Knowledge of the workings of language is essential to a full understanding of what culture is about and how it operates.
investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation
belief in multiple gods
The onset of menstruation.
in many non-western societies, marriage creates alliances among the relatives of the married couple
association; when one variable changes, another does too
Subsistence based on domesticated animals.
2 types: Nomadic and Transhumant
Kinship termonology system associated with patrilineal descent in which Ego's mother's relatives are distinguished only by their sex
traditions and customs transmitted through learning
the first modern humans
investigative research outside of laboratory/classroom that seeks to explain human behavior
large front teeth
nose cavity - air could warm up before it hits lungs
chewed hides to make clothing
caves with fire
fishing, bird hunting, hide scrapers,
living with the husbands family
persons who ecourage economic production and gift giving in their communities to achieve public recognition and respect which can be played into influencing others in important community matters
sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions
exchanges among closely related individuals
biological/genetic aspects of people and evolution of humans, earliest fossil record, hominins - human ancestors, deals with the evolution of a species
Father of ethnograph; salvage ethnograph; emphasized EMIC perspective; all aspects of culture intertwined
the association of linguistic signals with
aspects of the social, cultural and physical world of a
speech community. People use language to make
sense of and refer to their world. But all linguistic
descriptions of reality are somewhat arbitrary and
selective, shaped by culture, highlighting some
features of the world and downplaying others
The use of goods and services
group that share language, culture, territorial behavior and history
the smallest meaningful units of language
study of groups through observation, interview, and participation
a human relationship marked by differences in power, authority, prestige, and access to values goods and services, and by the payment of difference
should marry within one's own "kind"
|Magic, science and religion are similar in that all: a. attempt to control events by exercising power b. attempt to provide an understanding of the world as it is conceptualized within a cultural system c. are practiced by full-time specialists d.||
a part-time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinary people and supernatural beings and forces
Study of human language/communication and of relationships of language to other aspects of culture, behavior, thought, society.-how languages and social phenomena interact in and across cultures
Goods, often livestock, that are transferred from the family of the groom to the family of the bride in order to legitimize the marrisge and the children of the couple.
A constellation of technologies, practices, attitudes, values, and symbols that spread internationally from one broad cultural origin, most recently from the Anglo-European-American cultural complex.
-Dogs (strong taboo)
*Living in house
*Dogs treated as members of household
-Horse (weak taboo)
*On the borderline
*Talked to and petted
*Commonly treated with affection
*Under extreme circumstances if there is shortage of food westerners do eat horse
|Time of Bisu Spirits||
Celebrates prosperity, taboos lifted
Women-drink water and become possessed, perform dramas
Kinship terminology wherein a father and fathers brother are given a single term, as are mother and mother' sister, but a fathers sister and mothers brother are given seperate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brothers and sisters, while cross cousins are classified separately but ( unlike Crow and Omaha kinship) are not equated with relatives of some other generation.
North Pacific Coast ceremony in which extravagant gifts and food are given away in return for prestige.
having a familial and formal version of the same language
the hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world.
|Anthropology is literally the study of ______.||
the moral principles and values people have
When marriage rules specify that a person is to marry outside of a defined scial group.
treat like children, should use servanthood attitude
Research designed to compare and contrast people of different societies and ethnicities.
Type of nonviolent reactive adaptation in which people try to resurrect their culture heroes and restore their traditional way or life.
The notion that humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage in thier cultural development toward perfection.
Those persons invested by the state with rights and duties, based on criteria such as residence or other group affiliations
the prohibition of sexual relations between specified individuals
group whose members share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms because of their common background
the feast of fast-breaking following Ramadan.
socially constructed, not a biological reality
a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations
A self-made leader in a tribal culture, gained from generosity (not hoarding a surplus)
Emphasis on community ceremonies (not power over the people)
the systematic oppression of one or more socially defined "races" by another socially defined "race" that is justified in terms of supposed inherent biological superiority of the rulers and the supposed inherent biological inferiority of those they rule
when refering to disease, an organism, such as mosquito, tick, flea, or snail, that can transmit disease to another animal
spiritual movements in Melanesia in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism promising resurrection of deceased relatives, destruction or enslavement of white foreigners, and the magical arrival of utopian riches
Mode of production based on growing domesticated crops in gardens using simple hand tools.
the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural development of, economic development
When two siblings fight, mother protects younger. As males get older, they become dominant over siblings. If two mothers are arguing, the younger female wins because the original mother is dominant.
|Implications for the future||
cultural division and hybridization, changing of identities and long distance nationalism, multiple identities, transborder citizenships and migration
The splitting of a descent group into two or more new groups.
taking advantage of another person or group
study of cultures of the recent past throught oral histories accounts of explorers missionaries, and traders and analysis of records such as land titles, birth and death records and other archival materials.
Belief in the importance of ancestors as they affect the lives of their survivors, protecting their descendants in return for rituals of honor performed to show them respect
The viewing of people's behavior from the perspective of their own culture.
study of human society and culture, the subfield that describes, analyzes, interprets & explains social and cultural similarities and differences
When people beleive themselves to be equally related to both their father's and mother's sides.
|What is universal throughout all cultures||
-Theory of Conception
-Sociality (living in groups)
living arrangement in which a married couple sets up residence separate from either spouse's family
The belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits
A system of beliefs that deals with fundamental questions in the religious and social order
a narrative with a plot that portrays the meanings people give to their experience
|Cultural Resource Management||
The application of archaeology to preserve and protect historic structures and prehistoric sites.
first attempts to classify races, five sub-species of humans based on temprament, dress and culture
Marriage in which an individual has a single spouse.
Tylor and Morgan: attempted to put cultures in specific evolutionary phases.
|family of orientation||
family into which one is born
a mode of exchange that requires some form of centralized social organization to receive economic contributions from all members of the group and to redistribute them in such a way that every group member is provided for
A shared sense of identity among a group based on heritage, language, or culture.
Use of materials to invoke the spirits to do harm
e.g. zombie - social control
|Jews and Muslims and pork||
-not big fans of pork
|Network of Concerned Anthropologists:||
Hugh Gusterson. Mission: The Network of Concerned Anthropologists (NCA) is an independent ad hoc network of anthropologists seeking to promote an ethical anthropology. Pledge to not support counter-insurgency activities.
Being able to study a culture, but feel wrong about the methods in which you study them or what their culture is.
work at home versus more valued work outside
|Kinship is defined as ______________.||
a culturally defined relationship established through blood or marriage.
the marriage of one man with two or more women
period of AMH occupation in Europe and Eurasia from 45,000-40,000ya to 12,000ya, characterized by microlithic tools and prolific cave art and portable art
can make up new words for a language that others can understand
A temporary camp that members of a group return to each day. At the home base, food is shared, processed, cooked, and eaten; subsistence tools are manufactured and repaired; and social life is conducted.
There are limits to the use of relative concepts between cultures. To use one concepts among different cultures it has to be messed around with or modified
|Slash and burn||
Farming technique in which forest is cleared and burned to enrich the soil for planting; Swidden cultivation.
|Traits of Culture||
o It is learned
o It is shared
o It is transmitted
o It has a history
o It involves debate
o It involves struggles over power
|Culture as a machine or a body||
-Culture provides the learned behaviors, cooperative patterns, and social institutions that make need fulfillment possible
-To keep the entire social system in a steady state, or to maintain social equilibrium A.R. Radcliff-Brown
|Circum-Mediterranean Shame-Honor Complex||
This is what the Spanish brought when they invaded; Honor and shame was/is very important in M/F relationships; Honorable - if you cared about your family, vigilant about your behavior of your young men, men are kind of warriors; Shame - female attribute, a woman showed shame when lude matters were discussed, when she is sexually discreet or pure; if a man doesn't act sexually aggressive, people begin to wonder if he has a penis; when a woman loses her virginity she loses those characteristics as well - purity and honesty; honorable men care for the reputation of their families; Present day - suspicion, becomes a gender culture, in lower classes - this aggression translates into don't back down from anyone ever; machismo can be sexual or physical aggression
The form of polyandry in which a woman is married to two or more brothers, and it is believed by many anthropologists to be the most frequently encountered form.
|Nutrition impacts of coca||
more land used for coca production than food production--> peasants must buy food; impoverihment drains labor from rural farming areas
yams given to wife who then gives them to the husband making the husband indebted to the wife for his political position
|Three Related Dimensions of Social Stratification||
|Patterns of Behavior||
What people do most of the time when they are in similar situations.
|Hunting and gathering bands- health||
Very good health due to active lifestyle, good diet. Rate of disease very low except for chicken pox, herpes, and shingles. ALso, risk of disease of contamination due to no running water/flushed toilet/garbage.
|Comparison of factory and village life||
women allowed to be independent in village, sense of time different- time more leisurely hurrying considered suspicious not fractured day work and leisure not separate. In village little direct supervision. More personal connection to product of labor
|Which of the following is NOT true of gender roles?||
Females rarely care for infants.
|Examples of the way culture is integrated||
During WWII when women went to work, the economy changed. Day care industry cropped up, father took on more role, fast food more prevalent (TV dinner), divorce laws changed, education opened to women.
Working population is aging because women don't want to stay home (they go to work)