Cultural Anthropology Test One Flashcards

Terms Definitions
adaptation
cultural anthropology
Permanent Vital sequence
impulse>act>satisfaction
documentary evidence (history/prehistory)
syntax
word arrangement in sentences
people who move often
nomad
Affine
A relative by marriage,
Collateral damage
metaphor for human deaths
Ethnomusicology
the cross-cultural study of music
language
primary communication; based on symbols; only humans have the capacity to discuss past, future, and experiences
information age
complex division of labor
specialization of knowledge
large scale
catharsis
intense emotional release in audience
intervention philosophy
ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions
Malinowski*
individuals (british functionalism and cultural element functions)
taboo
prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
evolution
inherited and cumulative change in characteristics of a species, population, or culture
Sexual Orientation
The biological and psychological makeup of an individual.
clan
unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
incest taboo
sexual relations with someone considered to be a close relative; all cultures have taboos against it of some kind
Sovereign
(by itself in a nation-state)
having supreme power within its own territory; neither subordinate nor responsible to any other authority
horticulture
garden faming; small scale self feeding
Avunculocal
Seen in matrilineal societies where boys leave their natal homes during adolescence and join the household of one of their mother's brothers. Girls in these cultures generally remain in their mothers' homes until they marry, at which time they move to their husband's household.
Symbols
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
Etic
Approach of studying a culture's behavior from the perspective of an outsider
mana
belief in immanent supernatural domain or life-force, potentially subject to human
manipulation
-Polynesian mana and related concept of
taboo related to the more hierarchical nature of Polynesian society
-Melanesian mana defined as sacred impersonal force that is much like the Western concept of luck
ethnology
the study of socio cultural differences and similarities
worldview
an encompassing picture of reality based on a set of shared assumptions about how the world works.
colonialism
the political social economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time
Generally speaking Rites of Passage are: a. rituals performed before getting on boats by the Trobriand Islanders b. only performed by males among the Mendi c. only performed by females among the Mendi d. are the group rituals performed when indivi
D
intensive agriculture
crop cultivation using technologies other than hand tools, such as irrigation, fertilizers, and the wooden or metal plow pulled by harnassed draft animals
Coming of Age in Samoa
Margaret Mead
fieldwork
the term antrhopologists use for on-location research
Myth
religiously validated tale intended to emplain the origins, values or world view of a culture or group
mana
sacred impersonal force in melanesian and polynesian religions
Modern Foragers
hunter-gatherers, remnants of foraging band societies, all foragers now trade with food producers, rely on governments and missionaries ex. Baswara San
"Primitive"
Simple culture; culture similar to the earliest humans. Some adjectives associated with primitivism are undeveloped, wild, childlike, violent, animalistic, uncontrolled, irrational, and transient. Two distinct ways that the primitive lifestyle is portrayed are the "dark side of man" (animalistic, uneducated, savage, barbaric) and the noble man of nature (free, simple, timeless, uncomplicated, free from technology)
Dushmani
" A blood feud" Koystani Term: Tradition, a family's honor is important, if someone hurts a family member then that person is obligated to go and kill the person who hurt them. Then deceased members family will go and kill that person. A never ending cycle.
peasants
small scale agriculturists who live in non-industrial states
social fund
have to help friends, relatives, in-laws, and neighbors
materialist perspective
a theoretical approach stressing the primacy of infrastructure ( material conditions ) in cultural research and analysis
the Nuer
have a segmented kinship system.
from Sudan, have ritual into manhood via scarification on the face
Anthrpology takes a ____ approach that includes a wide geographic and historical range.
Holistic
Margaret Mead
gender is cultured; tested her hypothesis in Arapesh, Mundugamor, and Tchambuli. Found that all cultures recognize at least 2 genders
Cultural relativism
The practice of interpreting and evaluating behavior and objects by reference to the normative and value standards of the culture to which the behavior or objects belong.
Applied Anthropology
the use of anthropological data, perspective, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary problems involving human behavior and social and cultural forces, conditions and contexts
Household
The basic residential unit in which economic production, consumption, inheritance, child rearing, and shelter are organized and carried out; may or may not be synonymous with family.
Culture
The learned values, beliefs, and rules of conduct shared to some extent by the members of a society that govern their behavior with one another
sudden change in a gene or chromosome
mutation
essentialism
process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen
-Identity is fluid and multiple
Identities seen as
Potentially plural
Emerging through a specific process
Ways of being someone in particular
times and places
Disease
in the disease- illness dichotomy, a biological health problem that is objective and universal
phoneme
the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one utterance or word from another in a given language. The "m" of mat and the "b" of bat are two English phonemes.
Emotion
categories of feeling or patterns of affect. Different cultures create distinct categories of feeling associated with specific cultural meanings.
Culture is learned and acquired by infants through the process of: a. enculturation b. acculturation c. deculturation d. encoding
A
physical anthropology
systematic study of humans as biological organisms
leveling mechanism
customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms.
Counter Culture
-a subculture with values, norms, behaviors, beliefs that run counter to prevailing cultural norms (example: Speakeasies)
culture-bound
theories about th world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one's own culture
structural power
power that organizes and orchestrates the systemic interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas, values, and beliefs on the other
A method of resolving disputes in which the disputing parties voluntarily arrive at a mutually satisfactory agreement is called
negotiation
Chimpanzees
V. similar genetically to humans and gorillas.
Paleoanthropology
The study of the fossil record, especially skeletal remains, to understand the process and products of human evolution.
Liminality
- In lecture, professor Ryer used the example where he was standing under the door, and he was neither outside the room nor inside, but between. In ethnographic research, liminality is when the researcher is both practicing the culture and observing the culture. In a way, this is similar to between; because the researcher is not necessarily doing just one of them, but both.
Anthropologize the West
Popular ethnographic subject in the 1990s. Make Western worldviews of reality unfamiliar. Examine scientific practices in terms of ethics as well as power. Demonstrate how scientific claims to truth are linked to particular social practices
Bases of Subcultures
1. Ethnic heritage or ancestry
2. Lifestyle choices
2. Circumstances
4. Religion
Hopi language
have inanimate and animate nouns; for Whorf, that means they believe this thing is alive
The Sacred
That which is set apart
Higher beings, the self, or sacred objects.
Deliberately vague
Elman Service
created a typology of evolution which says there are four types of society: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, states
Cultural Universals
The things that all cultures share. (ex: tools, shelter, adaptation, child rearing, recreation, religion)
Polygyny
Variety of plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife.
bride-price
the transfer of cash and goods from the groom's family to the bride's family.
endogamy
must marry in a certain group or tirbe
family of orientation
a person's childhood family, where they are enculturated
Expressive Culture
behavior and beliefs related to art, leisure and play
sociolinguistics
how the movement of people and events effect the language
ethnocentrism
a mixture of belief and feeling that one's way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.
Sudanese Kinship System
System of kinship terminology whereby a father, father's brother, and mother's brother are distinguished from one another as are a mother, mother's sister, and father's sister; cross and parallel cousins are distinguished from each other as well as from siblings.
According to the Faces of Culture film series, one group in the U.S. who has managed to retain their culture over two centuries with little to no influence from the larger US culture is: a. Senghalese b. Amish c. Mormons d. Inuit
B
preindustrial cities
the kinds of urban settlements that are characteristic of nonindustrial civilizations
Classifications of Reality
-divisions of reality into categories (example: Chinese food, hot or cold)
Descent Group
Any kin-ordered social group with a membership in the direct live of descent from a real (historical) or fictional common ancestor.


Reciprocal economic exchanges differ from redistrbution and market exchanges by
 


giving items without specifying what is expected in return
Subculture
A group whose members and others think of their way of life as in some significant way different from that of other people in the larger society.
What is Anthropology?
-the study of humans
-its a holistic discipline
dowry
a gift from the bride's family to the groom's
Gene Flow
the process by which genes pass from the gene pool of one population to that of another through
1. Mating and reproduction
The idea that a societies customs and ideas should be described objectively and understood in the context of that societies problems and opportunities is called:
Cultural relativism.
Memory Ethnography
When way of life has recently and dramatically changed, ethnographers must use informant's memory as the primary source of information about how the typical way of life used to be.
Supply and Demand
An economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)
parallel cousin
child of a father's brother or a mother's sister
actual behavior
what people really do in their lives rather than what they think they are doing or what they believe they should be doing. In most societies there is a discrepancy between these three kinds of behavior. It is important for anthropologists to distinguish between actual, believed, and ideal behavior when they learn about another society and its culture.
states and leaders maintain power by
authority, persuasion, and/or coercion
ambilocal residence
a pattern in which a married couple may choose either matrilocal or patrilocal residence
means of production
materials, such as land, machines, or tools, that people need to produce things
a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers
focal vocabulary
Scientific facts or "data"
Can be observed, counted, and recorded using agreed-upon procedures and instruments of measurements
-It has to be replicable
-If two people disagree the results are not accurate in one case
Recent African Origins Hypothesis
hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archaic Homo sapiens from Africa who migrated out of Africa after 100,000 years ago, replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities
-it is also called the" Eve or out of Africa hypothesis'
openness in behavior
the ability not just to talk or think
about but also to do the same thing in
different ways, and different things in the same way
This is the idea of play.
cultural anthropology (ethnology)
The subfield that studies the way of life of contemporary and historically recent human populations.
cultural anthro/social anthro
the study of living peoples and their cultures, including variation and change
Teaching gender roles - boys
More physically active and aggressive
so they can be aggressive and combative
GI Joe, guns, mixed martial arts, sports
Cash crops are _____.
Crops that are grown for trade rather than for subsistence.
Surplus value of labor
The portion of a person's labor that is retained as profit by those who own or control the means of production
Group size among the Mardu Aborigines:
is largest during wet months when water is most abundant.
Social Function of religion
Support from community
Will get visitors if sick
Help in times of trouble
Members of cargo cults-- the religious revitalization movement among Solomon Islanders-- believe that ___________.
a tidal wave will someday wipe out Europeans and a magic ship will later bring them European goods.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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