Terms Definitions
Three Degenerative Diseases
Teratogen Problems
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Physical/Psychological malformations - Language Development, Motor Skills, Socially Awkward.Tobacco Use: Low Birth Weight, Memory/Motor deficits.Prescriptions: Thalidomide - low birth weight.
Object permanence
the understanding, which develops throughout the first year, that an object continues to exist even when you cannot see or touch it
Development during adulthood reflects the increasing importance of:A)symbolic thought.B)individual variation.C)social conflicts.D)temperament.
B)individual variation.
the cessation of menstruation and of the production of ova; it is usually a gradual process lasting up to several years
Contact comfort
in primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact; it is the basis of the infants first attachment
Kyle is studying how language abilities change throughout childhood, and Kelly is studying cognitive changes in late adulthood. Both Kyle and Kelly are conducting studies in which area of psychology?A)clinical psychologyB)humanistic psychologyC)comparati
D)developmental psychology
Naturalistic Observation
Observing someone in their natural enviornment. Assume things from your own bias (this is bad).
Critics of Kubler Ross
Critical (5)1. Methodological problems2.cultural specificity3. stage concept4.thanatology5.task based
Gender schema
a cognitive schema (mental network) of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors, and expectations about what it means to be male or female
Sociohistorical Research Methods
-take into account the cultural, social and historical factors that may be influencing development change
-relies on rich description of ecological factors that interact with individual development paths
-use participant observations, case studies, and attempt to provide triangulation to strengthen the generalizability of their results
-often used by lifespan theorists
Despite the fact that Crystal is doing above average work in fourth grade, her father tells her that her grades are unsatisfactory and that she is not working hard enough. According to Erikson's theory, Crystal is likely to develop a pervasive sense of:A)
During which stage of development does formal operational thinking typically begin to emerge?A)early adulthoodB)early adolescenceC)about ages 3 to 5D)about ages 5 to 7
B)early adolescence
Sequential Study
It's a combo of longitudinal and cross-sectional. Compare different groups
Erik Erickson
One of the first modern theorists to propose a lifespan approach to psychological development, proposed that all individuals go through eight stages in their lives, each characterized by a particular "crisis," that ideally should be resolved before the individual moves on
Cross-sectional study
a study in which subjects of different ages are compared at a given time
Universal Physical Development
Plays a role in Nature - "pre-programmed development."
According to the Focus on Neuroscience box, at approximately what age does the brain reach full maturity?A)at birthB)during late childhoodC)at the onset of pubertyD)during the mid-twenties
D)during the mid-twenties
Although he is more than a year old, Jason wakes up frequently during the night and is hard to soothe back to sleep. In general, he cries easily, is a fussy eater, and rarely naps at the same time every day. Jason would most likely be categorized as:A)slo
The Psychosocial Stages
1. Trust vs. Mistrust2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt3. Initiative vs. Guilt4. Industry vs. Inferiority5. Identity vs. Role Confusion6. Intimacy vs. Isolation7. Generativity vs. Stagnation8. Integrity vs. Despair
Theory of mind
a system of beliefs about the way one's own mind and the minds of others work, and of how individuals are affected by their beliefs and feelings
In Piaget's theory, the term irreversibility refers to the:A)ability to reverse mental operations.B)inability to reverse mental operations.C)inability to focus on all relevant aspects of a situation.D)ability to comprehend that some actions cannot be undo
B)inability to reverse mental operations.
Operant Conditioning: Negative reinforcement
Occurs when an individual learns to perform a specific behavior in order to cause something unpleasant to stop.
Which of the following represents the correct sequence of language development from birth to about age 2?A)cooing, babbling, one-word stage, two-word stageB)babbling, cooing, two-word stage, four-word stageC)production, comprehension, one-word stageD)cons
A)cooing, babbling, one-word stage, two-word stage
Parenting styles can be described in terms of two dimensions:A)parental control and parental responsiveness.B)level of discipline and type of punishment.C)type of discipline and socioeconomic background.D)level of affection and level of indulgence.
A)parental control and parental responsiveness.
Psychosocial Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt
3 - 6 years. Positive characteristics and Typical activities: Purpose; ability to organize activities around some goal; more assertiveness and aggressiveness (Oedipus conflict with parent of same sex may lead to guilt)
Mrs. Hall has always enjoyed quiet, solitary pursuits, such as gardening and reading. Now that she is almost 80, the activity theory of aging would predict that her life satisfaction will be highest if she:A)disengages from those activities.B)joins severa
C)continues to pursue the activities that she has always enjoyed.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?A)If your genotype contains a copy of the dominant “freckles” gene you will develop freckles regardless of environmental factors, such as exposure to sunlight.B)The phenotype is the underlying genetic makeup o
D)To be “freckle free” you would have to inherit two recessive “no-freckle” genes, one from each biological parent.
Attachment Theory1.Numbness 2. Yearning 3. Disorganization & Despair 4. Reorganization
Learning Theory Approach
Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningObservant/Vacarious LearningReinforcementShaping, ModelingBiological Constraints
the understanding that the physical properties of objects- such as the number of items in a cluster or the amount of liquid in a glass - can remain the same even when their form or appearance changes
Cross-Cultural Theoretical Perspectives
-developmental theories (especially non-Western) often are derived from religious or philosophical perspectives
-individual development secondary due to emphasis on well-being of group (interdependence)
-range of gender differences in behavior and assumptions
Labels (4)1.Shock 2. Awareness 3. Conservation & Withdrawal 4.HEaling & Renewal
Embryonic stage
stage of prenatal development that begins once implantation is completed, about two weeks after fertilization, and lasts until eighth week after conception
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist who studied child development, created the "flower-blooming" school of cognitive development, and proposed the theory of cognitive stages
An outside agent that effects the growing fetus. Ex: alcohol, smoking, malnutrition.
Define Ego
The thinking elemtent of personality "Like an adult who understand things take time to happen"
Define developmental psych
scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion and personality.
Social clock
Norms governing what people of the same age and historical generation are expected to do, used by people to determine whether they are on time for transitions or off time
Gender typing
the process by which children learn the abilities, interests and behaviours associated with being masculine or feminine in their cultures
Identity crisis
a person's internal struggle to decide what to be and what to make of this life; those who resolve it will have a strong identity and be ready to plan for the future; those who do not will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions
Continuous Development
Proposed by Vygotsky - children grow at a continuous rate - idea of Scaffolding: caretakers are pulling child to next level.
On a rainy afternoon, 5-year-old Nathan had great fun building a pirate ship using the cushions from the couch and several kitchen chairs. Nathan's imaginary play reflects his capacity for _____, which is a characteristic of the _____ stage of cognitive d
D)symbolic thought; preoperational
Psychosocial Stage: Integrity vs. Despair
Late adulthood: Positive characteristics and typical activities: Wisdom; person conducts life review, integrates earlier stages and comes to terms with basic identity; develops self acceptance.
a method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child's own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child's misbehaviour
Activated Knowledge Questions
Examples of This
-Can I explain the underlying system of ideas that defines this theory?
-Can I explain the most basic ideas in it to someone who doesn't understand it?
-Could I write a glossary of its most basic vocabulary?
-Do I understand the extent to which the theory involves a great deal or very little expert disagreement?
-Have I written out the basic logic of the theory?
-Can I compare and contrast the logic of the theory with that of other theories?
-To what extent can I relate the subject to significant problems in the world?
-To what extent can I relate the subject to significant problems in the world?
-To what extent has thinking in this field helped me to become more intellectually autonomous?
Cross-Sectional Design (definition and problems)
Research method that involves observing a population, or a sample, of all ages during a "defined time."Problems? Health (food/health care) Technology Cultural Differences Education War
The term _____ refers to the stage in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction.A)centrationB)zone of proximal developmentC)pubertyD)generativity
Psychosexual Stage: Genital
Age 12+. Focuses on genitals. Major developmental tasks: achieving mature sexual intimacy.
Disengagement Theory (3)
1.Shrinkage of life space: as people age, they interact with fewer & fill fewer roles (considered healthy) Acceptance of this.2. some level of social involvement is both a sign of higher morale and lower levels of depression3. less governed by rules and expectations
The classic conservation task developed by Piaget involves two short containers that contain equal amounts of liquid. While a child watches, the water from one container is poured into a tall, thin beaker, and the child is asked which beaker holds more wa
A)Daniel is in the preoperational stage, while Emily is in the concrete operational stage.
Freud and his theory that personality has 3 parts.
1. Id2. Ego3. Superego
Concrete Stages of Development
Proposed by Piaget - humans develop in specific stages.
According to developmental psychologist Jerome Kagan, a low-reactive infant:A)would have difficulty adjusting to loud, busy, or crowded environments.B)typically reacts intensively to new experiences, strangers, and novel objects.C)probably has at least so
D)is more likely to show curiosity and interest than fear when exposed to new objects, people, or experiences.
Concept of Original Sin
All humans are born with a selfish nature and do things for selfish reasons. Idea by: Christian Doctrine
Camille Wortman & Roxane Solver
Revisionists (4)1. no fixed stages 2. no same pattern 3. all themes present at same time but one or the other dominates 4. Four distinct patterns of grieveing: NOrmal, Chronic (1/3 show this one), Delayed (least common), Absent
Humanistic Theory: A. Maslow and Carl Rogers
Psychoanalytical school grows out of psychodynamic thought. Less pssimistic about human behavior. There are drives - sex, aggression and hunger. Maslow was more optimitic, humans have potential. Carol Rogers = father of humanistic psych. Believed in human potential and humans are driven by desire to grow.
In comparison to the age at which young adults got married in 1960, the median age for first marriage in the year 2003 was:A)younger for both males and females.B)older for both males and females.C)older for males and younger for females.D)younger for male
B)older for both males and females.
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