Lecture Terms to Know 4 Flashcards

Brachial plexus
Terms Definitions
Carbon storate-___-->___
kino (kinin)
to move
filtration barrier
-fenestrated epithelium-basement membrane of glomerular capillary-thin membrane covering filtration slit
MitigateStablizeSIGNIFICANTLY ______ fossil fuel burningAfrica, _____ and ________ (vulnerable)Mitigation benefits ______________in _____ term
Open Arctic
reticular fibers
-meshwork which traps debris
microbial communities then interact with communities of macroorganisms and the physicochemical environment to define the entire ecosystem
Some Methods of Knowing• Tenacity--something is true because it has always been true.• Intuition--something is self-evident and stands to reason.• Authority--a trusted source says it is true. • ScienceCharacteristics of Scientific Method• Science is public• Science is replicable (authors say objective), i.e.,• Science is not dependent on the individual researcher•Science is empirical, i.e., based on observation• Science is systematic and cumulative ,i.e, based on many observations• Science is predictive,i.e.,concerned with the relationship of the present to the future Steps in Research• Selectaproblem • Reviewexistingresearchandtheory • Develop a hypothesis/ formulate research question • Determineanappropriatemethodologyordesign • Collectdata • Analyzedata • Presentresults •Replicatethefindings Social Science• Social science theory aims to determine the patterns of regularity in social life.• Lying behind that aim is the fundamental assumption that life is regular, not totally chaotic or random.• Do you feel comfortable with that?How does Babbie explain it?• Nomothetic vs. Idiographic orientation Identifying the Problem• Inductive process based on one’s own observation.– Moving from specific observations to broader generalization– Wimmer and Dominick talk about “everyday situations” as a source of research ideas.• Relying on the work of others – Refereed journals – Conference papers Concepts are abstractions. They are labels with attached definitions of what we mean by the label. We do not define the concept in terms of what we see, but in terms of what those observations mean. A hypothesis is a conjectural statement about the relationship between two variables.Problems of drawing conclusions across units of analysis:· Ecological fallacy· ReductionismResearch Methodology-Chapter 5Key termsConceptualization-the mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise. Example, prejudice…are there different types of prejudice?Indicator-is an observation that we choose to consider a reflection of a variable we wish to study. For example, attending a religious ceremony might be considered an indicator of religiosity.Dimension-a specifiable aspect of a concept. Religiosity for example, might be specified in terms of a belief dimension, a ritual dimension, a devotional dimension, a knowledge dimension.Specification-The process through which concepts are made more specific.4 types of measurementsNominal measures-A variable whose attributes have only the characteristics of exhaustiveness and mutual exclusiveness. (do not exist along an explicit continuum, exhaustive, mutually exclusive) examples: place of birth, party affiliation, gender, religious affiliation, yes or no, either/or makes a question nominal as well.•	Ordinal measures-A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes we can rank-order along some dimension. For example, socioeconomic status as composed as high, medium, or low. Non-consistent distances between measurements.•	Interval measure-A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes. Consistent degrees between measurements.•	Ratio measure-A level of measure describing a variable attributes that have all the qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures and in addition are based on a “true zero” point. For example, age. (ratio measure is exactly the same as interval measure but zero has meaning). How many drinks did you have in a seven day period?*Reliability-the quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon. •	Consistency of measurement…•	Estimates of reliability-statistical coefficients that tell us how consistently we measured somethingValidity-a term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure. For example, you IQ would seem a more valid measure of you intelligence than the number of hours you spend in the library would.•	Are we really measuring concept we defined?•	Is it valid way to measure the concept? Examples-valid ways to measure political discourse1.	Talked about politics with co-workers.2.	Talked about politics with people who disagree with me. Questions to ask?•	What concept are they explicating?•	What dimensions?•	Look at PowerPoint for third question.MidtermConcept explication, thorough meaning analysisConceptual definition, defining what a concept meansOperational definition, spelling out how we are going measure conceptFace validity-the quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable. That the frequency of attendance at religious services is some indication of a persons religiosity seems to make sense without a lot of explanation. It has face validity.Relationship between reliability and validity•	It has to be reliable whether you can determine if it’s valid. •	Questions should be reliable and valid-consistent.Strategies for improving validity•	Use multiple measures•	Use measures others have used in the past•	Recognize the relationship between reliability and validity•	Criterion-related validity-the degree to which a measure relates to some external criterion. For example, the validity of College Board tests is shown in their ability to predict the college success of students. Sometimes called predictive validity.Construct validity-the degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept.Main PointsThe interrelated processes of conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement allow researchers to move from a general idea about what they want to study to effective and well-defined measurements in the real world.Chapter 6 Index-a type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more general dimension.Scale-a type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. Examples of scales include Bogards social distance. Item analysis- An assessment of whether each of the items included in a composite measure makes an independent contribution or merely duplicates the contribution of other items in the measure.External validation-the process of testing the validity of a measure, such as an index or scale, by examining its relationship to other, presumed indicators of the same variable. If the index really measures prejudice, for example it should correlate with other indicators of prejudice.Concept explication-the process by which abstract concepts are systematically linked to observed variations in those concepts in the real world.What’s the scale1.	nominal2.	ratio3.	nominal4.	ordinal5.	nominal6.	interval-SAT7.	nominal-Social security8.	baseball player batting average-ratio9.	baseball player field position-nominal10.	baseball player position in the batting order-nominal11.	baseball player’s uniform number-nominal12.	college football rankings-ordinal13.	iq-intervalChapter 7Sample ErrorSample Error = +/-- 1.96 /PQ/NConfidence Interval-One of two key components of sampling error estimates.The range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie.Confidence Level-The estimated probability that a population paramter lies within a given confidence interval. Thus, we might be 95% confident that between 35 and 45 percent of all voters favor Candidate A.Recommended resourcesThe data and source libraryInterviews can be structured or UnstructuredStructured Survey InstrumentCollection of questions to be askedFormat is fixedOrder is predeterminedTwo ways to administer survey instrumentRespondent administers herself or himselfResearch staff administers In person Over telephoneReturn Rates What is a return rate? -N in sample completed divided by N in sample drawn.Why is it important?Can we assume drop-out is random?If not, what are problems?What are the consequences?Mail SurveysLower return rate or response rateLower costNo intrusion of the staffNo assistance from the staffNo guarantee that respondent is one selectedNo guarantee that respondent reads questionTime required to get responses returned is high
Surrealist. Putting mind on automatic and just drawing doodles, etc.
-bones held together by fibrocartilage pads/discs-bound by CT (ligaments)-limited motion occurs-ex. intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis, sacroilliac joint
Aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows.
organelle of mobility in bacteriaspin to push or pull bacteria through liquid medium
Is 5-FU S cell phase specific?
nonfoliated rock because it was formed in the absence of differential stress
located in the axillary and anogenital regions-secrete sweat and lipoproteins when acted upon by bacteria
amino acid type compatible solutes (2)
glycine betaine
when placed in a hypertonic soloution a cell can shrink. synthesize osmoprtecants to protect agaisnt this. can absorb salt by binding to protein surface chargest
audience analysis
learning about the audience before selecting a topic
What are the tubulin-interactive agents?
vincristine,vinblastine, paclitaxel, taxol
bed surface markings
occur after deposition while the sediment is still soft
what is the innervation of all posterior forearm muscles
radial nerve
Virulence of a microbe, the number of microorganisms required to produce a demonstrable infection in 50% of the test host population pg. 429
Brewer's Impression Formation Model
when defining others, starting top-down from cultural schemas
Within-group variance
error variance + variations due to differences w/in individual subjects of group
Influence of Temperature
Higher the Temperature, the Higher the precipitation
innervation of teres major
lower subscapular nerve from posterior cord of brachial plexus
They are the first stage of the life cycle post invasion of the host species for parasitic aplicomplexans.
Patient is actively participating in the mapping processIdentifying patient-specific language areasBe careful about over-generalizing (grandmother cell)
Neil's Brain Object Naming
Male Reproductive Ecology: WIthin an Individual
testosterone levels decrease in response to severe malnutrition- testosterone levels and sperm quality decrease in response to overtraining- no clinical effect on sperm quality - may effect behavior, reproductive effort
what three veins flow into the brachiocephalic vein
subclavianinternal and external jugular veins
2 types of glands
- Endocrine (duct-less) - release cell products directly into surrounding intercellular fluid and/or blood supply (digestive tract, pancreas, thyroid, thymus, pituitary
- Exocrine (ducted) - secretions are released from epithelial surface into small ducts that empty tot he digestive tract or skin surface (Sweat, tears, saliva)
What is the pathphysiology of vomiting?
positive intrathoracic pressure moves gastric contents, respiration inhibited
what are the branches of the right subclavian
vertebral arteryinternal thoracic artery
All non-oxygenic photosynthetic phyla in Bacteria use what to provide reducing power to make what?
sulfur or organic molecules to provide reducing power to make NADPH
An overheated marathon runner accepts cups of plain water at each refreshment area. When the race ends, the runner is very disoriented and collapses. What is the best explanation for her condition?
The runner is suffering from hypotonic hydration and her cell fluids are overdiluted.
What is a phenomenological approach?
Find a way to compute the motions without worrying about why they work this way Make good predictions
Co2 concentration in the deep ocean vs. in the atmosphere
Deep ocean: 37,100 Gtc-much more co2 than in the atmosphere (majority of it is in the deep ocean)Atmosphere: 597 Gtc-changes in the atmosphere are one of the biggest things we have to worry abt. even though the amnt. of CO2 here is insignificant
what results from placing a microbe in a hyperosmotic environment
plasmolysis: In this case, the water concentration is higher within the cell, water leaks out --> the protoplasts dehydrates and shrinks, Metabolism slows down  considerably without available water.
______________ was one of the founding members of the Royal Society of London
John Graunt- royal = he's a G = Graunt =)
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