciprocity
Exchange involving the least conscious sense of interest in material gain or thought of what might be received in return.
Transvestism-
Dressing in the clothes usually worn by members of the opposite gender.
nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Psychoanalytical Explanation
Incest taboos are an attempt by offspring to repress their sexual feelings toward their parents of the opposite gender.
Capital
any good used to produce other goods; including tools, equipment, facilities, money
phonemes
the smallest units of sound that make a difference in meaning in a language
Progress
the idea that human history is the story of a steady advance from a life dependent on nature to a life of control and domination over nature
The __________ theory explains why men typically engage in the dangerous tasks.
Expendability theory.
exogamy
supposed to marry outside of a certain group
displacement
the ability to talk about absent or nonexistent objects
e.g. unicorn
Assimilation
process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture
functions of religion
Emphasizes the central values of society, Meets Psychological needs, meaning / purpose, social control, role behaviors & behavioral schemes, explanation, sanctification of behaviors and roles, catharctic, promotes social solidarity, provides meaning, increases social control
cultural evolution
cultural change over time, not all changes are postitive
Gender stratification
The ways in which gendered activities and attributes are differentially valued and related to the distribution of resources, prestige, and power in a society
matrilocal
refers to the pattern in which married couples live with or near the wives' parents
cross cousins
children of a brother
and a sister
revitalization movements
social movements that occur in times of change, in which religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society
functionalism
the hteory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole
natural selection
the principle of mechanism by which individuals having biological characteristics best suited to a particular environment survive and reproduce with greater frequency than individuals without those characteristics
metaphor
a figure of speech, (or an object, activity, or idea) in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used to suggest a likeness or analogy between them
Capitalism
An economic system in which the means of production are owned by private persons and operated for profit
in a descent group, the individual who stands at the apex, or top, of the common geneology
apical ancestor
Medical Anthropology
Bridges the gap between biology & culture
Fieldwork
living among a group of people for the purpose of learning about
their culture.
Positive/ Negative Identity
Negative attributes given to one group from another group in hopes to make themselves look better.
"the others" = bad
Remittance
the transfer of money or goods by a migrant to his or her family in the country of origin
Domain of Experience
an area of human experience (business, war, science, family life) from which people borrow meaning to apply to other areas
When one trait (eg. hair color) cannot be used to predict another trait, (eg. eye color), we call this ________.
asynchronous variation.
Nuclear Family
household made up of a mother, father, and children
sumptuary goods
consumption is limited to use by the elites; plus elegant lifestyle
rites of passage
the term suggested by Arnold van Gennep for rituals that mark a person's passage from one identity or status to another.
Cutural anthropology
the study of living peoples ant their cultures, including variation and change
Forms of Data used to
Interpret the Past
Stones/Bones (artifacts)
Ethnographies of Foragers
Studies of Primates
Computer Model
Examples of functionalism
Religion - teaches right from wrong
If you cooperate you can work on things like food production which is a biological need.
Sahlin's capitalism study
chain of exchange in order for england to get tea. historical and multicultural context
When a young male moves in with and works for his future bride's family for a trial period, we call this:
Bride service.
Why do we form corporate groups?
economic and non-economic activities, social and emotional needs, sense of identity, perpetuation of the group, building alliances between groups
The "Adherent" View
just use knowledge to do what is told(do job)
don't use judgement
skill set that should be used appropriately
At that time, 1880s, anthropology heavily influenced by the evolutionary theory...
Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer
-Natural selection
-Survival (survival of the fittest)
-Adaptive
-Evolution from simple to complex states
V Gordon Child
did a lot of theorizing on what is civilization? Have monumental architecture, massive public works or religious monuments, urban concentration, writing system, inequality in resource distribution, craft specializations; the base of it is from what is a state society (this is behind all the above listed items)
Arguments against incest: Genetic
Harmful effects - this is a bad argument. Most people do not have this knowledge and harmful effects are not bad enough to cause extinction.
political office in a chiefdom
power and position are often based on your position in the lineage so there is lots of interest in keeping genealogies (primogeniture)
how does power work in the anthropological sense
- not pure coercion (physical force)
- better understood to be a kind of
generalized "capacity to transform."
E.g., the kind of power that depends on the verbal skills of certain people
The ascendancy of beef in the American diet
1. Pork was in the colonial diet (100 years ago)
2. Technological advancements in the 19th century
3. In Midwest main crop is corn
4. Rise of packing industry centers due to large scale production and distribution
5. The development of the Great Plains
6. The rise of global market
production
Southern approach
Tengboche
surface structure
word order
polygyny
man several wives
-most common.
4 fields of anthropology
cultural
physical
archaeology
linguistics
Egalitarian
hunters and gathers, equaility
Hetero-normativity
reinforced by bio-reductivism by suggesting that heterosexual relationships are natural and the inevitable outcome of our biology; while gay, lesbian, and transgender identity represent deviations from the normal or natural behavior
Technoscapes
The movements of technology (computers, automobiles, weapons, etc.) across national lines.
Etic knowledge
perspective of an outsider
Phenome
A phenome is the smallest differentable category of sound recognized by a speaker of a given language
 
Example: /b/ or /p/
True/False

Patrilineal is when the husband goes to live with his wife's parents household


False
Edward. B. Tylor
-anthropologist
-wrote the book "primitive culture"
-Explanation of how humans religious beliefs evolved from three different stages
Integrated
Changes in one cultural arena potentially influences others; key aspects of a culture influence other aspects of a culture. Ex) Post-war women could get jobs, changing ideas of gender.
Shaman
part time religious specialists who gain status through a direct relationship with the supernatural
Phoneme
Significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs.
Heteronormative
assumption that heterosexuality is the right way.
Food-Producing Revolution
Gradual development of domesticated plants and animals; only begins about 10,000 years ago.
Resulted in a population explosion (at least as compared to hunter-gatheres) which in turn required other changes like organization and other social practices.
Grasses were the key domestics in many parts of the world - rice, maize, wheat, oats, barley, rye, millet.
Peacemakers
Individuals with a specialized social role of preventing conflict from erupting into dangerous conflict
Societies
Populations of people living in organized groups with social institutions and expectations of behavior
Affinial Kin
related by marriage (husband, wife)
considered to be less strong because divorce can occur
space
The limited-unlimited expanse in which everything is located.
aNTHROPOLOGICAL aDVANTAGE
Because of their fieldwork, anthropologists are socially close to those they seek to benefit
Communication
they conveying of meaningful messages from one person or other living being to another
gesture
facial expressions and bodily postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconcious messages
Speech Communities
Communites with differences and inequalities. They consist of divsion of linguistic labor. Also there are different categories of speakers and hearers.  Also consist of boundaries and restricted knowledge
 
Example: men cant speak to women, certain phenomes aren't used
Subsistence Strategies
the patterns of production, distribution, and consumption that members of a society employ to ensure the satisfaction of the basic material survival needs of humans
polytheism
belief in several gods and/or goddesses (as contrasted with monotheism-belief in one god or goddesses)
Orangutan
type of ape. Asian. Quadramanos(can support weight creatively with all four limbs) Larger, solitary
applied medical anthropology
the application of anthropological knowledge to furthering the goals of health care providers.
Gift
"The Gift" by Marcel Mauss (1925). Ethnology: Comparison of the importance of gifts across different cultures. We intend in this book to isolate one important set of phenomena: namely, presentations that are in theory voluntary, disinterested and spontaneous, but are in fact obligatory and interested. Gifts must contain something of the biography of the giver and the history of the relationship
Barter Transactions
the exchange of goods/services for other goods/services. generally requires much haggling since both quality and quantity of goods/services to be exchanged must be established by each party to each transaction
ecosystem
a system or a fucntioning whole composed of both the natural envionment and all the organism living within it
developmental
works on social issues and the cultural dimensions of economic development, commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equality
Object Orientation
cultural meaning assigned to material objects
paradigmatic
meaning can change if you substitute words
Cultural Ecology
The systematic study of human relationship with the natural environment. For example, asking questions like how good are they at living in their environment - can they stay in one place for a long period of time?
Endogamy
Marriage between people of the same social group. (ex: caste system in india)
patrilineal descent
descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership
false consciousness
hegemonic idea of political and cultural control of elite which creates consenting environment of exploitation
Aesthetics
branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty
-In any society, art is produced for aesthetic value as well as religious purpose
ethnographic fieldwork
Collection of information from living people about their way of life; see fieldwork.
Early blues
hidden transcrip against legacies of slavery [racism and subordination]
Toolsl and technology
means to accomplish an end
theory
in science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data
prestige
esteem, respect, or approval for acts, deeds, or qualities considered exemplary
Cultural Determinism
-belief that culture dictates or determines our behavior (but if it did, then people would not, say, break the speed limit)-not a static concept
play
a framing or orienting context that is 1) consciously adopted by the players 2) somehow pleasurable 3) systematically related to what is non-play by alluding to the non-play world, and by transforming the objects, roles, actions, and relations of ends and means characteristic of the non-play world
Hawaiian System
Kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same term.
 
 
Anthropolgy is


The study of humankind everywhere, throughout time
expanded household including three or more generations
extended family
Personified supernatural
- beings, spirits, gods, goddesses, demons, ghosts
Person-like - emulate you
but they are accessible
How does culture change?
-Constantly changing
-Changes through history
-With innovations
-Learn about our history, certain things are maintained, yet we get rid of things that no longer matter that are out of date
-Sifting process
-Get old things, get new things, get rid of things
marriage
social and legal contract between 2 or ore people specifying rights and obligations, universal idea.
explicit culture
cultural knowledge you can talk about; learn mostly by hearing it from the other; parents, teachers, etc
prescriptive grammar
prescribes proper forms for us to speak and write with
Wages
payment usually of money for labor or services
An economic system ______.
Includes the norms governing production, distribution, and consumption in a society.
Synchronic
An analysis or study that is only concerned with on point in time; a 'slice of time' approach
Practitioners
A person actively engaged in the art, discipline, or profession. In this case actively engaged and connected to the supernatural.
Cognatic Descent
No formal principle or rule about whether individuals join the group of their mother or father
totemism
The belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits.
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
use rights
system of property relations in which a person or group has a socially recognized priority in access to particular resources such as gathering, hung, fishing
Expressive culture
behavior and beliefs related to art, leisure and play
swidden farming
an extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetatoin is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops then planted among the ashes
Functionalist Approach
If people have been doing something for a long time, then why? How does it make sense?
Aborigines
Tribal foragers of Australia with a 60 000 year old history of elegant kinships systems and elaborate ritual life.
Whitchcraft and Sorcery
belief that individuals practicing in secret are responsible for accident or misfortune
New World Monkeys
From the Americas. They have preprencial tails(they could cling onto trees with tails) and were smallish.
Homo Sapiens(archaic)
250,000 years ago. Had reached a higher cranial capacity. The coming of the glacier came around this time.
Semiotics
the study of signs and symbols and how they generate meaning. Ferdinand Saussure, a Swiss linguist, most known for his knowledge and study of semiotics ("Father of semiotics")
affinal alliances
are the ties among affines and can serve various subsistence, political, legal, economic, and social functions
linguistic determinism
the idea that language to somw extent shapes the way in which we view and think about the world around us
Exploitative theory
Based on assumption that one group is taking advantage of another.
bride price
a payment in the form of money, property and other valuable assets that is given to the bride's father
metonym
a word that is used to stand for something else that it has attributes of or is associated with, a kind of symbol
first to reach top of everest
tenzing norgay, edmund hillary
Emic approach
Inside view. uses the concepts and categories that are meaningful to the culture being studied.
Extended Family
a family pattern made up of three generations living together: parents, married children, and grandchildren
A ____ is defined as an altered state of consciousness for the purpose of extracting supernatural knowlege or power
Trance
Indigenous Societies
Peoples who are now minority groups in state societies but who were formally independent and have occupied their territories for a long time.
band
• A group of 25 to 50 foragers, but no more than 100
• Carrying capacity: the maximum number of people who can live within a given area at a given level of technology
language and parole
refers to the system of language, the rules and the conventions which organize language. Refers the manifestations of these rules and norms in speech and writing
Nation as an Imagined Community
Assumption of commonality between you and other people of your nation; underling commonality and solidarity which unites; Benedict Anderson
Problem with Diffusionism
They saw that cultures that were more civilized in different places.
Life-cycle (rite of passage) ritual
Purpose is to publicly acknowledge the change of status. initiate will change their role in society
factors of lack of reaction in sherpas
professionalism[need to complete one's commitments and obligations] religious perspective[injunction against showing strong emotions after death]
views of women in many societies
-viewed as less intelligent, less self controlled, more selfish, a lot of degrading terms in our language referred to role of women
political or social repression
use of force by a ruling group to maintain political, economic, or social control over other groups
Hunting and gathering bands- how did they get food?
They don't plant crops or domesticate animals. Food was taken directly from the environment without a reliance on domesticated food sources. High level of mobility- they exhaust food source in areas. About eighty percent of their diety is veggies. Women always successful in gathering, men not always in hunting. Food cooked over fire on a flat rock.
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