Cultural Anthropology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dowry
ethnology
compare cultures
Australopithecus
1st bi-pedal
Akhara
Indian wrestler gymnasium
Functions of religion
Intellectual
Psychological
Social
world system
core: products/companies, semiperiphery; on their way to the core, periphery: labor and raw materials
collateral relatives
all other kin
overinnovation
characterisitic of development projects that require major changes in people's daily lives, especially ones that interfere with customary subsistence pursuits
chief
presiding redistributive and political official whose legal authority extends in at least some areas over families other than his own
Nuclear Family
The neolocal monogamous family
the worship of one god
monotheistic
Zeal
Excessive fervor to do something.
Civiliaztion
Any society that has cities.
Culture
Socially transmitted, often symbolic, information  that shapes human behaviour and that regulates human society so that people can successfully maintain themselves and reproduce.
Open-Class System
facilitates mobility, individual achievement and personal merit determines social rank...hierarchical statuses achieved on the basis of peoples efforts
ethnography
to describe/write about people in their social and cultural life through intimate encounters.
horticulture
growing domestic crops in small gardens using only hand tools and human labor
informed consent
agreement for participation in research
Phonetics
the articulation in the oral cavity
magic
use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
protolanguages
original language from which daughter languages originate
Culture Shock
A severe psychological reaction resulted from encountering and/or adjusting to a culture radically different from one's own.
impression management
self-conscious awareness of our behavior to shape the impression others have of us
band
A small, loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller groups that are politically independent. (i.e. food foragers/nomads)
Ritual
a dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings that makes them seem correct or proper
chiefdom
intermediate form
between tribe and state
-kin-based society with inequality and permanent
political structure
-hodiculture, pastorial nomadism, agriculture
Prewar mountaineering ideals
romantic idealistic and mystical
glottochronography
historic linguistic technique to find out when 2 languages diverged by analyzing similarities and differences.
rituals
behavior that is formal, stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; rituals are held at set times and places and have liturgical orders
Fieldwork
an extended period of close involvement with the people in whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested, during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data
Household
The basic residential unit where economic production, consumption, inheritance, childrearing, and shelter are organized and carried out.
Localization
The transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new.
Naked Savage
Fundamental Catholics when they arrived in another culture saw the naked people & clothed then because Adam & Eve were naked and ashamed.
tourists
Cannot simply define them as people who travel, because people travel for many different reasons
-Tourists can be defined as...Those travelers who value "life-style" more than "occupation" as the basis of social status and self-identity.
-travel is something to enjoy, that is the motivation and purpose for doing travel
-now a days the line between work and life has been blurred to a certain degree
indigenous
native to an area; living there naturally
morphology
the study of word formation and structure
Systems of Distribution
1. reciprocity
2. redistribition
3. market exchange
Women's organizations
female focused groups that concentrate on change
matrilineal descent
descent traced through the woman only
Humanistic Perspective
the psychological view that assumes the existence of the self and emphasizes the importance of self-awareness and the freedom to make choices
Marriage rules stating that one must marry outside one's kin groups or community are called rules of ___________.
exogamy.
winter soilder
speeches held by vietnam veterans talking about the brutalities of the war
multilevel patterning
units at one level (e.g.
phonemes, units of sound), patterned in one
way, can be used to create units at another
level (e.g. morphemes, minimal units of
meaning), patterned in a different way
Bronislaw Malinowski-Kulu Ring
Malinowski emphasised the importance of detailed participant observation and argued that anthropologists must have daily contact with their informants if they are to adequately record the "imponderabilia of everyday life" that are so important to understanding a different culture. His study of the Kula ring was also vital to the development of an anthropological theory of reciprocity.
yanomamo
Native American group that lives in the rain forest in Brazil., Horticulturalists, A tribe in southern Venezuela and Brazil, who are horticulturalists and value warfare and displays of physical strength. AKA the Fierce People
Stratification
Society with marked and largely or partly heritable differences in access to wealth, power, and prestige; inequality is based mainly on unequal access to productive and value resources
patrilineal descent
descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership
Adaption
the process by which organisms achieve beneficial adjustment to an available environment and the results of that process—the characteristics of organisms that fit them to the particular set of conditions fro the environment in which they are generally found.
Holistic
The very broad approach to studying people and cultures. The thought that the carious parts of culture must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
Fela Kuti
Musician- created afro beat, political activism[criticize nigerias post colonial gov] pidgin english to appeal across africa
Egalitarian
Societies in which everyone has about equal access to and power over basic resources.
Enculturation
process by which human infants learn their culture
endogamy
marriage within a particular group or category of individuals
Polyandry
a woman marries two or more men
Commercial-scale Culture
a cultural system organized by impersonal market exchanges, commercial enterprises, contracts, money, and potentially encompassing the entire world
Nonmarket economy
Goods and services distributed by direct exchange.recipocrity in abence of markets/money.
Social Reproduction
processes which sustain or perpetuate characteristics of a given social structure or tradition over a period of time.
Microculture
A distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within larger cultures.
Revitalization Movement
Type of nonviolent reactive adaptation in which people try to resurrect their culture heroes and restore their traditional way of life.
Big Man
almost always male, elaborate version of village head but rules over several villages
"third genders"
cross dressing male who often brings good luck or blessing
Bride Service
A designated period after the marriage when the groom works for thye brides family.
Formalism
A school of thought asserting that the basis of all economic theory is maximization of benefit in allocating scarce resources. since resources are always scarce in all societies, this basis of economic theory can be applied to all societies
carrying capacity
the number of people that the available resources can support at a given level of food getting technique
Phallocentricism
a term coined by Peggy Sanday that refers to the deployment of the penis as a symbol of masculine power and dominance
Words that are similar in sound and meaning are:
Cognates.
guest of the sheik question guide
see question guide....
origins myths describe what
how something came to be
Gender identity
One's sense of being male or female.
Primogeniture
power and position are often based on your position in the lineage
legitimacy
The right of a political leader to govern; usually based on the values of a particular society.
Public/Private dichotomy
A gender system in which women's status is lowered by their almost exclusive cultural identification with the home and children, whereas men are identified with public, prestigious economic and political roles
neolocal
refers to the pattern in which newly married couples set up their own households
sexual dimorphism
marked differences in male and female biology besides the primary and secondary sexual features
Sex differences are biological
Gender is cultural construction of male and female characteristics
Gumboot Dance
Miners in South Africa doing dangerous work, forbidden to speak, communicate through gumboot dance, becomes a critque of violence and oppresion
cultural constructionism
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas as shaped mainly by learning
modal personality
the body of character traits that occur with the highest frequency in a culturally bounded population
descent group
a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry; descent group members believe they all descent from those common ancestors; determined at birth and lifelong
cognitive style
a patterning by which an individual characterizes his or her perceptual, intellectual and, I dare say, emotional activities
tribe
refers to a range of kin ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory
Industrialism/Informatics
A mode of production in which goods are produced through mass employment in business and commercial operations and through the creation and movement of information through electronic media
Benefits to ritual activity
Release endorphins
Better if you're part of a community than for yourself
gives you a mild high
Cargo Cults
A cargo cult is a religious practice that has appeared in many traditional tribal societies in the wake of interaction with technologically advanced cultures
Division of Labor
deals with the integrative theory of social stratification, based on the assumption that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of modern society. Assumes that societies grow and there are more people to feed, house, and clothe, more labor efficient or technologically sophisticated means are required to produce enough food and other necessities and to erect the necessary infrastructure. This results in a division of labor that requires greater coordination of tasks, more efficient management, and more complex leadership systems, all of which inevitably lead to some form of social stratification.
transhumant pastoralism
a form of pastoralism in which herd animals are moved regularly throughout the year to different areas as pasture becomes available
Family of Procreation
family group that consists of a husband, a wife, and their children
The theory that inbreeding can be genetically harmful to animals that produce few offspring
is probably true.
characteristics of ritual
• Adhering to a culturally defined ritual
schema.
• Closely connected to a specific set of
ideas that are often encoded in myth.
• Composed of a sequence of symbolic
activities in the form of dance, song,
speech, gestures, or the manipulation of
objects.
Veblen interpretation of potlatch
an example of conspicuous consumption, based on an economically irrational drive for prestige
Patrilineal
A rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only
Ascribed status
a status over which you have little control: you are born into it or grow into it.
Phoneme
a sound in a lnaguage has no meaning in a language
Production for use
Make the essentials rather than buy them; objects become deeply personal
Psychological function of religion
Controlling events
Mana
Unseen force that is impersonal
Something that you must believe
Ethnography of Speaking
Focuses on the cultural rules by which the social use and non-use of language is organized. Study of how we use language, style, in an ethnographic situation. (A Concept forwarded by an American folklorist named Dell Hymes, a student of Edward Sapir's)
Cultural resource management (CRM):
decide what needs saving, and to preserve significant information about past when sites cannot be saved
Balanced reciprocity
A mode of exchange in which the giving and the receiving are specific as to the value of the goods and the time of their delivery.
1963 assault style
2 or three months moving equipment up to higher and higher camps--> success of edmund hillary and tenzing norgay
What are the 4 characteristics of tricksters?
deceptive and selfish
challenged social norms and boundaries
negative role models
can help ad hurt humans
In 19th century theorists saw gender behaviors as...
extension of biology
-Women destined to care for infants because of their maternal instincts
-Men seen as more aggressive because of their belligerent impulses
Discrimination against women is still going on, how come?
-All societies prescribe certain behaviors, beliefs and attitudes to women, men, and children
- these make up the gender norms
-What is the appropriate way each gender should behave in society
"A Poor Man Shames Us All"
A film narrorated by David Maybury-Lewis which shows a Gabra tribe of Kenya and Ethiopia
Why do we follow rules?
We like to conform for social acceptance. e.g. When you walk into an elevator you turn around.
What is the difference between cross and parallel cousins?
Cross cousins: from a parent's opposite sex sibling, marriage occurs
-Parallel cousins: from a parent's same sex sibling, falls under incest taboo
Our culture, their culture, and the biblical culture.
Three major issues in sharing the Gospel with another culture.
Papa Franz and his 4 Contributions to History
Franz Boas-said to be the Father of American Anthropology1. Discredited stages of cultural evolution2. Advocated movement from armchair ANT to ethnographic fieldwork3. Advocated that cultural relativism is best way to understand cultural variation4. Cultural and biological differences are largely independent of one another
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