Lesson 61 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
compulsory
necessary
supersede
replace
bootless
useless
Tainted-food
contaminated
24
except
renunciation
Abdication.
clemency
mercy, mildness
recant
repudiate, disavow
ile
an object
prosaic
straightforward, uninteresting
orthopedic
straightening, skletal
Commiserate
to pity
Demure
Modest in Behavior
converge
to move toward
vindicate
free from blame
Rancid
(adj.) stale, spoiled
atrophy
to waste away
berate
to scold; rebuke:
contagious
communicable by contact; catching
TAUNT
contemptuous reproach hurtful remark
Equanimity
ability to remain calm
minuscule
very small, tiny; insignificant
Brigand
a robber or bandit
noun
longevity
long lifr long duration
avert
turn or look away
Countenance
Appearance, especially the expression of the face
Demise
the time when something ends
Spurious
Of falsified; of deceitful nature
mercenary (adj)
motivated only by greed
vociferous
loud, noisy, compels attention
ant. quiet, soft-apoken, muted
efface
wipe out or rub out
exuberant
effusively and almost uninhibitedly enthusiastic; lavishly abundant:
incredulous
not credulous; disinclined or indisposed to believe; skeptical.
indigenous
native or originating in a region
Prate
(v) to talk excessively or babble
benevolence
desire to do good to others
Solace
Comfort in sorrow or misfortune; consolation
emanate
o come out from a source.
foible
slight fault, minor weakness of character
incense
substance yielding a pleasant odor when burned
cool
moderately cold; neither warm nor cold:
expunge
to efface; wipe out or destroy.
stalwart
adj strong and dependable
noun a person who is strong and dependable
Equator
an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles
rhetoric
the art of persuasion, the employing of devices to persuade
Nu
a Yiddish word roughly equivalent to "so" or "well?"
Pittance
A woefully meager allowance, wage, or portion
Reverberate
Verb. To re-echo, resound; to reflect or be reflected repeatedly.
 
S: Rumble, thunder, boom, echo.
skirmish
a minor dispute or contest between opposing parties
inquisitive
given to inquiry, research, or asking questions; eager for knowledge; intellectually curious:
If you don't go, I won't go______________.
either
providence
the foreseeing care and guidance of God or nature over the creatures of the earth.
grimace
a facial expression, often ugly or contorted, that indicates disapproval, pain, etc.
concerted
a public musical performance in which a number of singers or instrumentalists, or both, participate.
refrain
a regularly repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song
decapitate
to cut off the head of; to behead
catalyst
n. a substance that causes or hastens a chemical reaction; any agent that causes change
irresolute
(adj) unable to make up one's mind, hesitatingSYN: indecisive, vacillating, waveringANT: determined, decisive, unwavering
exhilirate
(v.) to enliven, cheer, give spirit or liveliness to
consecrate
To make sacred by a religious rite: bless, hallow, sanctify. 2. To give over by or as if by vow to a higher purpose: dedicate, devote, hallow. See give/take/reciprocity.
inquisitorial
pertaining to a trial with one person or group inquiring into the facts and acting as both prosecutor and judge.
verbose
characterized by the use of many or too many words; wordy:
Counsel
Advice (N) / An advisor (N) / To advise (V)
skulk
(v.) to move in a sneaky, furtive, or stealthy manner
felicity
the state of being happy, esp. in a high degree; bliss:
modifies
of a word, phrase, or clause to stand in a syntactically subordinate relation to another word, phrase, or clause, usually with descriptive, limiting, or particularizing meaning; be a modifier. In a good man, good modifies man.
seethe
to surge or foam as if boiling; to be in a state of agitation or excitement
aging--interactionism
activity theory














Campbell’s Law focuses on
the problems with too great an emphasis on:

(A) quantitative measurments
Polygamy
More than one mate
kinship
socially constructed concept, biological status, legal status, chosen status= to make up a family
Marx
Class Conflict and Alienation/Economic Determinist/ Key Works: The Communist Manifesto 1848) and Das Kapital-1867
Empirical Evidence
observed or researched data
Dependent
factor change by dependent variable
Dependent variable
The outcome of interest
stereotypes
Generalizations that are unreliable about specific groups that don’t take into account individual differences, dangerous- can be used against certain groups
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
BELIEF THAT INSTITUTIONS SERVE FUNCTIONS;MUST HAVE POLITICAL, LEGAL AND FAMILY INSTITUTIONS; EACH INSTITUTION SERVES A POSITIVE FUNCTION
symbolic culture 
another term for nonmaterial culture
Role conflict
Two statuses with conflicting rolesE.X:Student and a parent would conflict because school would require effort and time which would be taking away from your role as a parent
Ethnicity
cultural values and norms that distinguish the members of a given group from others
The dynamic that harms homosexuals also has destructive effects on heterosexuals:T/F
True
Robert Merton
introduced latent and manifest functions
Ideal Type
The pure form of something (like a beauracracy).
Ideal Type
Not necessarily the best but...
property
the economic resources that an individual owns or controls.
Fad
An unconventional social pattern that people embrace briefly but enthusiastically
countercultures
a subculture that deliberately opposes certain aspects of the larger culture
values
collective conceptions of what is good, desireable, and proper (or the opposite) in a culture
neocolonialism
Country is economically dependent upon an industrialized country
mores
norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
sociological imagination
an awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, both today and in the past 
Master Status
An ascribed or achieved status presumed so important that it overshadows all of the others, dominating our lives and controlling our position in society.
endogamy  
selecting mates from within one's group. 
Limitations of Sociobiology

1. Cerebral Cortex (abstract thinking)
2. Cultural Diversity

 
Stigma
a physical or social attribute that discredits and individual's claim to complete respectability (p. 189-190n).
Micro-level Analysis
an examination of small-scale patterns of society(often explored by symbolic interactionists)
Psychoanalytic Theory
A theory of socialization positing that the unconscious mind shapes human behavior
Rehabilitation
A program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses.
Feminization of poverty
-increase in single motherhood
-gender discrimination in labor force (pink collar jobs differ in pay)
SOCIAL INSTITUTION
established ways to meet human needs
popular culture
cultural patterns that are widespread within the middle and working classes of a society
What is the main division of people?
Gender
Anomie
a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
communism
a classless society that operates on the principle of “from each according to his ability to each according to his needs”
correspondance principle
schools promote values expected of individuals in a specific socio-economic class. ie- chicago= vocational, suburban=college prep
Jane Addams
Founder of social work, created juvinile court system, fought against chicago school segregation, the Hull House
gatekeeping
when a relatively small number of people in the media industry control what material eventually reaches the audience
cultural transmission
Crime is learned through daily interactions, you grow up in media you are exposed to (determine your criminal behavior) , interactionist
personal space
the variable and subjective distance at which one person feels comfortable talking to another.
social stratification
division of society into levels of people based on certain characteristics
External Social Control
Other people's attempts to regulate behavior
Family of Procreation
Nuclear family consisting of an individual, his or her spouse, and their children.
armored personalities
striving ambitiuos people are said to have what personality?
What is Marx known for?

 
Critique of Capitalism
Conflict Theory (haves and have nots)
Bourgeoisie "haves"
Proletariat "have nots"
power struggle between people who have a lot of money and don’t have a lot of money

 
Cloward and Ohlin
-suggested that just as legitimate means to success are unequally distributed in society, so are illegitimate means (p. 182-183).
-to innovate successfully, one needs to learn certain skills
-ex: bank robbers need to learn how to select their targets
 
Units of Analysis
"Things" on which observations are based for research
Conflict theories
have differing amounts of material and non material resources; groups with mroe power use it over groups with less power
False
If Mary makes less money than Peter, but both have similar degrees and experience, which theorist would contend that Mary makes less money because Peter has other qualities that make him more qualified, such as leadership
micro
is a more nearly restricted to the study of smaller patterns of behavior pr perspectives. Sometimes referred to as rational choice or self-interest theories
Me Murdock 49
Sexual - sex in marriage, stabilise family prevent conflict
Reproductive -more children society continue
Economic - unit of production, uphold country
Education - norms and values into children, taught every generation
Token Resistance
The rate at which "no" means "yes"; linear and curved relationships are used to compare the traditional and non-traditional
Socioeconomic Status
A composite ranking based on the various dimensions of social inequality
Mass media-functionalist perspective
Functions of media:
1. To entertain
2. To socialize us
3. To enforce social norms
4. To confer status
5. To promote consumption

An important dysfunction of mass media is that it acts like a drug – desensitizing us to violence, disasters, etc.
groupthink
members feel pressured to conform to a prevailing view point and withhold questions, concerns, and criticisms
Emile Durkheim
human interaction in a broad social context: 1.organizational soc, 2.criminology, 3. religious soc, Amonie
equilibrium theory
Functionalist- when you have a change in society, the rest of society adapts to those changes. Every component of society is important to society, if unimportant- will die out. Ex: blacksmiths, icemen
nuclear family
household where there are two married parents with children (1/3 of US families)
cultural pluralism
a condition in which minority groups participate fully in the dominant society, yet maintain their cultural differences
secondary analysis
analyze the data that someone else has already collected
Social Mobility
Change in one's position in the social hierarchy
Lower Class
a social class comprised of those who work part time or not at all and whose household income is typically lower than $17,000 a year
pay equity
- the wage gap is the disparity between womens and mens earnings.-wages should reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.
Which trait do you think is most applicable for how other homeless people have been able to effectively label Stinky?
Social Distance
Define Sociology
the study of human society and social life and the causes and consequencing of human behavior.
Age cohorts
people who were born at roughly the same time and who pass through the life course together
Significance of Culture
without it, we'd be constantly solving same problems
substitute for instinct
learned through socialization
What is gate-keeping?
Filtering the news we receive from small bureau internationally ; The hierarchical structure of formal organizations places certain individuals or groups in crucial positions from which they can control access to goods, services, or information.
reference group
the group you use to compare yourself with, 1- enforce standards of behavior, 2-used for comparison
open vs. closed system
Open- class system of stratification where mobility happens, closed- system in which wherever you are born, you can never move
language
a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition:
Cultural lag may result from three processes
1. discovery
2. invention
3. diffusion
the belief that anyone can get ahead if only he or she tries hard enough
Horatio Alger Myth
1. physical abuse2. financial abuse3. emotional abuse
situations that increase elder abuse
What are the 4 distinctive subcultures described in class?
Collegiate, academic, vocational, non-conformist
role of language in culture
the foundation of culture, displays the priorities of culture, certain words tell what is important to a culture
5 properties of a minority group
1- Physical or cultural differences/characteristics, 2- Must be treated unequally, 3- membership is not voluntary, 4- sense of solidarity among the group (is there collective consciousness?), 5- minority groups members tend to marry each other
Describe the two parts to "Role-taking".
1. "I", the active, spontaeous, unrestrained, natural self. The self as subject. Initiator of all thoughts and ideas. Subject is doing the viewing.2. "ME", the restrained, socially aware, responsible self, self as object on display and being viewed.We balance the two and as we mature, we use "ME" more often.
according to the davis moore thesis
more important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them
Difference in Domhaff and Mills
Shows how being socially upper class is also connected to being in the corporate and policy making power elite.
How does Weber define power?
The ability to impose one’s will over another, some have more social than others- upper class, there is a varied degree of power that is used and not used
What does pressure group mean?
A group a people with the same interests/concerns
McIntosh's research of white privilege
Race is voluntary for whites, so they have hidden privileges- understand race only when they have to, socialized into white privilege, 1- whites are generally around other whites, 2- white ppl treated differently (ex- retail), 3- white standard norm is parenting (socializing), 4- whites don’t have the pressure of representing their race
What is the best single predictor of lifestyle?
Socioeconomic Status (SES)

It is one of the critical factors shaping our lives.
Which of the following is true regarding relocation?
Women are more likely than men to relocate to another city for a spouse.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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