1920s and Great Depression Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gyrations
movements
TVA
Tennessee Valley Authority
expansion
stock goes up
1932 Candidates
Hoover and Roosevelt
Relief
Aid for the needy
#5
poor business and bank investments
FERA
provide aid for the unemployed
REA
Encouraged farmers to join cooperatives to bring electricity to farms. Despite its efforts, by 1940 only 40% of American farms were electrified
New Deal
government programs started by president Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1930's to help recover from the Great Depression.
repatriate
sent back to their original country.
NRA
attempted to enlist businesses to subscribe to fair codes of wages and working standards but mostly failed
Dustbowl
stuggles and draught Midwest farmers faced.
fascist
a person with extremaly nationalistic views
Business Close
Snowball Effect
As businesses close, unemployment rises.
Releif
hoover strongly opposed the federal goverments participation in this. It is money given driectly to impoverished familes.
bootlegger
was a person who sold smuggled liquor
Sinclair Lewis
First Nobel Prize winner in Literature, Ridiculed American Materialism
Bull Market
a market characterized by rising prices for securities
Social Security ____ provide benefits to anyone who needed them in the 1930s
did not
Liberty League
This group, formed of Republican businessmen, felt the government was interfering in people's lives.
The Scottsboro Case
Involved 9 African-American teenage boys who were accused of raping 2 white girls on a train—it was an example of the intolerance of the period; they did not receive it during the depression`
migrants
Immigration refers to the movement of people between countries
Justice Roberts
changed to become a Roosevelt supporter after court packing, mysteriously burned legal decisions/documents before his death
Okies
the farmers, who in the Great Depression, were forced to move, many moved to Oklahoma
Herbert Hoover
president during stock market collapse and the height of the Great Depression. Conservative, made limited efforts to control the economic and social issues of the nations. "too little, too late"
The year the world fully recovered from the Great Depressions
1939
deduct
if you worked in any department in Louisiana Long thought he was the boss and black mailed them saying they gave him part of their pay check or they lost their job
Migrant farmers
moved to different regions for short time and farm there
some were called Okies or Arkies if they were from Oklahoma or Arkansas
followed route 66
Packed their belongings in old cars called jalopies
collective bargaining
the process in which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation)
Established in 1932; Provided emergency financing to banks, life-insurance companies, railroads, and other large businesses.
unempolyment
the condition of being out of work; rising unemployment meant people couldn't afford to buy products
Black Thursday
October 24, 1929; stock market crashes and almost 13 million shares are sold that day alone
"New Deal"
Roosevelt's plan to help the United States through the Depression.
Good Neighbor Policy
FDR's policy intended to strengthen friendly relations with Latin Americans
John Steinbeck
author who wrote about the Depression such as of Mice and Men
Advertising
a public promotion of some product or service
effects of GD
gross national production ↓, per capita ↓, farmer's income ↓, employment ↓, new investments ↓, exports ↓, building construction ↓, capacity utilization ↓, bank failures ↑, hunger ↑, homelessness ↑, mental depression ↑.
Dust Bowl
region in the central Great Plains that was hit by a severe drought during the 1930s
margin
buying a sotck by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest
Georgie O'Keeffe
Artist known for her paintings of large flowers and southwestern scenes.
Trickle Down Economics
bankers would lend money to businesses, who would then hire workers, and production and consumption would increase and the depression would end
Wagner Act
Law passed in 1935 that aided unions by legalizing collective bargaining and closed shops, and by establishing the National Labor Relations Board
federal deposit insurance corporation
this agency insures bank deposits against bank failures; during the depression, depositors lost life savings
migrant worker
people who move from one rigion to another in search of work
Bonus Army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Bread Line
people stood in lines for bread and soup
The New Deal
FDR's strategy to end the depression by trying many different employment projects to put out-of-work americans to work in government organized groups. Relief, Recovery, Reform.
Franklin Deleno Roosevelt (FDR)
Elected President in 1932, promised Americans a "New Deal".
Federal Music Project
It employed 15000 musicians under the direction of Nicholas Sokoloff, the conductor of the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra. Government sponsored orchestra's were able to tour the country because of this.
Dawes Plan
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. This circular flow of money was a success.
Buying on Margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future
stock market crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
american liberty league
organized opposition to the New Deal and "teach the necessary of repsect for the right of person and property"
Georges Clemenceau
French statesman who played a key role in negotiating the Treaty of Versailles (1841-1929)
Hawley-Shoot Tarrif Act
Smoot Tariff-was an act signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels. The ensuing retaliatory tariffs by U.S. trading partners reduced American exports and imports by more than half and according to some views may have contributed to the severity of the Great Depression. The higest rates in history.
Dow Jones Industrial Average
average of stocks prices of major industries
Federal Depository Insurance Company (FDIC)
Insured bank accounts up to $100,000
encouraged donations to private relief agencies
The presidents committee for unemployment relief....
Harold LeClair Ickes
He served as Secretary of the Interior for thirteen years, from 1933 to 1946. Ickes was responsible for implementing much of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "New Deal"
Great Depression
a period lasting from 1929 to 1941 in which the US economy was in severe decline and millions of Americans were unemployed.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.(FDIC)
was created to prevent bank customers from losing their money when banks are robbed or go bankrupt
Causes of the Depression
Farmer Debt, Consumer Debt, More Goods Than Buyers, Declining Trade
Al Capone
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs. Killed opponents and was arrested sent to Alcatraz.
The National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) attempted to do what?
eliminate unfair competition and prevent business failures
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
New Deal program begun in 1933; built dams to provide cheap electric power to seven southern states; set up schools and health centers
Of Mice and Men
A story about two friends trying to "make a stake" during the Depression.
Hoover's actions towards the great depression
tried to reassure americans that the nations economy was on sound footing, believed gov. was not to control but rather facilitate, people succeed through their own efforts not the gov., cautious in work for the great depression
1. Outdated industries 2.farmers grow more than could be sold 3. easy credit put most people into debt 4. Unequal distribution
Four reasons responsible for the great depression
What all did the Social Security Act provide?
created a pension system, unemployment insurance,aid to the disabled,and mothers with dependent children.
What states were worst hit by the Great Depression?
Great Plains and parts of southwest: Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado.
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