18b French Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pro/con?
...
Corvee
Work Tax
When ?
1790-1815
se plaindre
to complain
bastille
fort in paris
Gabelle
Tax on salt
1791
Constitution accepted by king
Guillotine
implement used for beheading
second estate consisted of
nobles
cahiers de doleances
list of complaints
abdicate
to step down from power
Prince Metternich
Austria's representative during Congress of Vienna
republic's official slogan
liberty, equality, fraternity
turmoil
a condition of great confusion
no sufferages part of...
old regime
plebiscite
popular vote, French supported Napoleon
Egyptian Campaign
Napoleon's campaign (that targeted England) that failed terribly
Cahiers
Statements of grievances presented to the Estates General by Deputies
Haitian Revolution
sugar trade heavily influenced Parisian economy, only successful slave revolution, most radical revolution of the age, influenced other countries and times
marat
scientific researcher that edited a radical newspaper saying people should be beheaded, was stabbed to death in his bathtub
Bacon's Rebellion
Poor whites rebellion against wealthier working class
IMPORTANT- lower class standing up for themselves
Daioism
Very simple/natural style of like: invented by Laozi
Causes of Revolutions
Debt, economic crisis, ineffective/corrupt government, classes denied rights, unpopular war.
Mountains
Represents interests of Radicals in Paris (beheaded Louis XVI)Wanted to get rid of king, monarchy, and republic
Versailles
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Ancien regime
"Old order" Three separate estates
Duke of Wellington
British general and statesman
annex
to add territory onto an existing state or country
Scorched Earth
strategy of destruction of useful supplies to deny enemy
Estates General
an assembly of representatives from all three states to get approval for the tax reform
Sans-culottes
poorest member of 3rd estate, because they wore pantaloons instead of knee-length culotte, main striking force of revolution
banalites
fees collected by nobles for lessers to use the mill, bakeshop, or wine press on his land
REIGN OF TERROR
1793-4 - to repress counterrevolutionary activity the Convention set up Co. of Public Safety which established this Reign of Terror. Revolutionary courts were set up as an alternative to lynch law of September Massacres. However, due process was hardly observed in these and many went to the guillotine in Paris and in the provinces.
Georges Danton
Minister of Justice motivates people to join war effort, rally country against invaders (Moderate leader)
WHo ended the conflict at the bastille?
lafayette
Old Regime
the political, economic, and social system that supported absolutism
bourgeoise
people of wealth, had education, no say in govt
What is Enlightenment
Ideals of liberty and equality
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Jacobins
Jacobin society was a debating club named for the monastery they had formerly gathered in; Robespierre "the Incorruptible" was a prominent member. They were initially a moderate group, but became more and more extremist as the Revolution proceeded and the moderate members left for other groups. The members of this club were mostly of the 3rd Estate. They wanted to work for equal rights for everyone and power for the people
Marie Antoinette
Queen of France during the Revolution.
Napoleon Bonaparte
French general who overthrew the directory; proclaimed himself emporer and created a french empire in Europe
Concordat
a signed written agreement between two or more parties to perform some action.
political causes include
the influence of enlightenment thought, american revolution, demands of 3rd estate
Guerilla
a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I. (p. 594)
Constitution of 1791
Constitution created by the French Revolution that had a limited monarchy
Necker
the common people's man acting as an advisor to Louis XVI, dismissed after the Tennis Court Oath
Conspiracy of Equals
Radical movement led by Gracchus Babeuf after the establishmen of the Directory; wanted to eliminate all private property
Maximilien robespierre
(1758-1794), led the Jacobins, led the guillotining of Louis XVI and Marie Antionette. Came into power over the French republic in 1793 and established a dictatorship and started the reign of terror. Eventually Guillotined in 1794.
Edmund Burke
A conservative leader who was deeply troubled by the aroused spirit of reform. In 1790, he published Reforms on The Revolution in France, one of the greatest intellectual defenses of European conservatism. He defended inherited priveledges in general and those of the English monarchy and aristocracy. Glorified unrepresentitive Parliament and predicted reform would lead to much chaos/tyranny.
Nationalism
A belief that people should to loyal mainly to their nation (people w/ whom they share culture & history) not a king or empire.
1 act that really started the revolution:
national assembly
Consulate
government in which the power is given to 3 consuls
De-Christianize
Jacques Hebert. Get rid of old ways, start fresh. New calendar- no sundays, 10 day week.
Battle at Waterloo
• Napoleon's last stand
• Exiled to tiny island in South America
when the assembly adopted the decrees of August 4th and the declartion of man and of the citizen
august 1789
White Terror
undo all of Robespierre's policies and imprison all of his supporters
Paris Commune
The small government in Paris who wanted to resist the conservative leaders of France and tried to form their own government
Jean-Paul Marat
One of the prominent radical leaders during the revolution. He edited a radical newspaper. He called to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution and was was killed by Charlotte Corday.
Emigres
Nobles and others who had fled France during the peasant uprisings. They hoped to undo the Revolution and restore the Old Regime.
The policy of summoning civilian men into military service is called __________.
Conscription: Draft
Louis XVI
King of France; Held an absolute monarchy, called the meeting of Estates.
declaration of pilnitz
Austria and Prussia's monarchs pledged to aid monarchy, angered the French citizens, gave them a reason to provoke war in 2 countries
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments of the Constitution, added in 1791
Balance of power
Map changes from the congress of vienna created a Balance of power of power but later lead to unification movements in Germany and Italy.
Assembly of Notables
nobles handpicked by Calonne, tried to introduce tax reform package, but nobility didn't agree
Concordant of Bologna
France accepts supremacy of Pope over Church council and king is given right to elect French bishops
Manorial Dues
Tax that peasants or other members of the lowest class had to pay their land owners
first second
louis xvi and ____ and _______ estates did not agree
absolute monarchy
a monarchy in which the ruler's power is unlimited
deficit spending
gov. spending more money than it takes in
Legislative Assembly
a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the constitution of 1791.
King Louis XVI
Absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution. After yielding power to the revolutionary National Assembly, he was overthrown when the French Republic was declared and then executed, along with his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, during the Reign of Terror.
The Great Fear
Summer 1789: political action led by peasants looking to reclaim lost rights and land - destructive - nobles and clergy in the assembly gave up their special rights, so the laws applied equally to all citizens
1st estate
the nobles 2% of population and has one vote
complaints from peasants
victims of epidemics and famine, no access to education, forced to work on lords land, forbidden to kill animals that had livestock
declaration of rights of man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Waterloo
the battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the french. Napoleon's final defeat against the British and Prussians
Regent
one who acts as king until the true king is of age
"Let them eat cake."
what Marie Antoinette said when they were arrested
Committes of public safety
this body conducted day to day business of the gov of France during the Reign of Terror
Declaration of Pillnitz
the promise by Austria and Prussia to protect the French monarchy
Robespierre "The Incorruptible"
began a "reign of terror" committee of Public Safety- Executed enemies of the revolution at the guillotine.
By Head
A way of voting favorable to the 3rd Estate in which each person gets a vote.
King of France during the start of the French Revolution
Louis XVI
• Toussaint L'Ouverture
Led the enslaved Africans of Haiti in civil war and seized control of the colony.
Citizen Capet
name under which Louis XVI was put on trial, and found guilty.
Civil Code of 1804 (Napoleonic Code)
Laws that embodied Enlightenment principles like religious toleration, abolition of feudalism, and all citizens are equal before the law. Women, however, most lost newly gained rights and couldn't exercise rights of citizenship.
The clergy:first estate
owned 10% of land, paid virtually no taxation on land, bulk of wealth concentrated here, rural peasantry paid tithe (10% of their wealth) to support local perish
tennis court oath
a pledge made by the members of France's National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution
National Bank of France
Created by Napoleon to use silver and gold as money
Confederation of the Rhine
Napoleon formed this in 1807 from a league of about 20 German princes. Each was sovereign and the confederation included the kingdoms of Saxony, Bavaria, Wurtemburg and Westphalia. Westphalia was made up of Hanover and bits of Prussia. Napoleon put his youngest brother, Jerome, on the throne.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
issued by the national assembly; equality before the law, rule of law, rights of the accused, freedom of expression, property rights, all people are free until proven guilty
Estates General called into session
louis xvi, france in financial ruins, bad harvests and the banks are loaning too much money, one vote per estate, 3rd estate found this unfair
Who were the Thermidorians? What were their political views?
Liked the revolution. Yay-individual rights and written constitution. Thermidor- a month in Robespierre's non-religious calendar. Got money from war- liked opulence. "Foo far, too violent, we wanted some change but this is too much"
What happened in fall of 1788?
King wants to start tax reform
Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789
a charter of French revolutionary ideals written by the National Assembly + date
What happened after the September Massacres
The Legislative ASsembly set aside the Constitution of 1791, declared teh king deposed, dissolved teh assembly and called for the election of a new legislation
Who were the sans-culottes? What were their political demands?
Demanded price controls. No fancy pants- true french- worked with hands in cities. Interested in redistributing wealth. Wanted no more foreign influence in Revolution, more representation in government, equality, no limited monarchy. Like Jacobins but less educated.
5 or 600 heads will spare 10,000
Marat, referring to killing nobles for the revolutions sake
The french Revolution began on July 14, 1789. What occured on that day?
Parisians dismantled a prison and army (Bastille Prison) brick by brick. Bastille becomes a symbol of absolutism of old Regime.
Great Fear- Panic Spreads; peasants attack nobles property
Abbe'Sieyes, What is the Third Estate?
An essay written at the time when the Assembly of Notables was called. It said "What is the Third Estate? Everything. What can it do politically? Nothing. What do they want? To be Something". Since the 3rd estate were not recognized political.
What is the name of the constitution?
-Declaration of the rights of Man and Citizen.
why did louie xvi call a meeting of estates general
to find solutions to frances financial problem
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