Cultural Anthropology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Pastoralism
Herding
etic
outsiders viewpoint
objective knowledge
affinal kin
in laws
True/False
 
 
Profane always refers to subject matter that is generally viewed as universally offensive
False
extradomestic
outside the home; public
Polytheism
Belief in many gods
True/False

The Hawaiian kinship model is generational


True
qualitive data
subjective; ethnographies: life history
reciprocity
principle governing exchanges among social equals
Nomadic
"True" pastoralism; entire population moves along with the herds. People have no permanent home; characteristically live in tents. Not adequate by itself to support a human population long term. So trade/exchange with cultivators is necessary.
Use of culling (picking out which animals in the herd are the best to eat based on how you want your herd to be- for example if you want a bigger herd, you will eat the older females first because you don't really need them as much), neutering, protecting their animals from predators, caring for the young animals
Ethnology
Aspect of cultural anthropology involved with building theories about cultural behaviors and forms.
sexual dimorphism
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population. biological differences
Gender is
socially constructed, different cross-culturally, negotiated, contested, not static
Hockett’s Design Features of Language
Characteristics of culture: Behavior
observable acts
Contingent Rituals
• Life-cycle ceremonies: birth, puberty, marriage, death
• Rituals of affliction: performed when a crisis occurs: in the face of illness, war, injury, bad luck, etc
authority
power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command determine or judge
rites of passage
culturally defined activities associated with the transition from one place or stage in life to another.
pater
one's socially recognized father; not necessarily the genitor
Edward Tylor
Animism > Polytheism > Monotheism
prevarication
the ability to produce grammatically correct nonsense, also the ability to lie
e.g.; colorless green ideas sleep furiously
conjugal family
a family established through marriage.
ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
national culture
cultural experiences, beliefs, learned behavior patterns, and values shared by citizens of the same nation
culture
the knowledge, that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior
Dowry
woman's family pays man's in marriage
Political organization can be best defined as: a. a system of social organization with rules b. a system of government based on more than one political party c. a system of leadership, authority and cooperation d. a system of politics supported by
C
stratification
characteristic of a system with socioeconomic strata
*role
economic asset: comic, expert, friend, who are you?
Transhumance
Seasonal movements of livestock to different envrionmental zones often at different elevations, or latitudes.


A system of communication based upon a symbol is called a


language
Taboos
Norms specifying behaviors that are prohibited in a culture.
Inequality
Refers to the extent to which culturally valued material and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families, and other groups
-In our society means a number of things
***Money
cross cousins
father's sisters child or mother's brother's child
Double Descent
A system tracing descent matrilineally for some purposes and patrilineally for others.
Cargo cults
A kind of revitalization movement, especially common in Melanesia, which seeks to explain and magically acquire Western wealth, including by imitative of Western behavior.
ethnography
field work observing of a single culture
bridewealth
marital gift by husband's group to wife's group
Religion
A system of symbols carrying ultimate meanings, making reference to the sacred, that point both inward and outward, and that help people with major questions about life, the universe and themselves.
The study of communication by non verbal or non vocal means is called:
kinesics.
creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
Bifurcate Merging
Merges Ego's mother's and father's parallel sibilings with Ego's parents. (Seen in the Iriquois Pattern)
British School
traced civilizations back to Nile River in Egypt (Smith, Perry, & Rivers)
Innovation
A new change discovery inside a culture that spreads.
Cultural Integration
Tendency for people's practices and beliefs to form a relatively coherent and consistent system
potlatch
ceremonial dinner held by some native americans of the northwest coast to show off their wealth by giving away gifts to guests
Capitalism
An economic system in which people work for wages, and capital goods are privately owned, and capital is invested for profit
bisexuality
sexual preference for members of both sexes
Race
ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
interpretive drift
the slow, often unacknowledged shift in someones manner of interpreting as her or she becomes involved with a particular activity.
internalized controls
social controls internalized by an individual to become a part of their individual personality
innovations
changes caused by the recombination of already existing items in a culture.
culture core
cultural features that are fundamental in the society's way of making its living--including food-producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
Patrilineage
A lineage based on descent traced through a line of men to a common male ancestor and sharing a joint estate
Resistance
the power to refuse being forced against one's will to conform to someone else's wishes
pathogen
infectious agent such as a bacterium or a virus that can cause disease
entoptic phenomena
bright, pulsating geometric forms that are generated by the central nervous system and "seen" in states of trance
Indigenous Knowledge
Local knowledge about the environment including plants, animals, and resources.
personalistic disease
theories that attribute illness to sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or ancestral spirits
Order of primates
Insectivores, prosimions, old world monkeys, apes, everything else (humans, chimps, gorillas, orangutans, gibbons) Tip to remember this: I PROgram OLD Automobiles
Ethnocentrism
the deep felt belief or feeling that your culture is superior to all others. Being fond of
your own way of life and condescending or even hostile toward other cultures is normal for all people. Alien culture traits are often viewed as being not just different but less sensible and even "unnatural." This results in the interpretation of other people in terms of one's own cultural values and
traditions. An example is people from monogamous societies condemning polygamy as being "unnatural" and immoral. Ethnocentrism is universal and normal but not necessarily morally defensible or desirable because it prevents understanding other cultures. It also interferes with meaningful intercultural communication.
Baghrairatman
A negative reference to a man who permits too much freedom to the women of his home. (Term of dishonor)
Modern Categories of Human Populations
1. Negroid
2. Caucasoid
3. Mongoloid
Internal migration
the movement of a population within country boundaries
extended family household
household with three or more generations
Advocate Anthropology
Committed to social justice and human rights, assisting groups, peasants, communities and ethnic minorities.
polyculture farming
practices farming at least one crop typically through horticulture technique
Unilineal Descent
One belongs to one's father's or mother's lineage. Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent.
What is teknonomy?
Naming parents based on their children
modes of subsistence
include food foraging and food production
closed class
change can not move in social class
Multiculturalism
The view that cultural diversity is a positive value and makes an important contribution to contemporary societies
Diglossia
applies to high and low variants of the same language
Polygamy
marriage to several people at the same time
patriarchy
political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights
Socialization
the process by which human beings as material organisms, living together with other similar organisms, cope with the behavioral rules established by their respective societies
pantheon
the several gods and goddesses of a people
Gender-
The roles that people perform in their households and communities and the values and attitudes that people have regarding men and women.
Marxism
1. A school of social theory used to analyze especially capitalist societies
2. A revolutionary theory
3. A political movement
-A representative of conflict theory in explaining inequality in capitalist society
-Marxism has not answered how to explain why the inevitable socialist revolution predicted had not occurred by the early 20th century?
functions of bride price
legitimizes marriage, acts as a marriage license
compensates brides family from her loss of labor
ensures good treatment of bride
decreases divorce
Practice Theory
Concerned with the ways in which human beings living within a particular social order may influence that social order, given their particular gendered, class-based, racial, ethnic, generational and other kinds of location in that social order.
generally male or female activities
making fire, body mutilation, planting, harvesting, milking, making baskets, caring for small animals, loom weaving, pottery
Which of the following is not a distinctive hominid behavioral trait?
Practicing deception.
Biological Determinism
The fact that groups of people differ not because of learned culture but because of genetic or physical differences.
Upward mobility
A change in a person's social status resulting in that person receiving a higher position in their status system.
conspicuous consumption
a showy display of wealth for social prestige
personalistic disease theories
blame illness on sorcerers and witches (shamans cure)
Hunter-Gatherer
A member of a nomadic group whose food supply depends on hunting animals and collecting plant foods. (99% of our existence on earth we were hunting and gathering societies) (Live in groups of 30-50)
social races
a group assumed to have a biological basis but actually perceived and defined in a social context- by a particular culture rather than by scientific criteria
Cattle complex
Use of cattle more for social and ritual purposes than for subsistence. Cattle treated as wealth objects and sources of prestige. Cattle rarely eaten, instead exchanged at marriages, used to settle disputes and sacrificed on ritual occassions.
Gibbons
a type of ape. Asian. Arms too long to walk on knuckles.
what is the main method of research used during modern times by anthropologists?
participant observation is
How cultures "break up conceptual space" differently
make various classifications of natural and social phenomenon; these differences are then reflected in the language of the culture; identify different domains as important
Shakespeare at the Bush
naive realism and how different people ascribe different meanings to the same thing depending on their cultural background
climbing as military expedition
conquer the mountain with the final assault, discipline to accomplish objective
Bronislaw Malinowski
give yams to the husband to thank him for perpetuating the family line
Dominance hierarchy setup order (inner to outer circle)
Dominant males, sexually receptive females, non sexually receptive females, subordinate males, ring of adult males around group- even when "hanging out".
The most isolated minority cultures must eventually be overwhelmed by commercial and political expansion of majority peoples.
What is the evangelical defense towards if missionaries are agents of cultural change.
Hunting-gathering bands: tools for hunting
Men carried bow and arrows with poisonous tips, and darts and blowguns in heavily forested areas. They also used nets, spears, boomerangs, and atlatl. Women used pointed sticks(dibbles) and bags.
Kaw: racial politics of cosmetic surgery
asian americans more likely than any other to get cosmetic surgery
Lewis Henry Morgan used what to judge stages of evolution..
-mastery of different technology as criteria
-he thought it was objective but its actually subjective
Two purposes of research in cultural ant*
1. to collect and record new data about specific people2. to expand our theoretical understanding of human cultural systems through comparative analysis
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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