18a French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
moderate groups
a tax
Great Fear
Peasant uprisings
a discenting group
French National Anthem
Philosophical Movement
how people thought
Colonists born in Spain
prevents access or progress
Second Estate
Nobility / Aristocracy
June 1791
National Assembly completes Constitution of 1791. (women deemed "passive" citizens and constitutional monarchy only has the power to delay legistlation)
-After this, Louis and Marie Antoinette try to flee France, but are captured and brought back
New government napoleon set up
year when legislative assembly declares war on austria
Aug 1789
all feudal privileges abolished
Royal palace outside of Paris
Extremeists of French Legislative Assembly - sat in top corner of the theater
What prominent member of the Revolution did Robespierre have killed?
French nobility escaping revolution - spreading terror abroad. Used aristocratic connections in Europe. Later, even MC and others left too. Bemoaned sad plight of king. Count of Artois led these emigres...
cahiers de doleances
statements of local grievances
Literally mountain in French, the montagnards were the most radically liberal of the Jacobin factions, and were generally supported by the sans culottes. They eventually hijacked the Convention and were a major force behind the Reign of Terror .
First Coalition
Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, Sardinia.
french Protestants, oppressed by Louis XIV
instrument of execution that consists of a weighted blade between two vertical poles
Coronation of 1804
Napoleon crowns himself emperor
Continental System
Napoleon forbade importation of British goods. He believed it would ruin their economy, but it failed. Europe needed their goods, and there was widespread smuggling. Resentment against this was one of the causes of nationalistic revival, which eventually ended Napoleon’s complete European dominance.
radicals and extremists who were revolutionaries- killed the king and queen
the main land tax of France
tennis court oath, date
june 20, 1789
Counter revolution led by conservative forces (nobles, clergy, and the peasantry).
a vote by the electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance
compensation paid to a nation for damages inflicted on it, as in war
These were fees collected by the nobility from the villagers for the use of the village shop, mill and winepress. Since the nobility generally owned these and held the monopoly over these necessary services - peasants were forced to pay these fees.
the name government est by Napeleon after the Coup d etat of Brumaine
Tennis Court Oath
result of convening the Estates-General
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
Nobles/Monarchs, Bourgeoise, Peasants
names of the three classes
what did the second estate comprise?
the nobility
Louis XIV
very hard worker, strengthened the French industries by regulating guilds, raised tarrifs on imports, lowered tarrifs of internal trade, improved infrastructure. King of France, built Versailles
(Conservist club) a member of the moderate republican party during the French Revolution (overthrown by more radical Jacobins)
first estate
included clergy, had special privleges werent taxed
a general and progressive increase in prices
Napolean Bonaparte
French military hero who followed enlightened ideas
the capital and largest city of France
The Second Estate taxed the peasantry for its own profit; obligated peasants to work for nobles several days a year.
Estates were three social classes that people were divided into as part of the old order. First Estates included clergy, Second were the nobility, and the Third included middle class and peasants.
robespierre wanted to found a republic of ______
representative body shut down in 1614
estates general
Estates General
Legislative body made up of representatives of the 3 estates.
Civil Code
Code of laws established by Napoleon which preserved many of the ideals of the French Revolution
Maximillien Robespierre
known for his intense dedication to the Revolution; he became increasingly radical and led the National Convention during its most blood-thirsty time.
Old Regime
A combination of the absolute monarchy and feudalism in France; it included the three estates
Louis XVI
King of France-executed for treason by the National Convention-absolute monarch-husband of Marie Antoinette.
1st Estate
Consisted of clergy and about 130,000 people. They owned about 10% of the land. They were exempt from taxes and the head clergy got most of the income. Lower priests were poor.
l'archétype du revolutionnaire
pas noble, pas paysan, sans culottes
(Reign, Rousseau, Robespierre)
the Three Rs of the revolution
National Convention
Head of government during Reign of Terror
Revolutionary Army
group of revolutionaries that acted as an army
Committee of Public Safety
Set up to help safety
• Jacobins
They were radicals in the Legislative Assembly. Revolutionary political club made of the middle- class lawyers or intellectuals. They advanced the republican cause. Most involved in the institution of radical changes.
sans culottes
(Lower) class of radical people that protested the lack of political/economic progress; attack Tuileries
One of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution.
Arthur Young
his Travels During 1787, 1788, and 1789; he observed the French agricultural system and illustrated the weaknesses of the French agricultural system- nobles did not develop land, which became wasted
Three Estates
Under the Ancien Regime everyone in France belonged to one of three estates. The First estate was the Clergy, the Second estate was the Noblesse and the Third was made up of everyone else in the kingdom.
social contract
--one must give up natural freedom (appetites) for moral freedom (self-control, obey law)
-submit to general will in exchange for security/moral freedom
economic causes
were the debt of french government, especially caused by the deficit. happened because government borrowed too much money to equip armies and support american revolution
Natioonal convention did this and shocked the world
Executed Louis XVI
temple of reason
new name Notre Dame was given
the directory was ____ and ______
corrupt and inefficient
Committee on Public Safety
a committee headed by MAximiliwn Robespierre who sought out and tried enemies of the "Revolution".
Marquis de Lafayette
headed the National guard, a mostly middle-class militia organized in response to the arrival of royal troops in Paris
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king of France to discuss reform of the government.
Led conspiracy of equals - left wing, extremist group that was pro Robiespierre. Opposed the Directory. Wanted to abolish private property and have equality but under a dictatorship. Interesting precursor to Communism. Repressed by the Directory and Babeuf guillotined.
Execution of Danton
Danton believed the terror should end and that they should move towards noralization; Deantonists executed for treason
Reason for France downfall
Napoleon conquered the british ports, and stopped trade with britain
Bastille Myth v. Reality
Myth=Bastille held dungeons with 100 tortured ppl, which was unjust.
Truth= seven people held there, minor crimes
___ was the brutal head of the Committee of Public Safety.
Maximilien Robespierre
coupt d etat
a sudden over throw of the government
Estates System
1) Church/Clergy: pay no taxes, 1% of population 2) Nobility: Pays no taxes. 2% of population, had no power, served estate 3) 3rd Estate: Pays taxes, 97% of population includes poor, lawyers etc.
a medevil fortress that was used for a prison for political and other prisoners
Reign of Terror
Most notorious event of the French Revolution; Law of Suspects: alleged enemies of the revolution were brought before Revolutionary Tribunals that were created to hear cases of treason; Louis XVI convicted of treason & executed on Jan. 21, 1793; Queen Marie Antoinette executed later in the year; About 40,000 people throughout France executed or died in prison; many by the guillotine; Executions became a spectator sport; Political weapon.
Peninsular War
A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.
philip of anjou
who follows charles ii of spain because he has no heir?
Marie Antoinette
Frech Queen & wife of Louis XVI, member of the royal family of Austria & unpopular among the Frech, known as "Madame Deficit" due to her excessive spending habits. Beheaded during the Reign Of terror
Moderate Phase of the Revolution
(1789-1792) - Nation Assembly (Parliament) runs France. limited male sufferage. revolution remains relatively peaceful. feudal rights abolished. "declaration of the rights of man and the citizen" adopted.
declaration of pilintz
The Declaration of Pillnitz on 27 August 1791, was a statement issued at the Castle of Pillnitz in Saxony (south of Dresden) by the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and Frederick William II of Prussia.
Fall of Bastille
A royal armory and state prison, it was attacked by commoners in the uprising. It was a symbol of Royal Despotism, and had been rumored to contain thousands of political prisoners. (In truth, only 5 forgers, and 2 mentally ill prisoners were inside.) It became a popular symbol of triumph over monarchal Despotism and the power of mob violence. Paris was abandoned to the insurgents; Louis XVI was informed that he could no longer rely on French troops to enforce his will. Louis XVI was forced to confirm Lafayette as the commander of the new "National Guard," and the national assembly was saved.
Second revolution
a phase when the fall of the French monarchy marked a rapid radicalization of the Revolution
la ville ou le roi et la rene avait ete trouves pendant qu'ils essayaient a s'echappaient
Jean-Paul Marat
-L'ami du Peuple
- Believed in bloodshed to really create the revolution
- Killed by Charlotte Corday
- Published a newspaper that was the way that he sent his opinions into the public
Background of the French Revolution
Product of the Enlightenment, foreign influence (America), Paris (radical), king (weak absolute monarchy), backwards estate system, debt
states general opens where and when?
may 5th, 1789 at versailles
Levee en Masse
mandated all citizens to pay for war effort
The wife of King Louis XVI and, in the French commoners' eyes, the primary symbol of the French royalty's extravagance and excess. When Marie-Antoinette was executed in 1793, she was dressed in a plain dress, common to the poorest in French society.
The Government of the Directory
National Convention drafted a new Constitution which called for a 2 house legislature and an executive body of 5 men, known as the directory.
Council of Elders/Ancients
upper level 250 people. 40 years or older.
First, second, and third estates
These were the social divisions within L'Ancien Regime. First - Clergy; Second - aristocracy; Third - merchant class,professionals, manufacturers, urban workers and peasants(i.e. everyone who wasn't in First or Second Estate). A person's individual, legal rights and personal prestige depended on category to which one belonged. By 1780s this structure in France was becoming politically and socially obsolete because of the changing structure of society and the economy.
August of 1792. Working class of Paris with support from provincial troops stormed the Tuilieries Palace, massacred the Swiss Guard and imprisoned the king and queen. Stimulated establishment of revoltionary commune which forced the calling of a Constitutional Convention to write a more democratic constitution than the one of 1791.
Women's March on Versailles
On October 5, about 6000 women marched 13 miles in the pouring rain from Paris to Versailles, demanding to see the king.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
made it so government pays the salaries of the church
Reform in France to Catholic Church (2 pts)
1. enlarged dioceses
2. mandated priests would be elected by the people
Why did the National Assembly end?
the assembly was taken over by radicals, National Convention
how Marie Antoinette contributed to the French Revolution?
the foreign queen was unwelcome and spent most of the money
Committe of Public Safety
A group of 12 men who decided who was an enemy of the state; & executed those who were.
Declaration of the right of man
right such as liberty and property to all
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Adopted by the National Assembly on 8/26/1789, it provided an ideological foundation and an educational device for the nation. It contained enlightenment principles and raised the question whether women should be included within "Equal rights for all men."
Declaration of the Rights of Man & Citizen
On August 27th, 1789, it was created stating, "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights," and that mankind's natural rights are "liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression."
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