Cultural Anthropology Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
living humans
folk magic
socially recognized mother
Interest in horoscopes, witchcraft, and other kinds of occult or supernatural phenomena have incresed in the West since World War II
scientifically identified health threat
promotes intercultural communication, including travel and migration, which bring people from different societies into direct contact
-New kinds of political and ethnic units emerging simultaneously
socially acceptable sexual and economic union involving a lasting commitment between two or more people who have parental rights and obligations to any children in the union
marriage outside a given group
Subsistence based on domesticated plant foods.
Stratification system in which membership in a stratum is in theory hereditary, strata are endogamous, and contact or relationships among members of different strata are governed by explicit laws, norms, or prohibitions
combining biological and cultural appraches to a given problem
a theoretical position concerning human behavior and ideas that says large forces such as the economy, social and political organization, and the media shape what people do and think
the scientific study of language
Linguistic Anthropology
The study of language and communication and the relationship between language and other aspects of culture and society.
Linguistic Anthropology
The study of language.
environmental injustice
nation states force hunter/gatherers, horticulturalists and herders to marginal lands and stigmatize. (9th ward)
not genetic, not inherited, not innate; learned by being told, observation and imitation
Food-Producing Revolution
gradual development of domesticated plants and animals; only begins @ 10,000 years ago
balanced reciprocity
midpoint on reciprocity continuum, between generalized and negative
Independence Training
fosters individual independence, self reliance, and personal achievement
participant observation
carefully observing and recording data, events in context and holistic; can "go native"
-loose sense of self, overwhelming equality
-An unstructured or minimally structured
community of equal individuals, found
frequently in rites of passage.
-(e.g., Raves; Sports teams winning; Holi in
India; Mardi Gras in New Orleans; Carnival in Rio)
The process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial societies.
in the early stage of development
automatically placing the children of a union between members of different groups in the minority group
Goods that carry little personal meaning.
bilateral descent
descent traced through both lines
Shamans are: a. part-time religious specialists who use their powers to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause illness b. part-time religious specialists who exist only among groups in Latin America c. full-time religious specialists employed by the go
patrilineal-patrilocal complex
an interrelated constellation of patrilineality, patrilocality, warfare, and male supremacy
acquirement of culture during infancy and childhood
A political leader who coordinates group activities and is a village spokesman but who serves only with the consent of of the community and has no coercive power
Patterns of culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas attributed to males, females, or blended categories.
Social Darwinism
-Interprets the conquest of an inferior society by a superior one as the result of the action of natural law, and hence not only moral but imperative
-A theory in service to colonialism and imperialism
Ilongot notion of anger or passion, cannot be translated fully
Cognatic Kinship
Descent thru male or female lines
Market Principal
Exchange in society. Profit-driven use of money to facilitate exchange of items whose value is determined by the laws of supply and demand.
mixed languages used for trade or colonial domination
functional explanation
explanation based on correlation or co-occurrence of social variables
Medical Anthropology
A specialization in anthropology that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease.
A Potlatch and Moka are perfect examples of _______.
realism ehtnography
3rd person, everything described from an authoritive perspective, the anthropologist knows all.
the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own.
Franz beaz (Historical)
not evolution, need more data
Primary innovation
The creation, invention, or chance discovery of a completely new idea, method, or device.
Culture Wars
Internal disagreements in a society about cultural models or about how society or the world should be organized
the use of direct argument and compromise by the parties to a dispute to arrive voluntarily at a mutually satisfactory agreement.
A mutual give-and-take among people of equal status
Money or property that the future groom pays the future bride's family so that he can marry her.
herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and yaks
-Attempt to protect their animals and
to ensure reproduction in return for
food and other products
Typically make use of herds for food
Sex is
biological, though not just binary opposites. Male/female/hermaphrodite/transgender
studies how language and culture are related and how language is used in different social contexts
polygamous family
one individual with multiple spouses and all of their children
Gained from having a surplus of resources
in linguistics, the study of the minimal units of meaning in language
industrial revolution
period of European history, generally identified as occuring in the late 18th century, marked by a shift in production from agriculture to industrial goods, urbanization, and the factory system
Separation of worker from the product of his/her labor
Indigenous People
A group with a long-standing connection with their home territory predating colonial or other societies that prevail in that territory.
An alternative cultural model within a society that expresses different views about the way that society should be organized.
Cultural Anthropology
Study of the way people live
structural suffering
human health problems caused by such economic and political factors as war, famine, terrorism, forced migration, and poverty
A group of consanguineal kin linked by their relationship to one living individual, includes both maternal and paternal kin.
International Monetary Fund
A multilateral institution based in Washington that lends money to governments to stabilize currencies and maintain order in international financial markets. For many decades, the Fund has imposed stringent loan conditions that often lead to worsening conditions for the majority of citizens in the affected countries.
a distinctive set of ideas values and behavior patterns by which a group with in a larger society operates while still sharing common standards with that larger society.
A force, power or essence that endows people, animals , other living things and possibly inanimate objects with special qualities or powers
a pattern of movement that occurs with pastoralism; part of the group moves with the herds, but most people stay in the home village
The new partners set up an independant household at a place of their choosing. (Tends to form in individualistic societies) especially those in which bilateral kindreds are found.
Define ethnocentrism:
When a culture thinks it's the main/best one
Contagious magic
things that were once connected stay connected and influence each other
2 major descent groups, amy have to marry between groups for alliances
A rule prescribing that a person must marry within a particular group
an object, word or action that stands for something else. Most symbols are arbitrary
The ability to talk about things that aren't present in space and time.
Romanticism and mountianeering
until 1950s, testing and refining innerself, glorification of nature, asceticism, mysticism and moralism; spiritual element, modernity is the problem mountaineering is the solution
Consequences of Domestication (bad)
-Health and Nutrition
-Not necessarily improve quality of life.
-Closer contact with people, so easier spread of disease.
-Same unvarying diet, poorer nutrition.
-Increase in dental caries (cavities).
Cultural Ecology
Assumes that people who live in similar environments will develop similar technologies, social structures, and political institutions.
sexual dimorphism
marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals
Relations of Production
the social relations linking the people who use a given means of production within a particular mode of production
a belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal spiritual power or supernatural potency
The study of a particular topic in more than one culture using ethnographic material.
Gender Blurring
Cultural issue
- women in sports
-"Third" Gender - cross gender
cultural expectations towards women
-be feminine
-be dependent on male
-be less aggressive
-be less sexual
Carol Cohn
Carol Cohn spent one year studying the culture of a strategic studies institute, or "think tank," for government defense analysts who plan nuclear strategy. She labeled participants (all men) who were speaking matter-of-factly about nuclear destruction as speaking in "technostrategic" language. This language includes expressions such as clean bombs (fusion bombs that release more energy than fission bombs, not as radiation but as explosive power); penetration aids (technology that helps missiles get through enemy defenses); collateral damage (human deaths); and surgical strikes (bombing that takes out only weapons or command centers). Domestic metaphors are common in the technostrategic language.
Minimal Pairs
Two words that are very similar except for one sound "pit" and "bit."
Frued's incest theory
Oedipus complex, male boys until about age 6 are sexually attracted to mothers and jealous of dad, so they work hard at identifying with dad because dad could hurt his genitals; girls don't have the same problem with the hurting of the genitals though; expresses hidden and repressed desires of children; incest prohibition helps avoid conflict in the house
The study of how language is changed throughout time and how they may be related is ______.
Historical linguistics.
A woman can be married to more than one man at a time.
historical particularism
It argued that each society is a collective representation of its unique historical past.
descent groups
group of people who share identity + come from common ancestor
alternate ends
People devote some time and energy
to build up a subsistence fund
Citizens of nonindustrial states also allocate scarce resources to a rent fund
-Peasants: small-scale agriculturalists who live in nonindustrial states and have rent fund obligations
Why did domestication occur?
Hunting and gathering actually takes less time and effort than
food production.
Agriculture is risky-could have crops die due to weather conditions.
Sororate and Levirate
Soroate is when husband marries wife's sister
Levriate is when wife marries husbands brother
A group of twenty five to fifty people who camp and forage together
the three examples of human evolution all think of human culture as...
following a unilineal evolution
-Less advanced
-More advance
Interpersonal Theory of Disease
illness is caused by tensions or conflicts in social relations
Apical Ancestor
The person who stands at the apex, or top, of the common genealogy. Adam is the apical ancestor since Eve came from his rib, he was the first human being ever.
globalization of tuna impacts on fishin
international competition for global commodity, creation of international regulations to manage "stateless" fish that migrate extensively, dev. of new more intensive fishing tchniques
fiat (credit) money
money that is backed by nothing other than a government decree that is be accepted for the sale of goods or services or the settlement of debt
What is culture?
-its the stuff we have, the way we behave, the way we think
-its the lens through which we interpret everything
-we will look at different aspects of society and hot they interconnect
Cultural domain analysis
The study of how people in a group think about lists of things that somehow go together.
Connection between a symbol and its meaning
o is arbitrary
o is not natural
o is never fixed
o is often unspoken
o depends on cultural and historical context
Physical, reproduction, comfort, protection, movements, growth, health, spiritual care.
What are the felt needs of the human race.
With regard to kinship, the Mardu _______.
do not distinguish between close blood relatives and distant kin.
have to isolate samples using cultural context
-(Monotheism) if I ask you to come up with several examples what kind of religions belong to this
-Islam, Christianity, Judaism
-Among these three religions they believe in one different God
-Sample them together under one category (monotheism)
-But these three religions are very different
-By putting them together you are isolating a lot of things from rich cultural context
"Upright Man"
tone of voice
Sherpa ethnicity
tibetan origin
vocal symbol
sound or image
-adapt humanistic approach
1. Think anthropology is a more humanistic field
2. Emphasize the uniqueness of each culture
-quite skeptical about the possibility that we can find generalized rules that apply to every or a lot of different societies
3. Argue that human needs can be satisfied in many ways
-acknowledge fact that humans have common needs
-example: in the case of protein intake- we have many ways to satisfy this need
-our way of fulfilling our need is culturally constructed
4. Treat cultures more like "texts" rather than "things"
-if we see culture as a text- the anthropologist is the reader of the text
Emic approach
Investigates how people think.
form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin overrides sex/age
residence in permanent settlements such as villages, towns, and cities, which began with plant and animal domestication and intensified during the Neolithic era and the emergence of farming
a culturally constructed category based on PERCEIVED physical differences, which is used to imply hereditary differences between peoples and to justify various systems of social stratification. (physical variation)
formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification

Gender is largly determinded by

2 divisions of physical anthropolgy
1.Paleoanthropology(human paleontology)
2.Human variation
Authentic self. Value placed on individualism and self-reliance. Emphasis on self-acting independently from others. Often overlooks contributions made by family, schooling, status in society
characterized by or calling for continued sitting;remaining in one place
State level societies in Africa include all but the following:
global capitalism
ability of MNC's (multi-national corporations) to make and sell products internationally, creating a link between economies across the globe
American School
geographic culture centers, traits develop (Wissek &Kroebar)
(Radcliffe Brown) A paradigm that begins with the assumption that society is a unified whole that functions because of the contributions of its separate structures.
cultural choices consistently made by a society and practiced generation to generation
Pertaining to one moment in time
discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces
the continuous landmass formed by Australia and New Guinea in periods of low sea level
people born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female
identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group, and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation
social control
external control through open coercion
the study of lexical (vocabulary) contrasts and classifications in various languages
Areas of study within cultural anthropology
urban anthropology
anthropology of women
applied anthropology
Is a culturally derived code of conduct aimed at preserving harmony within
society. In other words, ethics is the tools by which a society achieves a moral result.
Ethics are comprised of norms developed by society in order to preserve society.
full time religious leaders
spiritual healing, lifetime, formal education
the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
Relative to Nature
Culture channels, regulates, and manages the biological, representing particular relationship with the natural body and with the natural world.
use psychic powers to affect people through emotion and thought
Philosophies about what has beauty and value
A society's shared sense of identity and worldview. The collective body of ideas, beliefs, and values by which a group of people makes sense of the world—its shape, challenges, and opportunities—and their place in it...this includes religion and national ideology
a natural attraction or feeling of kinship
non-state society
have different belief systems, which imply a different institutionalization of power as natural or rational.
can always come up with new sentences
culture shock
reduced competence as a cultural actor
Kinship termonology system in which no nuclear family kin term in extended to more distant relatives; nuclear family members have unique terms
mediation with an unbiased third party making the ultimate decision.
all culture is not biologically inherited
is Learned
Meaning of good stock, practice of selective breeding in order to improve the quality of the human race
study of the origins and predecesors of the present human species
differential access
unequal access to resources; basic attribute of chiefdoms and states. Superordinates have favored access to such resources, while the access of subordinates is limited by superordinates.
Simple Bands*
-Small family group (extended family groups)-Family head as leader-exerts his influence, not his authority-decisions are made as a group; males and females together-associated with difficult ecology and exogamous marriage (marry out/fission--creates alliances with neighboring groups)
more real than real; eg. Disneyland because you don't actually have to go to the swamp to see the alligators, etc.
Descent group
Social group based on genealogical connections to a common ancestor
Applied Anthropology
uses the theories, methods and ethnographic findings of anthropology to solve human problems
certain titles that were once honorary take on derogatory meanings; ex. mistress, dame
semantic derogation
Cultural universals
Learned behavior patterns that are shared by all humanity. e.g.
Division of labor within families
cultural relativity
the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which behavior takes place. view other cultures through our own experience (shakespeare in the bush)
standard medium of exchange that has a mutually agreed upon value
an animal or plant apical ancestor of a clan
linguistic relativity
the idea that distrinction encoded in one language are unique to that language
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Quant: numbers and statistics, Qual: ex) how much fighting do the women of the Sheyan tribe do in comparison to the men? Anthropology is Qualitative.
According to the movie "People Like Us," most Americans consider themselves _________.
Middle Class.
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line. the male has authority.
Matrilineal Descent
Unilineal descent rule in which people join the mothers group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life. (ex: the Hopi, the Na)
stratified societies
A society with a hierarchy divided into ranks, or layers, and do not share equally in basic resources that support survival, influence, or prestige.
Pluralistic socieities huge challenge of globalizing world
pluralistic society Russian Federation
Cultural Relativistic Fallacy
Unable to make a moral judgment.
Physical/Biological Anthropology
The study of the (physical) and biological dimension of human studies of past and present populations. Ex: Resistance of disease.
cultural colonialism
internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over other people
core vocabularies
the most basic and long-lasting words in any language-pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects
Kaluli and Etoro
Kaluli do ingestion and insemination of semen
Etoro do insemination of semen
advocacy anthropology
research that is community based and politically involved
Dominant Ideology
The dominant class makes ideologies of why they are at the top. ex. Medieval Europe, inequalities were divinely ordained and unchangeable.
- live in Indonesia- example of how matrilineality affect society- play an important role running the village and raising children- men travel back and forth from his wife’s house to his mother’s house, have no real affect on things
One Adam and Eve which adapted to their environment
Social movements
collective action by a group of people trying to seek to promote economy, political, or social changes or resist such changes
Consanguine Family
A family unit consisting of a woman, her dependent offspring, and the womans brothers.
String figures
used in the pacific north west to illustrate myths, children's game in the usa.
Focal Vocabulary
A set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers.
symbolic capital
capital which is made up of cultural values, not monetary value
Female genital cutting
Any procedure involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs "whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons."
Historical Linguistics
The study of changes in language and communication over time and between people in contact.
Anthropological perspective
is one of many ways people have adapted to specific life conditions.
social stratification
the ranking of people or groups based on their access to unequal economic resources and prestige.
Chain model for culture
Environment -> economics -> social organization -> ideology Each one above sets limits on the next but does not determine.
Without culture an individual...
-will have impaired psychological and social development
hard power
coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force
Function of Taboos
Social control - provides a standard of behavior
Strengthens solidarity through and "us" mentality
Sustain awesomeness of supernatural by its power to punish
Spirit of the Gift
Gifts contain something of the giver and are compelled by Hau
Among the Azande, the Benge Oracle is also known as the _____________.
The poison oracle.
Biological or Physical Anthropology
The study of human origins and biological diversity
When & where did domestication occur?
-Occurred Worldwide independently and involved many
different species!
-around 11,000
Cultural Anthropology (social)
The study of living peoples and their cultures, including variations and change.
behavioral perspective of culture
is shared, learned behavior, a way of life
Culture Type
the view of a culture in terms of the relation of its particular technology to the environment exploited by that technology.
Hunting-gathering bands: tools for hunting
Men carried bow and arrows with poisonous tips, and darts and blowguns in heavily forested areas. They also used nets, spears, boomerangs, and atlatl. Women used pointed sticks(dibbles) and bags.
Why are sherpas naturally strong?
bbig people dont carry loads dont need money and dont work as porters while tenants and servants carry own loads and others' loads, need money and work as porters
how many souls you can have
infinite - no reason to have just one
religious reading.
production and reproduction
capital of nepal
meaning associated with word
culturally defined relationships between individuals who are commonly thought of as having family ties.
Fright/shock disease, a culture-specific illness found in Spain and Portugal and among Latino people wherever they live; symptoms include back pain, fatigue, weakness, and lack of appetite
greatest degree of flexibility
-experience most interaction with people in order to gain deeper look into the culture
everyone behaving, believing and valuing the same thing
prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions; result of contact with chief's belongings
The development of Bahavioral; Physiological character that aid survivorship in a given enviroment
the culturally generated behavior associated with particular statuses
pertaining to finances and taxation
Brides raised by their husband's family in China, proves insest taboo
4 fields of anthropology
1.Physical or biological
3. Linguistics
4. Cultural
the belief that individuals are stable, autonomous entities who exist more or less independently of whatever situation or status they occupy (America is very individualistic)
Pantribal Societies
Fraternity or association across tribes based on descent, but also such factors as gender and age (Masai of Kenya). Sometimes organized around economic need, such as coming together for organized hunts (Central Plains Indians)
cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production - land, labor, capital, and machinery. It uses simple tools such as digging sticks and hoes. Uses slash-and-burn techniques.
Artistic and ritualistic scarring of the face or other parts of the body in particular designs, commonly used to mark transitions to adulthood
When studying language, linguists call each sound a:
What makes up culture?
Physical, Environmental, Psychological, Social
cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture because it uses land intensively and continuously
carrying capacity
max pop'n area can sustain
gender stratification
unequal distribution of rewards between genders
power, the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women
descent group who claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent)
a collective phenomenon shaped by interace of individual intentions, local worlds, and global flows; ongoing future oriented process; seeks to make and remake the world around certain values
best known southwest Asians to cultivate wild grains and cereal grasses
vocal qualifiers
in paralanguage, vocalizationsof brief duration that modify utterances in terms of intensity. include volume, pitch, tempo
ethnic group
group distinguished by cultural similarities (shared among members of that group) and differences (between that group and others); ethnic group members share beliefs, values, habits, customs and norms, and a common language, religion, history, geography, kinship, and/or race.
stories whose truth seem self-evident because they do such a good job of integrating our personal experiences with a wider set of assumptions about the way society, or the world in general, must operate
in rites of passage, reincorporation of the individual into society in his or her new status
associated "r" pronounciation with prestige through studies conducted in New York in 1972
William Labov
Social Function of religion
Support from community
"Potlatch" is a celebration, in which a contending group would try to give its
rival such a large gift that it could not be easily repaid. This would demonstrate
their superior economic and social power. (p.111)
incest taboo
prohibition against having sex with immediate family
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
experiences and understandings of a culture are constrained because they can only be expressed in ways which its language allows; each language organizes the world through its particular vocabulary, grammar, and metaphors
Shared Culture
rather than being an individual quality, culture is collective, shared among groups of people; this sharing of culture takes place across generation in order for culture to survive.
ability to identify oneself as an individual, to reflect on oneself, and to evaluate oneself
Calendric Rituals
Ceremonies performed at specific times during the year for example agricultural rituals performed for planting, growing, and harvesting crops
Social Linguistics
Emphasizes the importance of language and social interaction
cultural determinism
material conditions will dictate your life and way of thinking
molding of people into normal forms instead of abnormal as seen by society
the object, experience, being, in the real world with which the symbol is associated
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
cultural materialism
(Marvin Harris) idea that cultural infrastructure determines structure and superstructure. infrastructure => structure => superstructure
Patrilineal Descent
People trace their primary kinship relationships to the ancestors and living relatives of their father (most common)
The central person from whom the degree of each relationship is traced.
culture way to satisfy biologically determined needs
socially appropriate
the characteristic of having a blend of both masculine and feminine personality characteristics but not strongly either one.
Herbert Spencer
English sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
Brute caricature
Savages with propensity for violence and crime, threat to white women
interpretive anthropology
cultures are best understood by studying what people think about, their ideas, and the meanings that are important to them
Achieved Status
social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments rather than ascription
Composite Bands*
-Larger aggregation (can be unrelated members)-Big Man as leader--informal structure, but this person is the leader; based on influence, rep, skill, etc.
negative reciprocity
moochers (always take, never give); uni-directional
Patrilocal band
A theoretical form of band organization based on exogamy and patrilocal residence.
the study of sounds used in speech
Country with a majority of only one language
Of or pertaining to analysis of a culture from the perspective on
one who is not a participant in that culture, emphasizes categories
The act of granting freedom to slaves is commonly referred to as ________.
"weapons of the weak"
Cosmetic surgery, spirit possession, way to fight back. Slows down the machine but doesn't dismantle the system. Self monitering, self regulation to measure up to societal ideals
Call System
Vocal systems of communication used by non-human primates. Each call has only one meaning and different calls do not combine.
A group whose members and other think of their way of life as in some significant way different from that of other people in the larger society.
New Reproductive Technologies (NRTs)
Alternative means of reproduction. i.e. surrogate mother, and in vitro fertilization.
Bronislow Malinowski described seven basic needs for all cultures, his theories are referred to as...
Pure/Psychological Structuralism. He did this breakthrough work on the Trobriand islanders off the coast of Australia. Seven basic needs are 1. Nutrition 2. Reproduction 3. Bodily Comforts 4. Safety 5. Relaxation 6. Movement 7. Growth
the name of the structures found at Stonehenge, consisting of two large vertical stones I I with a horizontal stone capping them ---- (15 - 18 ft above ground)
code switching
the process of changing from one language or dialect to another
A farming technique in which forest is cleared and burned to enrich the soil for planting
cultural relativism
the idea that one must suspend judgement of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
Wage Laborer
Labor spent not for getting one's needs for subsistence/survival; but for getting the 'means' to meet one's "need"
nuclear family established when one marries and has children
family of procreation
medical pluralism
the existence of more than one health system in a culture; also, a government policy to promote the integration of local healing systems into biomedical practice.
Neolocal Residence
A pattern in which a married couple establishes its household in a location apart from either the husbands or the wifes relatives.
a form of culture change in which a culture is thoroughly acculturated, or decultured, and is no longer distinguishable as having a separate identity
regional dialect
the concept that refers to versions of a particular language associated with a particular regional setting
Napoleon Chagnon- Fieldwork methods
Known for his long-term ethnographic field work among the Yanomamö. The Yanomamo are a society of indigenous tribal Amazonians that live in the border area between Venezuela and Brazil. He conducted fieldwork among these people from the mid-1960s until the latter half of 1990s. Chagnon was constantly asking questions and a major focus of his research was the collection of genealogies of the residents of the villages that he visited, and from these he would analyze patterns of relatedness, marriage patterns, cooperation, and settlement pattern histories.
Indigenous Societies
Peoples who are now minority in state societies but who were formerly independent and have occupied their territories for a long time.
religions affect power
Leaders have used religion to promote and justify their views and policies
principle of reciprocity
the social principle that giving a gift creates social ties with the person receiving it, who eventually is obliged to reciprocate.
Using more than one method to point to one answer and increase the probability of that answer being right. One method's strengths will make up for other method's weakness.
Folk Taxonomy
A way of putting things in groups without any real scientific knowledge.
Social Function of religion
Ceremony with established gestures
everyone knows what to do and how
to do it, step 1, 2, 3, 4
Helps us relate to the supernatural beings and "feel good"
Religious people have fewer physical illnesses and mental illnesses
one of the mediums we use to make our knowledge concrete and to communicate with others, it plays a major role in giving us a sense of the universe and ourselves. By sharing a language, we also share a view of the world expressed in the vocabulary, grammar, and metaphors of the language. Language is often strongly tied to a national identity; it is one of the tools that people have to signal how they want to be placed in society. Grammar can signal gender, what is said may also convey gender, whether or not to speak, and conversational styles may also convey gender. Language can also be used to construct others, groups from which people want to separate themselves.
In anthropology "C"ulture refers to:
All the learned behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or population.
marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time
Culture can be defined as: a. a set of ideas and meanings which people use based on the past and by which they construct the present. b. the means by which human beings adapt to their environment c. a body of learned, symbolic behavior that is trans
nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
family of orientation
exs. of mens speech
do more in a conversation to control topic and be center
give few positive minimal responses
ment dont head nod or make eye contact as much
men interrupt the other speaker more.
want bottom line
acephalous society "A's sefalous"
a society in which political power is diffused to the degree that there are no institutionalized political leadership roles such as chiefs and kings. Bands and tribes are acephalous. Most foragers and simple horticulturalists have highly egalitarian, acephalous societies. The word "acephalous" is Greek for "without a head."
Hunting and gathering bands- health
Very good health due to active lifestyle, good diet. Rate of disease very low except for chicken pox, herpes, and shingles. ALso, risk of disease of contamination due to no running water/flushed toilet/garbage.
In buddhism, the self
does not exist. A person is remade in each moment.
protestant values and the rise of capitalism
Weber linked spread of capitalism to values central to the Protestant faith:
Hard working
Future oriented
Free thinking
-Capitalism required traditional attitudes
of Catholic peasants be replaced by values fitting an industrial economy
material culture
unit of sound
formal negative sanctions
insiders point of view
food-procurement strategy that involves collecting wild plant and animal foods. might be difference in amount of hunt/gather in different groups

Although the family is not universal, the household is





a dictionary of a language
society's set of
environmental practices and
-Indigenous ethnoecologies increasingly challenged by migration, media, and commerce
wealth power prestige? race, class,ethnicity, etc
Biological differences between males and females.
changes incorporated into a new identity or status in society
festive event within regional exchange system. such items include food, blankets, copper, cargo. enhanced one's reputation
generally male activities
hunting, metalwork, lumbering, building boats, harder labor, butchering, building houses, clearing land, tending animals
(has boundries in a nation state)
having limits; lasting for a limited time
food producing strategy of adaptation based on care of herds of domesticated animals
Transfer of wealth, usually from parents to their daughter
Process in which traditional cultures come under the influence of Western culture.
Class consciousness
-recognition of collective interests and personal identification with one's economic group
-Viewed classes a powerful collective forces that could mobilize human energies to influence history
the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
the manifest characteristics of an organism collectively, including anotomical and physiological traits that result from both heredity and environment
An example of Catholic syncretism among the Mixtec of Mexico as discussed in class was: a. the use of the cross as a marker for the cardinal directions as well as Christianity b. the ritual sacrifice of 80 roosters, and one duck, representing the behe
a system, or functioning whole, composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it
Emic Perspective
-examining society using concepts, categories and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture-an insider's perspective, looks at meanings from the inside
system of social stratification based on assignment at birth to the ranked social or occupational groups of parents. There is no mobility from one caste to another, & intermarriage may be forbidden


Power to influence or command thought, opinion, or behavior
an etic or scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen
an economic organization of society built largely on mechanized industry rather than agriculture, craftsmanship, or commerce.
Cooperation Explanation
Forcing people outside their familial unit.
mother language
language that branches into daughter languages
To give or deposit (personal property) as security for the payment of money borrowed
In the reading "Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief," the anthropologist studied in what country?
The knowledge shared by those who speak and understand a language.
i.e. sounds, meanings, words, sentences
The spirit of a dead person
It manifests itself in the natural world, to the living
Has the personality from a dead person
Societies in which everyone has about equal access to and power over basic resources.
Cultural Models
Shared assumptions that people have about the world and about the ideal culture.
society's learned and habitual ways of thinking and behaving
changes in cultural patterns of either or both groups
Humoral healing
healing that emphasizes balance among natural elements within the body
behavior that is learned through being a member of a social group or community (every aspect of someone's life in a social group/community)
The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.
celibate monks
risen since 1916; removed from economy-full time religious specialist; removed from family life; rituals for health and well being also for moral purification and enlightenment
Clans have which of the following features?: a. members claim descent from a common ancestor b. they are most often exogamous c. members typically hold land or other property in common d. all of the above
descriptive linguistics
the branch of linguistics that involves unraveling a language by recording, describing, and analyzing all of its features
Rites of Passage
Important stage in ones life
a religious practiioner skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which he or she carries out for the benefit of the group
the right of political leaders to govern-to hold, use, and allocate power-based on the values a particular society


A group of people tracing descent from a common ancestor
Cultural Anthropology
Study of the way people live
- is marriage that takes place within a group.
Franz Boas
one of the founders of anthropology, was among the first social scientists who worked to discredit racist and sexist theories and ideologies that sough to legitimize the marginalization of people based on race, religion, gender, and ethnicity. Franz Boas: Promoted ethnographic fieldwork and comparative analysis / challenged the attitude that Western cultures were superior / promoted attitude that society's customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in their own context
General Reciprocity
giving of items without expectation of immediate return
Fine art
an ethnocentrism, based on a formal education systemand a stratified society. formally schooled artist, signs work.
kinship calculation
how people in a particular society reckon kin relations
Dobe Ju/Hoansi
name of band in Kalahori desert. Nomadic, follow water holes, practice polygamy, division of labor by gender w/out specialization
A person may have more than one spouse, also known as plural marriage.
Dominance Hierarchy
social hieraches based on sex and gender
one man and multiple wives in a marriage
part of every rite of passage and involves temporary suspension and even reversal of everyday social distinctions
a figure of speech in which linguistic expressions are taken from one area of experience and applied to another
independent invention
development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances
nonlinguistic symbol
Any symbols that exist outside the system of language and speech; for example, visual symbols
Diffusion is also known as: a. gradual change through invention b. cultural borrowing c. crucial to demands for change d. all of the above
custom by which a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
Scalae Natura
-The Great Chain of Being-rank order of life forms on the planet (God, angel, Heaven, Human, Beast, Plant, Flame, Stone, etc.)
The belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits.

Gender is distinguished apart from sex and sexuality in as much as it is largely based upon
Learned societal roles
Culture History
Ongoing culture change in which people respond and adapt to their environment.
to change in order to better fit into your surroundings
4 Types of Subsistence Patters
1. Food Collectors (hunter/gatherers and foragers)
Collect wild plant resources/hunt wild animals
4. Intensive Agriculturalists
phoneme; the study of the sounds of a language and the way they are patterned
Marriage is a socially approved ______ and ______ union.
Sexual and economic.
Nonverbal communication
The process whereby a message is sent and received through any one of the senses without the use of language.
"Trobriand Cricket"
A film about Cricket in Papua New Guinea, Introduced by Christian Missionaries, and the Trobriandes made it into their own game. For the Trobriandes cricket involves magic, warfare dress, ritual chants, the whole village participates, and it is used as a substitute warfare.
A regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people. (i.e. Kpelle chief in LIberia)
bride service
man does service for wife's family in order to be allowed to marry her
nuclear family
a group consisting of one or more parents and dependent offspring, which may include a step parent, step siblings, and adopted children
population density
number of people in a given geographic area
the system by which people in a particular society reckon kin relationships
kinship calculation
what is not being globalized?
"fruits" of globalization are not being shared by everyone in the world
-free travel and migration
-access to technology (digital divide)
-access to democracy
Bilateral Kinship System
a system in which kinship ties are calculated equally through both sexes. (ex: US, Europe)
Ascribed status
A positin or rank that is assigned to an individual at birth and cannot be changed.
Culture is learned ________.
socially. -We learn while we're living in the particular human society that we live in. -We are born with the capacity to acquire this culture
What does a medical anthropology study?
Cultural health - witchcraft, yin/yang
Who cures - shaman, doctor
"if men could menstruate" -steinem
Men would be proud of everything associated with menstruation and feminists would taken an "anti-blood" stance; it would be a much different thing because it occurs with men it would be something to be proud of, not ashamed or embarresed of.
National Historic Preservation Act
law put in place to help protect cultural history
The term subculture refers to:
The variant culture of a group of people within a larger society.
Village Head v. Big Man
Village Head = 1 village
Big Man = Several Villages
The following is true about the sexual division of labor among the Mardu Aborigines:
Men hunt larger game, and women primarily gather plant resources.
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