Cultural Anthropology Final Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cro-Magnon
physical
human evolution
True/False
 
 
 
An anthropologist would probably find it difficult to define what "progress" is
True
Qualitative data
non-numeric information
Quantitative Research
Numeric information.
Physical (Biological) anthropologists focus their research on all of the following except:
Plants.
household
a basic residential unit
a language's meaning system
semantics
phonemes
individual sounds; english has 46
Communitas
Latin term for unstructured community
Symbols
Something that represents something else.
tribe
multiple bands together
-farming, herding (pasteralism)
-Bigman- head of group leads by suggestion
Chiefdom
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access ro resources and a permanent political structure
The fundamental organizing principle in small-scale societies is: a. accumulation of wealth b. ties of kinship c. religious ritual d. territoriality
B
Functionalism
Asumption that particular cultural traits may have a role in maintaining culture.
Austrolopithecus
500 cc's(Cranial Capacity). 2.5 million years ago. bipedal(two arches).Infants can no longer cling to mother's fur so fur becomes useless. Pelvis of bipedals is narrower, which means it is harder for mothers to give birth & limits the size of infants that are able to be born. Used more refined stone tools. Hands capable of power, can use all fingers simultaneously, opposable thumb. Slept in trees.
horticulture
sedentary lifestyle in which people maintain livestock in order to create a surplus for exchange. Gender division varies
culture shock
a condition of disorientation affecting someone who is suddenly exposed to an unfamiliar culture or way of life or set of attitudes
applied anthropology
the application of anthropology concepts to solve social problems
agriculture
cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively
Cahokia
AD 1050-1250; walled chiefdom in Illinois where Missippi and Missouri rivers meet
industrialism
based on the development of large-scale industries and marked by the production of large quantities of inexpensive manufactured goods and the concentration of employment in urban factories.
Race
A subgroup of human beings characterized by certain phenotypic (observable) traits. (this is a biological category based on phenotypic features.)
Formal interview
A structured question/answer session carefully notated as it occurs and based on prepared questions.
kindred
An individual's close blood relatives on the maternal and paternal sides of his or her family.
Art
the application of imagination, skill and style to matter, movement and sound that goes beyond what is purely practical
Ethnicity
identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
triangle
sign for male in kinship diagram
Historical linguistics
how language changes over time
mana
sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions
Matrilocal
a postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple lives with (or near)the wife's mother
Subsistence intensification
Technological innovations that produce more food from the same land area  but often require increased effort.
Deductive Approach
1. Posing hypothesis2. Gathering empirical data3. Assessing findings re: hypothesis
Tacitus
Ethnography - detailed description of cultural through first hand knowledge. Talked about how "barbarians" were dangerous to Romans
Nurture vs. nature
culture is the nurture portion
-Culture is learned, we live it, we get it from our parents, from everyone we relate to
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
a theory claiming that language influences perception.
Dowry
Payment of a woman's inheritance at the time of her marriage, either to her or to her husband.
Team Research
Longitudinal research is often team research. A bunch of people working on the same project.
globalization
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade
plural marriage
more than two spouses simultaneously, ala polygamy
Normative Orientation
moral values, ideals, and principles assigned cultural importance
Bronislaw Malinowski studied the _____ trading system of the Trobriand Islanders.
Kula Ring.
Affinity
family distinctions made on the basis of connections through marriage
Ethnography
Field work in a particular culture (very specific). Giving voice to those in less industrialized and developed nations. Often descriptive, requires field work to collect data.
Enculturation
The process by which a society's culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society.
Innovation
Process by which new technologies and systems of knowledge are based on or built from previous tools, knowledge, and skills.
ecosystem
living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions
Determinism
Explanation of the world based on religious presuppositions/interpretations.
exogamy
practice of seeking a spouse outside one's own group
incorporation
reintegrated in society with a new status[ex. frat initiation, boot camp]
Incest Taboo
The prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals, usually parent-child and sibling relations at a minimum.
Sororate
A man marries his deceased wife's sister
Ideology
a worldview that justifies the social arrangements under which people live
stratified societies
formal and permanent social and economic inequalities: wealth, prestige, and office are frequently inherited, some groups denied access to basic resources, differences ascribed(based on birth) or achieved(based on individual accomplishment), market systems, based on agriculture and industrialism, poli orgo called state
Culture Contact
Direct integration between peoples of different cultures through migration, trade, invasion, or conquest.
Gender Stratification
an unequal distribution of resources, power, prestige, and personal freedom between men and women
Seasonal Ritual
marking a culturally defined change in the annual cycle
Ambilineal Descent
Descent in which the individual may affiliate with either the mothers or fathers descent group.
Symbolic Culture
Involves the particularly human use of verbal or non-verbal symbols, to associate those symbols with meanings they they themselves do not necessarily bear.
linguistic anthropology
the study of human languages, looking at their structure, history and relation to social and cultural contexts.
Visual Counterpoint
Self awareness is not restricted to humans, chimps can see their reflections too and understand
morphology
study of how sounds come together to form meaning
human communication
the transfer of information from one person to another
Cultural anthropology
also known as social or sociocultural anthropology. The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures
Synchretism
the combining of elements from 2 or more religions
egalitarian societies
Everybody has about equal rank, access to, and power over basic resources.
Generalized reciprocity
Distribution of goods in which no overt account is kept of what is given, and no immediate or specific return is expected
Syntax
patterns and rules by which words are organized to make sense in a sentence
matriarchies
female is head of the family or society
Main Theme: Ortner
how identities are formed and transformed through dialogue btw two peoples-- sherpas and sahibs
Early Arrival
-proponents place the arrival of the 1st humans as early as 50,000
B.P.
-Sites that appear to support Early Arrival are found in North and South America and widely contested.
multi-linear evolution
Steward: specific cultures can evolve independent of others even if they follow the same evolutionary process.
domestic-public dichotomy
contrast between women’s role in the home and men’s role in public life, with a corresponding social devaluation of women’s work and worth
Ethnology
the comparative study of two or more cultures
political organization
the way power is distributed and embedded in society; the means through which a society creates and maintains social order and reduces social disorder
Collaborative Research
An approach to learning about culture that involves anthropologists working with members of the study population as partners and teammates rather than as researchers and subjects.
Gender
cultural or social The way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated and expected to behave.
occupation
what you do for a living based on work
Rite of passage
How do individuals change their status in society? What are the ways in which societies recognize the transition from child to adult? Ritual ceremonies intended to mark the transition from one phase of life to another. These rites mark the transition between an individual's life stages, AND they reinforce the dominant religious views and values of a culture. In other words, they reinforce the worldview. Three phases: 1) Separation, 2) liminality (no longer a child, not yet an adult), 3) Reincorporation
participant observant
being a part of the group being observed
alliance theory
we ban incest because sex and marriage are so important for building alliances, cooperation; Edward Tylor, Claude Levi-Strauss
Powers believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature are called _________.
Supernatural.
six design features of language
1. openness
2. displacement
3. arbitrariness
4. prevarication
5. multilevel patterning
6. semanticity
permanent liminal group
require liminal features for all of their sect or cult; this can include humility, poverty, equality, obedience, sexual abstinence, or silence
marvin harris
In his work he combined Karl Marx's emphasis on the forces of production with Malthus's insights on the impact of demographic factors on other parts of the sociocultural system. Labeling demographic and production factors as infrastructure, Harris posited these factors as key in determining a society's social structure and culture
Problems with racism
Obvious problem with racial labels
is that they don't accurately describe skin color
-Phenotypical similarities and differences do not necessarily have genetic basis
Eastern Island
is over 2,000 miles from the nearest population center making it one of the most isolated places on earth.
Redistribution
A form of exchange in which goods are concentrated and then distributed under the control of a central political authority
- regulates rankings
Patrilocal Residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the husband's father's place of residence.
Definition of religion
the belief & ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces.
identifying reliable informants
-more crucial of the three concerns of conducting fieldwork
-their answers knowledgeable and articulate, rich in data
Negative Reciprocity
a form of exchange in which the object is to get something for nothing or to make a profit
Camels
In the film "A Poor Man Shames Us All" what is the most important domestic livestock to the Gabra tribe of Kenya and Ethiopia
British India and Nepal
nepal off limits to british unitl 1950s, nepalese wary of british because they saw what they did in india so they resist involvement
Polyandry
Marriage of a woman to two or more men at one time, a form polygamy.
Marvin Harris' explanation for why Muslims and Jews dislike pigs?
The divine prohibition constituted a sound ecological strategy
-Reason rooted in environmental factors
-The pig is ill-adapted to the hot, dry climate in the so called biblical land (Middle East)
-Pigs cannot sweat enough to cool down their body temperature
-At a pace of 30 grams per hour per square meter
-When temp is below 84 degrees pigs are okay
-When temp is above 84 degrees they excrete indiscriminately
-Middle East area is just to hot to raise pigs
-If people raise pigs it is going to involve a lot of work and hard to keep them clean in those types of conditions
-To him it is relatively more convincing than previous explanations
Margaret Meed-Cross Cultural Infant Care
Comparing bath times around the world (culture and cleanliness at work). Various societies and cultures deal with infant care differently.
Difference between witchcraft and sorcery
Witchcraft is inborn and sorcery is learned.
how does a myth's openness compare
much less open than play or art
In class, Dr. Marcoux talked about how his movement between social classes was aided
by ______________.
His parents' investment in his education.
Which of the following is true about communication?
Both B and C.
- it includes symbols that are agreed upon like colors and sensations
- language is a form of communication that transmits culture.
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