Lesson - Joints Flashcards

Terms Definitions
prefix for joints
Bone to bone.
composed of hyaline cartilagesynarthrotic temporary;replaces by bone epiphyseal plate in growing bone
•Fibrous joint –bones united by ligament
•Slightly movable (amphiarthrosis) 
•Anterior tibiofibular joint and Interosseous membrane
atlas/dens of axis
a.k.a. synovial joint, diarthrodial joint; the most structurally complex type of joint, very movable.EX: elbow, knee, knuckles, ankle.
inflammation of tendon sheaths, typically caused by overuse
-movement occurs around two axes-knuckle, metacarpophhalangeal joint -wrist joints
Cartilaginous joints are united by
ankle sprains
mostly inversion sprains treatment RICErest, ice, compression, elevate
ad= toward
movement of bone toward mid-line
sends information to brain regarding muscle tightness
slightly movable joints; in between immovalbe and freely movable
what are the 3 structural classifications of joints?




Cruciate ligaments
-intracapsular-cross like an X-runs from tiba to femur and is named for its lite of attachment to the tibia-anterior cruciate= anterior part of tibia posterior part of femur on medial side of lateral condyle***-prevent anterior sliding of tibiaposterior cruciate= posterior intercondylar ara of tibia and passes anteriorly to attach to the femur on the lateral side of medial condyle ** prevent forward sliding of femur or backward displacement of tibia* both work together to lock knee when standing
the opposite of supination, causing the palm to face posteriorly or downward, radius crosses the ulna
prevents the femur from sliding backwards on the tibia (anterior movement)

rotational stability
Movement on one plane (ulna and radius)
movement toward the midline of the body of appendage
tendon sheath
a synovial-lined fibrous enclosure for tendons
a.k.a. bony joint; an immovable joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and they become, in effect, a single bone. Bony joints can form by ossification of either fibrous or cartilaginous joints. EX: infants are born with right and left frontal and mandibular bones, and fuse seamlessly into single bones with age.
Dense layer of bone external from spongy bone
What the three parts of functional classification?
describe the (synovial joint: friction-reducing structure) bursae.

•Flattened, fibrous sacs lined
with synovial membranes 

•Contain synovial fluid

•Commonly act as “ball bearings”
where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together

joint classes functional
1. Syanthroses= immovable joints **restricted to the axial skeleton2. Amphirathroses= slightly movable joints ** restricted to the axial skeleton3. Diathroses= freely movable joints ** predominate the limbs
cartilaginous joint
two bones are linked by cartilage
examples of synovial joints
jaw, elbow, hip, knee
Rotator cuff
series of tendons forming posteror wall for glenoid fossa
Synovial joints
Joints in which the articulating bones are separated by a fluid-containing joint cavity
joints between radius and ulna
proximal radioulnar joint (pivot)distal radioulnar joint (pivot)
hinge joint
fits into a concave surface allows angular, monaxial movement
a movement that raises a body part vertically in the front plane
nonaxial movement
slipping movements only. no axis which movement can occur
describe the fibrous joints, sutures.
•Rigid, interlocking joints containing short
connective tissue fibers

what are some examples of fibrcartilaginous joints?
intervertebral discspubic symphysismanubriosternal joint
movement that turns the palm to fave anteriorly or upward
What are gomphoses joints?
The peg-in-socket fibrous joint between a tooth and its alveolar socket

The fibrous connection is the periodontal ligament
Synovial membrane- deeper layer of...
specialized connective tissue extending from articular cartilage of adjacent bones, secretes synovial fluid - hyaluronic acid GAG's
movement of a body part anteriorly in the transverse plane
Synarthrodial Joints
These joints are the least numerous in the body and are referred to as "immovable"Examples:1)Sutures of the skull2)Sockets of the teeth also called gomphosis
what are the 3 possible types of reinforcing ligaments.

•Capsular (intrinsic)—part of the
fibrous capsule •Extracapsular
(extrinsic)—outside the capsule •Intracapsular—deep
to capsule; covered by synovial membrane
Arcuate popiteal ligament
-arcs superiorly from head of fibula over the poplteus muscle to the posterior aspect of joint capsule
periodontal ligament
what holds the tooth firmly in place consists of collagen fibers that extend from the bone matrix of the jaw into dental tissue; allows for mobility
Joints of the appendicular skeleton forelimb
Scapula-scapula humeral-elbow joint- carpus - metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, distal interphalangeal
elbow joint: humeroradial joint
ball and socket but doesn't function as so
what are the chronic forms of arthritis?
osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and
gouty arthritis

Structure of synovial joints- synovial fluid
4. Synovial fluid=viscous liquid inside joint cavity--- resembles raw egg whiteprimarily a filtrate of blood arising from capillaries in synovial membrane-contains glycoprotein molecules secreted by fibroblasts in synovial membrane=make synovial fluid a lubricant that eases the movement @ joint-also occurs w/ in articular cartilages-the pressure placed on joints squeezes fluid into and out of articular cartilages nourishing cells & lubricating their free surfaces
coxal (hip) joint
point where the head of the femur inserts into the acetabulum of the os coxae
What are synchondroses joints?
-Cartilage joints
-A bar or plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
-All synchondroses are synarthrotic
-Examples include:
Epiphyseal plates of children
Joint between the costal cartilage of the first rib and the sternum
3. ball and socket
ball like surface of one bone fits into cup like surface of the other (multiaxial- more than 2 axes with movement all around) shoulder
what is a synovial sheath?
a tubular bursa that surrounds a tendon that runs inside a joint, a tendon that runs through an oseofibrous tunnel, a tendon that runs between a ligament and bone
lateral (external) rotation
ex: if you stand with bent right elbow in front of you and reach to grab something on your right, humerous is rotating in this way
Condyloid, Saddle, and Gliding joints
Bones slide across each other in two planes. Ex. Wrist, between thumb/fingers and hand.
hinge joints allow movement at what?
right angles to the bones involved, they permit flexion and extension onlyelbow, pip, dip
What is the importance of the biceps brachii and the rotator cuff?
They provide stability to the shoulder. The biceps brachii is the main support for holding the humerus into the glenoid cavity. The rotator cuff is made of four muscles that are fused to the joint capsule on all sides except the inferior.
Which ways do the upper and lower limbs 'rotate' during development
UPPER limb- laterally
LOWER limb- medially
/ 56

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online