Cultural Anthropology Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Lineage
signifier
sound image
True/False
 
 
 
Egalitarian leadership functions best in small groups
 
 
 
 
True
progeny price
bride price
True/False
 
 
 
Religion is viewed most simply as an organized belief in the supernatural, and all fulfill numerous social and psychological needs.
True
Financescapes
money exchange through nation-states
Shamanic religion
part-time magico-
religious practitioner leading a foraging band with zoomorphic practitioner as conception of supernatural
Menopause
The cessation of menstruation.
ethnology
Examines, interprets, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography
Matrilocality
married couple resides in wife's/mother's community
Ethnoscience
Study applied principles of linguistics to the larger nonverbal culture and resulted in very detailed and systematic studies of kinship systems.
use value
doesn't have exchange value
Illness
in the disease- illnessdichotomy, culturally shaped perceptions and experiences of a health problem.
Consanguine
Relative by culturally recognised descent from a coomon ancsetor; sometimes called a blood relative.
Kula Ring
a gift-giving relationship to establish and stabilize trade partners. Items gained prestige as they circulated
unilineal evolution
The first theoretical anthropological perspective to take root. Proposed three stages of humanity (savagery, barbarism, civilization), viewed cultural attributes as the effects of innate, biological differences.
symbol
something that stands for something else
peasant
small-scale farmer with rent fund obligation
Glottochronology
a method for identifying the approximate time that a language branced off from the common ancestor
artifacts
Human made object (tool, jewelry, toys, coins) that teach us about the customs and belifs of people from the past
Productivity
The capacity to produce expressions that are comprehensible to other members of a group.
Marriage
A culturally sanctioned union between two or more people that establishes certain rights and obligations between people , between them and their children , ad between them and their in-laws. Such marriage rights and obligations most often include, but are not limited to, sex, labor, property, childrearing, exchange, and status.
economic system
An organized arrangement for producing, distributing and consuming goods.
ethnicity
an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
land
Less permanent among foragers
than for food producers
Among food producers, rights to
means of production also come
through kinship and marriage
MAD
mutually assured destruction- cold war ideology
exogamy
should marry outside one's own "kind"
Physical anthropology
(biological) The subfield of anthropology that studies both human biological evolution and contemporary racial variations among peoples of the world. (Includes paleontology, primatology, and human physical variations).
gender stratification
unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy
Relatedness
the socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of different ways
Commercialization
The production and maintanence of private, profit making enterprises.
Berdache
A blurred gender category, usually referring to a person who is biologically male but who takes on a female gender roles.
Gender Equality-
A constellation of behaviors, attitudes, and rights that support the autonomy of both men and women.
Anthropology and Colonialism
origin of cultural anthropology
-has something to do with rise of colonialism, imperialism in the late 19th century
-not very glorious part of the discipline
Why?
Demand: how to explain social and cultural differences between Europeans and others
-By that time Europeans encountered large amount of different humans that had vast cultural and social differences
-Less civilized group of peoples
-Anthropologists took over task by providing services.
incest taboo
prohibition on sex/marriage with close relatives
Matrilineal Descent
Descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish a group membership.
Chiefdoms
A form of social and political organization between the tribe (kin-based) and the state (formal political structure in which individuals have different access to resources).
ego
position from which one views an egocentric geneaology
Phonemes
basic sound units; indicates change in meaning; universal; 45 phonemes in English, up to 85 in other languages; string together to create morphemes; examples:/s/, /z/, /ch/, /th/, /k/, etc.
Which of the following theories explains the differences between male and female roses based on the greater physical endurance of males?
Strength theory.
subculture
a social group within a national culture that has distinctive patterns of behavior and beliefs
Lineages
Different from clans in that the precise geneological links between people are known. (The most common lineage organization is the patrilineage)
Transhumance
One of two variants of pastoralism; part of the population moves seasonally with the herds while the other part remains in home villages.
Ethnography
A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
Counterculture
A alternative cultural model within a society that expresses different views about the way that society should be organized
Hawaiian system
Kinship reckoning in which all relatives of the same sex and generation are referred to by the same name. (Braddah or Sista)
Redistribution
Exchange in which goods are collected and the distributed to members of a group
Homosexuality
sexual preference for members of the same sex
class
a system of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, but permitting individuals to alter their rank.
cultural anthropology.
study of cultural similarities and differences where and in whatever form they may be found.
phratry
a unlineal descent group composed of two or more clans that assume they share a common ancestry but do not know the precise genealogical links of that ancestry.
Subsistence Strategies
Effective adaptation to the natural environment
Established a sustainable balance
Maintained a satisfying and secure society
Culture
sets of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire as members of society. Humans use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which they live.
power
the ability to control resources in one's own interest: make others do things you wouldn't want to
Cultural Capital
Habits, experiences, behavior, ways of conceptualizing the world.
Cultural Models
Shared assumptions that people have about the world and about the ideal culture.
Blood Feud
a murderous feud between families, method of conflict resolution
cultural broker
someone who is familiar with two cultures and can promote communication and understanding across them
Proxemics
A part of learned culture; study of culturally influenced distances people maintain when they interact with each other.
key consultant
member of the society being studied who provide information that helps researchers understand the meaning of what they observe.
Contagious Magic
Magic that operates on the principle that positive and negative qualities can be transferred through proximity or contact
Spatial Orientation
having a good understanding of where one is relative to other things in the environment
syntax
set of principle guiding how words are arranged in phrases
Endogamy
When a person is expected to marry within a defined social group. (These patterns may be obligatory or preferred)
Gesture
motion of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling
Ascribed status
status that are attached from birth, social position that you occupy without choice
assigning different jobs to different groups of people based on skill, gender, age, etc...
division of labor
Liminal
the middle stage of a rite of passage
ambilineal descent
people choose descent group to which they belong
Stonehenge, England
-took a series of stages to build
-Late Neolithic 5,000 years ago
-3 major phases of development
Culture as adaptation
explanatory; etic; need to survive; pig story
chiefdom
in between the tribe and the state; social relations based mostly on kinship, marriage, descent, age, generation and gender, but with differential access to resources.
Mode of Production
a specific, historically occuring set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge
legend
a story about a memorable event or figure handed down by tradition and told as true but without historical evidence
Cultural Constructionism
A theory that explains human behavior as a result of learning.
In dependence training where does your definition of who you are come from?
The group
Conflict Theory of inequality
Stratification is not beneficial to society as a whole, but only to elites, who use their wealth to influence the passing of laws and regulations that benefit mainly or only themselves
Most representative figure of this theory: Karl Marx
Ideology of class
a set of beliefs characteristic of stratified societies that justifies the division of a society into groups with differential rights and privileges as being natural and right. The ideology of class is a belief that the division of society into classes is both natural and right. According to Marx and Engels, if the ruling class controls the institutions that are responsible for determining how people view the world, if can promote the view that their dominance of society is in the best interests of all.
Historical Method
A mode of inquiry characterized by an inability to conduct experiments of even directly observe the phenomenon of interest. Instead, indirect means using historical documents, archaeological remains must be employed
generally female activities
gathering food & fuel, making drinks, dairy production, spinning, laundry, cooking
Of the following, which is the most common form if economic marriage transaction?
Bride price.
Patriarchy
The role of the male as the primary authority figure is central to social organization, and here fathers hold authority over women, children, and property.
holism
the theory that the parts of any whole cannot exist and cannot be understood except in their relation to the whole
religions affect power
Leaders have used religion to promote and justify their views and policies
Taliban
Bestelio
The Upper Paleolithic
The archeological period that saw the earliest occupation of Europe by modern humans
Nuclear Family
A group consisting of one or two parents and dependent offspring, which may include a stepparent, stepsiblings, and adopted children. Until recently this term referred only to the father, mother, and child(ren) unit.
imperialism
a policy of extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies
According to Spencer human societies as well as natural societies...
evolved from simple to complex
Polyandry
a form of marriage in which a woman is permitted to have more than one husband
Balanced Reciprocity
A mode of exchange in which the giving and the receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their delivery.
Transnational culture
culture that is not bound to a single locality
Polygyny
A form of marriage in which a man may have more than his wife.
because of problems with cross cultural comparison
-few anthropologists are willing to use this method
* it was popular in the 1950's and 1960's
power as a form of individual autonomy or self government
interpretive, imaginative resistance, defining the
nature of social interactions and persuading others to
accept such definitions, is an important dimension of
human consciousness
Differences in sharing vary by - Status
Elite & rich have benefits
3 main stages of a rite of passage
1. separation
2. transition
3. re-aggregation
To say that culture is mostly integrated, means that:
Customs and traits making up culture are interrelated.
In the movie "People Like Us," the people of Burlington, VT fought over _____________.
the type of grocery that would be built in their community.
/ 98
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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