Cultural Anthropology Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
our family
social father
Quantitative data
numeric information
Qualitative Research
Descriptive information.
Comparative study of cultures
gender in Tahiti
social characteristics and expectations that surround men and women in a society
small kin-based groups among foragers
Full-time religious practitioners who lead a religious organization and officiate at rituals but are expected to be able to communicate directly with the spirit world
Herding. Seasonally nomadic. In extreme regions that are hard to live in.
matrilineal descent
through female line only
the study of language meaning
Symbolic anthropology: a. studies similar symbols in different cultures in order to prove that all symbols have some form of universal meaning b. studies historical texts to uncover the truth of cultural evolution c. sees culture as a set of symbols
Part-time religious specialist  with special skills for dealing with the spirit world. May help with healing and divination.
Primate territory
Generally, primates aren't territorial. They have ranges, where the group collects food & where they can mostly be found. When core areas are shared, members of groups are most likely to shift groups-mostly males. Core areas are peace areas(no fighting). A sick or injured monkey might as well be dead(group doesn't wait or bring food to hurt comrades.)
sedentary lifestyle that relies on market/local exchange with social stratification and gender divides
3rd person, everything described from an authoritive perspective, the anthropologist knows all.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
different languages produce different ways of thinking
behavior that is formalized, stylized, repetitive and performed earnestly as a social act; held at set times and places and have liturgical meaning
Emile Durkheim
Father of sociology, functionalism, metaphysician, mechanical and organic solidarity, developed idea that division of labor as organizing theme of society
An organism's evident traits; its "manifested biology". (ex: skin color, hair, facial features, and eye color)
approach of studying a culture's behavior from the perspective of an outsider
An extended unilineal kinship group, whose members claim common descent from an ancestor (usually legendary or mythological)
Achieved status
gained through choices, actions, efforts, talents, or accomplishments
The Adaptive Value of Religious Ritual-- participation in exruciating rituals as disincentive for non believers to participate,minimize need for monitoring mechanisms to limit free rider problem
kinship; relationship by birth; blood relatives
communal religions
In Wallace’s typology, these religions have—in addition to shamanic cults—communal cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage.
an anthropologist's written or filmed description of a particular culture
Father of Ethnocentricity
Heroditus - Greek, oral
is a social practice that combines recreation with business
Has two parts
-Recreation: to have fun, enjoy themselves
-Business: a lot of countries/places tourism is the backbone of economy- big industry
conceptual relativity
conceptual systems vary from culture to culture. (house v. casa or haus-house vs. haus-thirsty)
Extended Family
A collection of nuclear families, related by ties of blood, that live togeather in one household.
Longitudinal Research
Research conducted over an extended period of time, such as over the course of decades.
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade
a nun-human, apical ancestor, can be plant or animal
Social Linguistics
Emphasizes the importance of language and social interaction
Marriage rules stating that one must marry inside some social group or community are called rules of __________.
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Recognition of kinship to and through the mother.
Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America
The spread of certain ideas, custom, or practices from one culture to another.
Culture Contact
Direct interaction between peoples of different cultures through migration, trade, invasion, or conquest.
Iroquois system
Kinship reckoning where father + father's brother are called by same name and mother + mother's sister same name, but father's sister and mother's brother are called by different names.
A rule allowing more than one spouse
a system, or a functioning whole composed of both the physical environment and the organisms living within it.
married couples may live hundreds of miles from parents
Rites of Passage
Rituals associated with transition from one place or stage of life to another, confer to individuals change in social status
Cultivation of crops using hand tools such as digging sticks or hoes.
the study of nonhuman primates in their natural environments for the purpose of gaining insights into the human evolutionary process
convergent evolution
in cultural evolutino, the development of similar cultural adaptations to similar environmental conditinos by different people with different ancestral cultures
Two Spirits
"Male prostitute"
Caused by a "spirit intervention" and considered powerful because of their spiritual allies
Marries another male to balance the division of labor
the study of the sounds of language
Propery held in cmmon by descent group, perhaps including territory, sacred sites and ceremonies.
A structure that allows buyers and sellers to exchange any types of goods, services and information.
A mode of consumption that emphasizes simplicity, is characterized by few and finite consumer demands, and involves an adequate and sustainable means to achieve them.
Cultural Integration
Tendency for people's practices and beliefs to form a relatively coherent and consistent system .
legal code with trial and enforcement, foragers lack this
Gender Binary
the classification of sex and gender into two distinct and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine. It can describe a social boundary that discourages people from crossing or mixing gender roles, or from creating a third form of gender expression altogether
Eskimo System
A system of kinship terminology, also called lineal system, that emphasizes the nuclear family by specifically distinguishing mother, father, brother, sister while lumping togeather all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, cousin.
Historical Linguistics
The study and reconstruction of past languages (protolanguages) through the study of their contemporary variants (daughter languages).
cultural adaptation
a complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enables people to survive and even thrive in their environment.
Balanced Reciprocity
the term suggested by Marshall D. Sahlins for a form of exchange in which items of equal or non-equal value are exchanged on the spot
destruction by a dominant group of the culture of an ethnic group
Noam Chomsky
theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language
what does play involve
involves openness of action, the
ground condition of human agency.
The act or process of making a map.
The Protestant Ethic
focused on the values whose internalization is necessary if the society is to persist; what enabled capitalism to flourish was the new values that came into being with Protestantism (self denial, work, sacrifice, not living luxuriously)
Call System
a form of oral communication among non-human primates with a set of meaningful sounds generated in response to environmental factors
term referring to the social system in which a married couple resides with or near the husband's parents
Of Worms and Other Parasites-- mali as undernourished- case studies of people who have good appetite but are underweight , difficult to believe links btw behavior and long term manifestation of illness
The Predmosti Site
early modern human upper paleolithic site located in the Czech republic.
structural functionalism
Radcliffe/Brown: how parts of a culture function to benefit the society.
Age Set
group uniting all men or women (usually men) born during a certain time span; this group controls property and often has political and military functions.
an explanation of events based on the belief that certain individuals possess an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness and death
The ability of humans to make choices and use free will.
________ across the globe are closer in personality around the world then _______
organized mass tourists
rely on travel agency to arrange everything
-tickets, hotel, resort, all services
-travel is a package for these people
-superficial understanding of particular place and culture
the fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition
linguistic nationalism
to forbid use of other language and desire for national language
Key Metaphors
a term coined by Sherry Ortner to identify metaphors that dominate the meanings that other people in a specific culture attribute to their experience
Which of the following is not a typical trait that describes a shaman?
full-time specialist.
what is language made of?
1. sounds-(phoneme, phonology)
2. word structure-(morpheme, morphology)
3. sentence structure-(syntax)
4. semantics- ( meaning)
5. pragmatics- (context, language in use)
song battle
this is one way an Inuit person challenges a rival, they make up insulting songs about each other and the audience judges who is the winner; occurs frequently when one man steals another man's wife
art in the state
State societies rely on critics, judges, and experts to define what's art and what isn't
race is also...
Race is cultural category rather than biological reality
-It is not possible to define human
races biologically
Origins of food production
-People began to practice cultivation of plants.
-Deliberate collecting of seeds for planting.
-Tame wild animals
-People began to rely on certain plants or animals
Wampanoag and Narragansett gardens
Managed woodlands and deer population with horticulture and forarging
Matrilocal Residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the wife's mother's place of residence.
Where is recovery for neurosis and psychosis best? Why?
"Dependent" social structures because you're needed as a worker
developing a rapport
-you have to make friends with the local people
Ethnographic Present
a description of a culture as it was prior to contact.
In their Dreams
In the film, "The way of the Ancestors: Religion in Indonesia" how do ancestors contact the living
Avoid over innovation
projects may fail because they are not exonomically or culturally compatible [washing machine introduction]
Marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time; a form of polygamy.
impacts of mass tourism
1. force the local people and culture to meet the needs of tourists
2. can cause dramatic and disruptive cultural change
3. has changed the livelihood of locals and creates a dependency on tourists and industry
4. environmental damage
Helen Fischer- Romantic love and Societal trends
roposed that humanity has evolved three core brain systems for mating and reproduction:
1. lust - the sex drive or libido
2. attraction - early stage intense romantic love.
3. attachment - deep feelings of union with a long term partner.
Combines evolutionary with social cultural approach. Talks about biological and social shapes that affect love.
Characteristic of Culture: Learned
A process by which a culture is transmitted from generation to generation
Ralph Linton & Abram Kardnir (psych.)
brought in the aspect of personality in culture (idea of national...)
When it comes to race, Anthropologists generally argue that ____________.
There is more variation within any given human population than between any two populations.
What is the cultural norm? What is the expected norm within a culture? What are the hidden rules of right behavior? Is the cultural norm in keeping with biblical truth? Is this what responsible people in the culture do?
What are four major questions to consider in culture change and adaptation?
our tribe
social mother
Non-verbal communication
body language
the biological father
Ferdinand Saussure
Founder of structuralism
agnatic descent
see patrilineal descent.
variance in a language
organized with formal political institutions and social hierarchy
Part-time religious practitioners who make contact with the spirit world through prayer, ritual, and trance
Total words in a language.
an externalized social control designed to encourage conformity to social norms.
stratified society with formal, central government
Migration, conquest, and colonialism
led most nation-states not to be
ethnically homogeneous
The term “political economy” refers to the fact that: a. politics always involves management or manipulation of important economic resources b. states shouldnot interfere in the laissez-faire nature of market economies c. business leaders always con
Biological father of a child
Primate Matrilines
form stability of groups
William Labov
department store study comparing vocalic sounds with social class.
applied anthropology
the application of anthropoligical data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems
biological anthropology
study of human biological diversity
only part pf population moves seasonally with herds
beliefs and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces
growing domestic crops in small gardens using only hand tools and human labor
(Foucault, Derrida) the world is complex, it is impossible to have true, objective knowledge of another culture
settling a dispute through negotiation assisted by an unbiased third party.
in the disease- illness dichotomy, culturally shaped perceptions and experiences of a health problem
plural society
society combining ethnic contrasts,
ecological specialization, and
economically dependent groups
Feminine Power at Sea- linguistic analysis of maritime culture, figureheads of female patron saint
descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents(Children will belong to the kinship group of both parents.)
organic analogy
functionalist idea: cultural systems all are part of a whole cultural unit like a biological organism with its different parts (heart, lungs, etc) to maintain the health of it.
the most extreme, coercive, abusive, and inhumane form of legalized inequality; people who are treated as property
a postmarital residence pattern in which a married couple live with (or near) the husband's mother's brother (from avuncular, "of uncles")
Live in small acale tribal societies
Inductive Approach
Avoids hypothesis formation and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied.
Participant observer
takes part in the culture
Culture as a game
-social analogy
A game includes:
-Prize: most individuals agree
-Rules: all individuals know and agree to follow
-Tactics: could be numerous
-Culture serves as rules, tactics, and prize setting made by society members
-issues about culture are covered in better ways when seeing culture as a game
linguistic relativity
speakers of different languages are led by those languages to different ways of understanding the world. (color study)
Descent Group
Any publicly recognized social entity requiring lineal descent from a particular real or mythical ancestor for membership.
Cultural Consultants/Informants
The individuals the ethnography gets to know in the field and who teach him or her about their culture.
subsistence strategies
ways of transforming the material resources of the environment into food
nomadism, pastoral
annual movement of entire pastoral group with herds
the study of the production and perception of speech sounds
__________ is practiced when a newlywed couple goes to live with the bride's uncle's family.
Avunclocal residence.
one or more phenomes that convey meaning; Free: CAT; Bound: CATS
Political Anthropology
The structure of political systems, looked at from the basis of the structure of societies.
Moved based on food supply and climate. Had no specific home and lived various locations.
Massive culture change that occurs in a society when it experiences intensive firsthand contact with a more powerful society.
Cultural Core
Practices by which people organize their work and produce food and other goods necessary for their survival
Each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent.
The notion that all objects, living and nonliving, are imbued with spirits
shared behavior and ideas, that are cumulative, symbolic, and transmitted from one generation to the next.
when forces from world centers enter new socities and modifies them to fit the local culture
Africa Nomadic Band level Hunting and Gathering Society in the Kalahari desert of Southern Africa
pluralistic society
societies that have many different cultural or subcultural groups
cultural ecology
the dynamic interaction of specific cultures with their environments
The change over time in a species
Relies on adaptation and variability
Natural selection - "survival of the fittest" and not about moral qualifications
a social group formed by people connected by mother-child links
Egalitarian societies
no formal system of social stratification. Hunter and Gatherers.
Linguistic Anthropology
The study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change.
live in villages and organized into kin groups based on descent, lack formal government, no reliable means of enforcing decisions
Thick Description
term is coined by Geertz in "Interpretation of Cultures" (1973); a form of representation that illustrates the cultural meanings behind particular cultural acts or practices or things (Ex: Twitch vs. Wink)
A married or common-law couple with or without children, or a lone parent with dependent children.
The study of how words are comprised of meaningful elements. (morphemes)
a person who crosses over of occupies an alternative postion in the binary male-female gender construction
Key Scenarios
dominant stories or myths that portray the values and beliefs of a specific society
an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
the creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services
what are liminal stages
- Radical Re-socialization
- Rituals of Rebellion
- Communitas
a regional variety of a language, with differences in vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation; also a form of a language spoken by members of a particular social class or profession
anithegemonic sentiments
Carnaval is an anonymous way to express normally suppressed speech and aggression; Carnival celebrates through immodesty, dancing, gluttony and sexuality; may evolve into a powerful annual critique of stratification and become a threat to the social order
social class
A category of individuals in a stratified society who enjoy equal or nearly equal prestige according to the system of evaluation.
The attempt of a group within society to force a redistribution of resources and power
Ethnocentric Fallacy
the mistaken notion that the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures can be judged from the perspective of one's own culture
Ascribed status
little or no choice about occupying status
Kottacks view of dev
increased equity can increase socioeconomic stratification; dev as machines
biological determinism
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas as shaped mainly by biological features such as genes and hormones
vertical mobility
upward or downward change in a person's social status
a marriage pattern in which a woman may be married to more than one husband at a time
the study of a society's music in terms of its cultural setting
Archaeology (prehistory)
The study of past human cultures through their material remains.
Teaching Gender Roles
Kids learn by imitating parents
Toys and games
Preparation for adult life
individual mass tourists
rely on travel agency for booking tickets and hotel reservations
-other than that they arrange their own itinerary
-enjoy certain degree of flexibility of what to do and where to go
-certain degree of interactions with destination people
Cultural relativism
holds that no behavior or belief can be judged to be odd or wrong simply because it is different from our own
swidden cultivation
slash and burn, field is cleared by felling the trees and burning the brush
Matrilineal Kinship
a system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through the mother only
A ___________ is defined as a group of persons who all have about the same opportunities to obtain economic resources, power, and prestige.
zande witchcraft
• Among the Zande of Central Africa, witchcraft is considered to
be a common explanation for illness or misfortune, and it is a
way through which social tensions are healed or redressed.
• By definition, accusations of witchcraft cannot be leveled at
Zande chiefs, since it is assumed that witchcraft is the product
of envy, and a chief can never envy a commoner.
• So, chiefs are immune from accusations of witchcraft. This
can work to shield them from challenges to their power (even
if some of their actions generate social tensions).
world-rejecting religion
term coined by Bellah to describe most forms of Christianity; arose in ancient civilizations, so named because of their tendency to reject the natural world and focus instead on a higher realm of reality
Cultural Anthropology
The study of living groups of people of a different culture than that of the anthropologist. The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings.
Characteristics of Homo Sapiens
-large brain
- globular brain case
- vertical forehead
- reduced brow ridge
- pronounced chin
-smaller teeth
Neolocal Residence
A pattern in which a married couple establishes the household in a local apart from either the husband's or the wife's relatives.
Which type of child rearing pattern is practiced more widely in the world?
Dependence training.
Culture as a spider's web
Margaret Mead
-It was presumed that each culture constitutes a major configuration, which has a systematic character, overall structure, or pattern
-Each strand is interlinked by the overall pattern
Relativistic Fallacy
the idea that it is impossible to make moral judgments about the beliefs and behaviors of members of other cultures
Negative Reciprocity
A form of exchange in which the giver tries to get the better of the exchange.
Music and symbolic capital
[Pierre Bourdieu] the music you listen to is a reflection of your social status some forms of music have higher social capital than others
Feminization of poverty
The number of women living in poverty, outnumbered the number of men by a ration of 4:3. over half households living in poverty are female headed
Challenges to capitalism in 20th century
-Had encountered a lot of challenges
-From early 20th century- WWI
-In the 20's and the 30's- The Great Depression
-Nearly toppled the whole system
-In the 30's and the 40's- WWII
-In the 50's and 60's- The Cold War- challenge of communism
What is the difference between animism & animatism?
-Animism: a belief in souls
-Animatism: a belief in an impersonal, supernatural spirit such as luck
What happened to Homo Neanderthalensis?
May have interbred with Homo Sapien (no DNA link) or overlap with HS. HS smarter so HN may have starved or died in war.
Franz Boas-The Births of North American Anthropology and the Four-Field Approach
Stated that cultures are not isolated and contact between neighboring tribes has always existed and has extended over enormous areas. He also described skull changes among the children of Europeans who had migrated to the US. He encouraged the four field approach.
emily martin "the sperm and the egg"
we have taken human reproduction and have assigned it gender roles. We have taken our gender roles and projected them onto the biological mechanism of human reproduction. We have falsely labeled sperm as aggressive and eggs as passive.
what were Hobbes main argument in Leviathan
• Man's life in a "state of nature" is "solitary, poor,
nasty, brutish and short."
• Need for a social contract to lessen effects of
"every man for himself"
• Enforced by the rule of an absolute sovereign.
This is why we need a state with a monopoly on
deadly power.
professional ethics
too much change
Politically autonomous
Economically self-sufficient
Territorially based society
Reproduces a distinct culture and language and forms an in-marrying (endogamous) society.
exist in every culture
long-lasting patterns of organization
The primary means of distributing goods in a cheifdome is
A culturally defined postion associated with a particular social structure.
narrative stories about supernatural forces or beings
Qualitive data
subjective; ethnographies: life history
armchair => verandah =>participant obs.
life history
qualitative vs quantitative
political, economic, ideological or cultural power exerted by a dominant group over other groups
considered racially different in Japan, Biologically indistinct from the majority, high level of discrimination [occupationally related]
social groupings that allegedly reflect biological differences
naturalistic disease
includes scientific medicine; theories that explain illness in impersonal systemic terms
Key Symbol
certain symbols acquire greater significance and these symbols serve as a major vehicle or conceptualization for different notions such as freedom and justice
a symbolic system of cultural knowledge that humans use to generate and understand speech
customary residence with the wife's family, so that children grow up in their mother's community
gender stratification
unequal distribution of social resources between men and women
external threats to nation-state and its citizens.
The same as bilocal residence patterns
the unlimited expanse in which everything is located
antonio gramsci
hegemony. capitalist system of production increases alienation
socially recognized father of a child
language is continuing to be lost
structural inequality
socially structured inequality of entire categories of people who have different access to social rewards as a result of their status (race, gender, income)
Nation state
indep centrally organized political unit or gov.; political boundaries do not correlate with ethnic boundaries
The anthropologist Steve Lansing has helped restore balance in Balinese farming through the introduction of ____________. a. computers b. fertilizers and pesticides c. contracts with US agricultural agencies d. all of the above
Etic Perspective
-an outsider's perspective which produces analyses that members of the society being studied may not find meaningful-examining society using concepts, categories and rules derived from science
factory model (of agriculture)
energy-intensive, ecologically damaging form of agriculture intended to grow or raise as many crops/livestock as possible in the shortest period of time

If the kinship model is matrlineal, residency is nearly always


medical anthropology
unites biological and cultural anthropologists in the study of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groups
Ferdinand de Saussure
=Swiss linguist, father of semiotics
=Understands culture as a system of signs
=Widely influential French structuralist from the 1950s and 1960s
=A key concept of his approach is "the arbitrariness of the sign"
=People have the ability to assign meaning to anything they experience in an arbitrary fashion
One who believes that a coming catastrophe will signal the begininng of a new age and the eventual establishment of a paradise.
ex(Christian belief)
place an individual occupies in the social structure
core values
those values especially promoted by particular culture
Ultimate Meanings
refers to the big things
using religion in helping people to cope with difficult aspects of life experiences
Why is there suffering, death, and evil in the world?
When members of a species display clear differences in certain physical traits, biologists divide them into ____________.
historical linguists
Study relationships among languages to better understand the histories and migrations of those who speak them.
indigenous people
the original inhabitants of a territory
Medical Anthropology
A specialization in anthropology that brings theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology to the study of human health and disease
Contract Archaeology
The application of archaeology to assess the potential impact of construction on archaeological sites and to salvage archeological evidence.
the worship of more than one god
branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty
-In any society, art is produced for aesthetic value as well as religious purpose
Community healing
healing that emphasizes the social context as a key component and that is carried out within the public domain
the inclusion and combination of both bilogical and cultural perspectives and approaches to comment on or solve a particular issue or problem
clusters of social statuses and groups that share a common focus.
oriental fatalism
sahib interpretation of lack of emotional reaction after the death of climbers; "they dont value life like we do"
In exchange systems, which of the following seems to be nearly universally true? a. the giving of a gift requires reciprocation with an identical gift immediately b. reciprocation involves an underlying sense of competition and commitment c. it is b
Religious Theatre-states
Cosmology and religion mapped onto political economical relations
Ritual authority of the center
Typical of pre-modern hindu-buddhist state
Power supported ritual
Ascribed Roles
-assigned without regard for merit, beyond personal or individual control (being the oldest sibling)
the study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species
a long oral narrative, sometimes in poetry or rhythmic prose, recounting the glorious events in the life of a real or legendary person


Belief in the existence of spirits separable from bodies
Characteristics of Primates
Binocular vision(which equals good depth perception), arborial(lived in trees), poor noses, good vision
Richard Lee
studied the Ju/wasi. Among the Ju/wasi no one is praised for gathering food or making a kill, and people go out of their way to minimize their accomplishments. Richard Lee painfully learned this lesson himself when, to show his appreciation to the Ju/wasi for the help they had given him, he brought a fine ox to be slaughtered and distributed at a Christmas feast. The Ju/wasi ridiculed the ox claiming it was too thin and unappetizing. They were letting Lee know that he wasn't as important as the gift made him think he was.
A person who judges others solely in terms of his/her own CULTURAL NORMS
Material cultural heritage
the sites, monuments, buildings, and moveable objects considered to have outstanding value to humanity
Bari paternity beliefs
believe in partible paternity, that more than one man contributes to the development of the fetus; shows increased chances of survival; upon birth, woman announces who the fathers are, and if they acept paternity they are all expected to provide care for the mother and child
Visual Counterpoint
Self awareness is not restricted to humans, chimps can see their reflections too and understand
Archival Research
research by way of older documents. (could be primary or secondary sources)
sociocultural anthropology
compare studies of various cultures to make generalizations about culture and the role it plays in human lives.
mission civil satrice
Spread French culture, language, and religion throughout the colonies
French used two forms of colonial rule
Indirect rule: practice of governing through native political structures and leaders
Direct rule: practice of imposing new governments upon native populations
Use Rights
a system of property relations in which a person or group has socially recognized priority in access to particular resources, such as gathering, hunting and fishing areas and water holes
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
The term “dadi” refers to: a. male drinking friends in rural Mexico b. the largest ethnic group in China c. grandmother in India d. the warrior males among the Yanomami
carrying capacity
the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food-getting tehniques
Cultural Diversity
-is found on all continents and regions of the world-is independent of biological type-among diverse biological populations within a society

Origin Myth

Is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world?
Naturalized Concepts
Ideas and behaviors so deeply embedded in a culture that they are regarded as universally normal or natural.
Functional theory of inequality
-Explaining why inequality in our society is necessary or not good
-A high degree of inequality in the distribution of reward is necessary, socially just, and beneficial to all members of society. If not, the most talented people will have no incentive to work hard.
*In other words, by giving more reward to those talented people as a result their work will be beneficial to all members
*It makes sense to some degree, but this kind of explanation has its problems
patrilineal descent
follows only the ancestors and line of the father
The SAME Physical Traits Are
Present in All Human Populations
Free morpheme
a morpheme that can stand alone; ie dog
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that:
Language influences culture by affecting how individuals in a society perceive reality.
Scientific Method
A mode of inquiry characterized by the ability to conduct experiments.
1. There is a problem or something we want to better understand.
2. Form a hypothesis
3. Experiment - this will either prove or disprove the hypothesis (should be able to be replicated and repeated in order to know that the data was not obtained by accident. You must have experimental control to ensure that any extraneous factors are not interfering with the experiment)
4. Repeated positive results lead to a Theory - a general, predictive statement
Culture Loss
When an existing practice or trait is abandoned with or without replacement.
ambilocal residence
a residence pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence
controlled historical comparisons
A methodology for testing a hypothesis using historic changes in societies.
Race is a way of
translating cultural differences - especially economic and political differences - into physical differences
prestige economy
creation of a surplus for the express purpose of gaining prestige through a public display of wealth that is given away as gifts
free trade
removal of barriers to the free flow of goods & capital b/t nations by eliminating import/export taxes or subsidies paid to farmers & businessmen. It may also mean reducing environmental or social laws when they restrict the flow of goods & capital
if a man’s wife dies or is barren, her sister will marry him and bear him children
Mandates imposed on men (generalizations) in Western society
1. No sissy stuff: (anti-feminine element)
-if man has stigma of being feminine he may be looked down on among his peers or ridiculed
2. The Big wheel: (success element)
-high social status
-need to be looked up to
3. The Sturdy Oak: (self-reliant element)
-strong, independent
-toughness, confidence
4. Give's Em Hell: (aggressive element)
-aggression, violence, brave
5. Be a stud: (sexual element)
-sexual conquest
generalized reciprocity
mode of exchange in which the value of what is given is not calculated nor is the time of repayment specified
rite of passage
A ritual that serves to mark the movement and
transformation of an individual from one social
position to another.
Cultural Imperialism
refers to the spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys - usually because of differential economic or political influence
*Getting Set Up for Fieldwork
1. Stereotypes:have an open mind, shelve preconceptions2. Develop a role and a rapport3. Identify key consultants: individuals who are particularly knowledgeable
How much deviance is tolerated?
Does the behavior threaten the survival of the group?
open vs. closed class systems
one has vertical mobility and the other does not (ex; caste systems); invested in an individual
What are the 3 roles that supernatural entities play?
father role
mother role
trickster gods
Death rites among the Mardu _________.
involve the secondary burial after the body has been left to decay for some time.
Hunting and gathering requires little work
Requires little work- about ten hours per week. 2-4 hours a day, 3 days a week. Boys take on responsibilities at age 11, girls at age 7.
All of the following are examples are examples of balanced reciprocity except:
Deceiving a trading partner because he or she is an outsider.
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