Literary 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Deconstruction - words
Archetypal - "outward face"
? - someone please define
? - someone please define
Psychoanalytic - defense mechanism; shifting anger or other emotion from a target to another target
Psychoanalytic - the underlying emotions and feelings of an individual
Chapbooks contained popular literature such as ballads, tracts, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes.
Latin for "straightforward discourse." Prose is language which is not in verse form.  
psychoanalytical criticism
criticism that focuses on understanding the psychology of the characters; based largely on the theories of Sigmund Freud.
Feminism - blurring of gender roles
collective unconscious
Archetypal - universal psyche consisting of a set of primal memories
Marxism - (thieves, robbers, etc.) lowest of the low; "feed" on the misfortunes of the hardworking working class
The processes of analyzing and describing a literary work in order to articulate its meaning or significance in terms of genre, style, form, content, theme, etc. Interpretation is an important part of literary criticism, a larger concept using interpretation, analysis, and reading to describe the overall significance, meaning, or evaluation of a literary work.
Proscenium arch
An architectural feature of post-Renaissance theaters that separates the playing area from the proscenium and the audience. Over time, the convention has evolved that the audience can see the players on the stage but the players cannot see the audience, nor are they aware of the audience.
An informal or everyday expression, phrase, or word.
In literature and visual art, expressionism was a reaction to realism and naturalism. Rather than expressing verisimilitude and external reality, expressionism seeks to convey subjectivity, feeling, imagination, and emotional states of mind.
A short, written prose composition that discusses a subject or proposes an argument without claiming to be an exhaustive or complete study of the subject. Frequently, essays attempt to persuade or express a particular point of view.
Similar to linguistics and semantics, stylistics examines a literary work's style. Rather than using subjective or expressive modes of literary analysis, stylistics attempts to offer a more scientific reading of literary works. Of concern to stylistics are phonology (study of sound), prosody (study of versification), diction, syntax, and figurative language.
A rhetorical or philosophical contrast or opposition which is emphasized by parallelism.
A significant abstract idea emerging from a literary work or the statement the work appears to make about its subject. Usually themes are indirectly suggested and are generally conveyed through figurative language, imagery, symbols, or motifs. Themes that are overt or explicitly stated are called didactic.
Setting refers to the location, historical moment, social context, or circumstances in which a literary work or scene is set. In drama, it also includes the scenery and props and is often referred to as décor or mise en scène.  
Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalytic - developed the theory of the id, ego, and superego; hypothesized that disorders arise from repression; focused on hysterics, dreams; first to initiate the patient-therapist relationship (talking cure)
Deconstruction - mark of the absence of a presence
New Historicism - popular truths of the time
Marxist - being aware of the separation between economic classes
Archetypal - one of the four archetypes; the instinctual, animalistic, darker and sometimes hidden part of an individual
Greek term for understatement by which something is described in terms less grand or important than it deserves or merits, typically to minimize its importance. Meiosis is a form of litote, a figure of speech in which a statement is made indirectly by denying its opposite. The opposite of meiosis is hyperbole, a figure of speech which uses exaggeration for comic, ironic, or serious effect.
Metaphysical poetry
Broadly defined as poetry that addresses spiritual or philosophical matters, but more specifically, and more often, used to describe a particular group of seventeenth-century poets.
A figure of speech which uses exaggeration for comic, ironic, or serious effect. Its opposite is understatement or meiosis.
Intrusive narrator 
A story’s narrator who offers comment, critique, interpretation, or additional information to readers about characters or events as he or she recounts the events in the story. Its opposite is an unintrusive narrator, who relates a story’s events with a minimum of commentary, observation, or interpretation.
For Aristotle, tragedy was "an action of high importance," but today tragedy is a form of drama or other literary work that usually ends in death or some other non-comedic event. Tragedy is usually brought about because of a character's tragic flaw, hubris, or a broader hamartia (error, mistake, or failure). Tragedy is usually dependent upon the audience's awareness and acceptance of a tragic hero's potential or redeeming qualities. According to Aristotle, viewers watching tragic drama experience a catharsis, or a purging or cleansing of emotion, leading to relief or other beneficial emotions in an audience.
In contemporary usage, lyric refers to a moderately short (usually 12-30 lines) poem expressing one speaker's emotions and thoughts. Lyric poems are not limited to a specific meter or form but are almost always about emotion, frequently concerning themes of love and grief.
A novel, or extended piece of fictional prose, which specifically traces the artistic development of a writer or other kind of artist. James Joyce’s A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is a classic Küntstlerroman, revolving around the young Stephen Dedalus as he pursues his calling as a poet. Kate Chopin’s The Awakening has also been called a Küntstlerroman—though perhaps a failed one—because Edna Pontellier develops confidence in her artistry and tries to live independently with room and time and freedom to paint; however, her struggles with society to live this independent, artistic life are unsuccessful.
Refers to a period of Victorian literature and art. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (PRB) was formed in 1848 by a group of visual artists, including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt, and Edward Burne-Jones. These artists attempted to return painting to the simplicity and truthfulness of art before Raphael (1483-1520) and the High Renaissance. Rossetti was also a poet and the Pre-Raphaelite ideas were thus extended to literary arts. Pre-Raphaelite art and literature looked back to the medieval world, and in turn, offered a highly religious, sensual, and symbolic representation of that world. Some scholars argue that Pre-Raphaelitism is a precursor to aestheticism and Decadence later in the nineteenth century. For major writers and works in this area, see the Literary History Chart in the Writing and Research section.
Although there is not a unified poststructuralist theory, poststructuralism refers to a body of literary theories and critical perspectives that challenge structuralist approaches to literature. Examples of poststructuralist theories and approaches include postcolonial, feminist, gay and lesbian, deconstruction, Marxist, New Historicism, psychological, and psychoanalytic. Though distinct, these approaches are related in terms of their critique of structuralism through the primacy of literary theory and their attempts to formulate new theories and critical methodologies.
Postmodern period
In British and American literature, the postmodern period refers to literature written after World War II. The postmodern period reflects anxieties concerning and reactions to life in the twentieth century. Postmodern works are often highly experimental and anti-conventional. For major writers and works in this area, see the Literary History Chart in the Writing and Research section.  
A term associated with Charles Sanders Peirce and Ferdinard de Saussure, semiotics is the study of signs and sign systems and the work they do to create meaning. Signs are made up of signifiers (words or symbols) and signified (the concept to which the word or symbol is referring), the connection between which is arbitrary but agreed upon by convention. Signs can include (but are not limited to) written and spoken words, body language, gestures, physical signs, and symbols. A sign is anything that conveys information to anyone who understands the codes and conventions of a particular sign system. Semiotics posits that meaning does not come from the signs themselves but from the differences between signs and the relationships between signs. Semiotic approaches to literary criticism examine the way literary codes and conventions create meaning(s).
The similar sound in syllables or paired groups of syllables. The more common end rhyme occurs at the end of a line of verse, whereas internal rhyme occurs within a line of verse. Masculine rhymes are rhymes with single-syllable stressed words. Feminine rhymes are rhyming stressed syllables followed by identical unstressed syllables. Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhymes used.
Restoration era 
A period of British literature beginning with the crowning of Charles II and the restoration of the Stuart line in 1660 and ending around 1700. After the Puritan ban on theatres was lifted, theatre came back into prominence. Drama of this period frequently focused upon the aristocracy and the life of the court, and is characterized by its use of urbanity, wit, and licentious plot lines. For major writers and works in this period, see the Literary History Chart in the Writing and Research section.  
An uncommon metrical unit of poetry consisting of two successive syllables that are equally or almost equally unstressed. Metrical units (called feet) make up a poem’s meter, or rhythms in poetry made by these units of sound created by accented and unaccented syllables.
New Criticism 
An approach to literary interpretation emerging in the 1920s, gaining prominence in the 1940s, and remaining influential throughout the 1960s and 1970s. New Critics insisted that literary criticism should focus on the literary work itself rather than on biographical, historical, or social contexts. The literary work was considered a self-contained and self-referential unit and was studied in isolation. New Critical readings were based upon explication and close readings, practices that remain relevant in literary study. Two errors in reading under New Criticism are affective and intentional fallacies, terms used by William K. Wimsatt and Monroe C. Beardsley for the errors of basing an interpretation upon the emotional effect a particular work has on readers (affective fallacy) or upon an author’s explicit or implicit intentions regarding his or her literary text (intentional fallacy). These interpretations are considered flawed by New Critics because readers should base their interpretations upon the text itself and what is in it.
A one-stanza lyric poem of fourteen lines in iambic pentameter with a specific rhyme scheme. Sonnets address a range of themes, but love is the most common. There are two major kinds of sonnets: the Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnet and the English (or Shakespearean) sonnet. The Italian sonnet has two main parts: an octave (eight lines) with a rhyme scheme of abba abba followed by a sestet (six lines) with a rhyme scheme of cde cde (or sometimes cdc cdc). The Italian sonnet usually uses the octave to state or describe a problem and the sestet to resolve it. The English sonnet has three quatrains (4 lines) and a concluding couplet (two lines) with an abab cdcd efef gg rhyme scheme. The Spenserian sonnet offers a variant rhyme scheme of abab bcbc cdcd ee. In the Shakespearean sonnet, the sestets describe a problem or situation that is repeated in each sestet with some variation; the remaining couplet offers a summary, usually with a turn of thought.
A statement that, on the surface, appears to be self-contradictory but, upon analysis, reveals an underlying truth, significance, or meaning. An oxymoron, or two opposite or contradictory words juxtaposed for effect or emphasis, is a kind of paradox. Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “Dream-Land” describes a place with “Bottomless vales and boundless floods” and “Mountains toppling evermore / Into seas without a shore,” scenes that at first glance make no sense but are perfectly appropriate for a land of dreams, “out of SPACE—out of TIME.”
Greek term for passions, suffering, or deep feeling. In literary criticism, it is used to describe scenes or passages that evoke emotions, particularly sympathy, pity, or sorrow from readers or an audience. Pathos is distinct from tragedy as pathetic figures are generally helpless, suffer from events beyond their control, and are characterized by their innocence in the causes of their suffering. Tragic figures, on the other hand, usually possess agency and some degree of responsibility for their suffering.
An offshoot of realism in American literature, Naturalism claimed to give an even more realistic and unflinching depiction of contemporary life. Naturalism was characterized by a pessimistic view of humanity and human existence; characters in Naturalist narratives have strong, instinctual, or animalistic drives; have little or no control over the events and forces that govern their lives; and their lives are frequently intertwined with social and economic forces beyond their control.
Blank verse
Lines of unrhymed verse, almost always in iambic pentameter. Iambic pentameter is a specific type of meter (the rhythms in poetry made by units of sound created by accented and unaccented syllables) with lines made up of ten units, or feet, of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable. Blank verse is the meter that most closely resembles the natural patterns of English speech.
Combinations of words that sound and convey harshness and roughness. Sometimes called "dissonance," cacophony is the opposite of euphony.
In literary criticism, canon refers to a) a body of works attributed to a particular author, or b) works that are given special cultural status. Works that are labeled "classics" or "Great Books" or that are frequently taught or anthologized are called "canonical."
An adjective or adjectival phrase used to define a person or a thing. It can also refer to a characteristic attribute or quality of a person or thing.
Enjambement (or enjambment)
French for "striding over," enjambement occurs when the sense and/or grammatical structure of a sentence moves from one verse line to the next without a punctuated pause.
Broadly, comedy means anything that is amusing or entertaining.
A poem that recounts a story, originally intended to be sung.
A narrative in which abstract concepts are represented as something concrete, typically major elements in the story, such as characters, objects, actions, or events. It possesses two parallel levels of meaning and understanding: a literal level, where a surface level story is recounted, and a symbolic level, which addresses abstract ideas. Allegories are often considered extended metaphors: the surface level story helps to convey moral, religious, political, or philosophical ideas. There are two major kinds of allegory: historical and political allegories and allegories of ideas. Related to allegory are the parable and exemplum. Parables are very short, realistic narratives about people that are meant to teach a moral or a religious lesson. Often they are used to emphasize a narrator's lesson or point. Exemplums are used in sermons to illustrate and validate a particular theme or idea.
New Historicism- a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions
reader response criticism
criticism that analyzes the responses of readers to a certain piece of literature
Jacques Derrida
Deconstruction - one of the main founders of deconstruction; said that in deconstruction, anything goes
Susan B. Anthony
Feminism - American founder of Feminism
Static character
A specific type of character, or fictional or imagined person in a narrative or literary text. A static or flat character is typically a minor character with a single outstanding trait and is often based on a stock character, or a common, stereotypical character. A static character doesn’t change in the text, distinguishing it from a dynamic (also called round) character, who is usually one of the main characters, is presented in a complex and detailed manner, and usually undergoes a significant change in response to the events or circumstances described in the plot. The handyman Freddie in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon is a static character: he’s simply the town gossip who doesn’t change and primarily serves to give the protagonist his nickname (Milkman) after seeing him breastfeed at an inappropriate age. In contrast, Milkman is a dynamic character because he begins the novel as a selfish, narcissistic man with no respect for his family or community, and by then end, he’s recognized his shortcomings, developed the ability to empathize with others, and gained a sense of awe and admiration for his ancestors.
A grouping of four verse lines with varying rhyme schemes, typically with a common metrical pattern or line length.
Social Novel
A novel, or extended piece of fictional prose, that illustrates the connections between a character and his or her social, political, historical, or cultural context(s).
Dialogic criticism
A method of literary criticism based on the ideas of Mikhail Bakhtin. Bakhtin described literary works as either monologic or dialogic. Unrelated to the number of characters, monologic works have one dominant voice or discourse, which is often but not always the voice of the dominant culture or ideology of the author's culture. In contrast, dialogic works allow numerous voices or discourses to emerge and interact. Thus, dialogic criticism is the analysis of these numerous voices and discourses.
A grouping of verse lines often (but not always) with a common rhyme scheme, metrical pattern, or line length. A stanza pattern is determined by its number of lines, number of metrical feet per line, and the meter and rhyme. Names of stanzas include couplet (two rhymed lines), tercet or triplet (three lines with the same rhyme), quatrain (4 lines with varying rhyme schemes), sestet (six lines), and octave (eight lines).
Romantic period (British)
A period of British literature beginning in 1785 (some argue 1789 or 1798) and ending in 1837. Many writers in the Romantic period emphasized feeling and imagination and looked toward nature for insight into the divine. The individual and his or her subjective experiences and expressions of those experiences were highly valued. Many scholars see the artistic and aesthetic freedoms in romanticism in contrast to the ideals of neo-classicism. In addition to a wealth of poetry, the Romantic period featured significant innovations in the novel form, including the Gothic novel. For major writers and works in this area, see the Literary History Chart in the Writing and Research section.
Greek for "flow," rhythm refers to the pattern of sound established in either prose or verse through pauses and stressed and unstressed syllables. Rhythm, though related, is distinct from meter, which is much more formal, regular, and measured into patterns called metrical feet.
Picaresque novel
A novel, or extended piece of fictional prose, that features the realistic and episodic adventures of a likeable yet flawed roguish hero.
Usually refers to a subdivision of an act in a play or dramatic performance. Scene can also refer to a) a division in a play with no change of locale or without an abrupt shift in time; b) a division based on the entrance or departure of a character or a group of characters on the stage; or c) the physical locale where a play is set.

The major division in a play or dramatic work. An act has one or more scenes.
Internal rhyme
Generally, rhyme refers to the similar sound in syllables or paired groups of syllables. Internal rhyme, which occurs within a line of verse, is less common than end rhyme, which occurs at the end of a line of verse.
Modern Period 
A period in British and American literature spanning the years between World War I and World War II. Works in this period reflect the changing social, political, and cultural climate and are diverse, experimental, and nontraditional. For major writers and works in this area, see the Literary History Chart in the Writing and Research section.
Unreliable narrator
An unreliable or fallible narrator is one who recounts a story and gives readers reasons to question or doubt the validity of his or her perspective. Readers can doubt a narrator's reliability or accuracy based on his or her age, intelligence, sanity, or relationship to the events. Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” gradually reveals her mental instability as she suffers from an extreme form of postpartum depression, causing readers to question her visions of a woman inside the wallpaper. William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury offers multiple narrators, the first of which is Benjy, a mentally retarded man who can barely recount chronological events, making it difficult to decipher the plot; however, the third section, narrated by Benjy’s brother Jason—while perhaps the most clear in terms of narrating the chronological events of the plot—is the least reliable because of his cruelty and lack of compassion. He represents Benjy as solely a despicable source of shame; his niece Quentin as an evil, amoral tramp; and himself as a mere victim of everyone else’s dysfunction—all judgments the reader recognizes as untrustworthy because of Jason’s character flaws.  
The reasons or explanations for why a character acts in the ways he or she does in response to events of the plot. Motivation is part of characterization, or how an author uses description, action, dialogue, and emotion to convey the complexities of a character.
A figure of speech that replaces the name of one thing with the name of another closely related thing. For example, "the crown" is used to signify the monarchy.
The formal structural unit of a poem that is usually described by the number of feet.
A figure of speech in which a statement is made indirectly by denying its opposite. Examples of litotes include "not uncommon" (meaning “common”), "not bad" (meaning “good”), or "no mean feat" (meaning “an easy task”).
Novels or works of short fiction that self-consciously examine the nature of fiction by drawing attention to the fact that they are works of fiction. Metadrama, or metatheater, does the same thing with theater.
Phenomenological criticism
A type of literary criticism based upon the ideas of phenomenology and the thinking of philosophers such as Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) and the group of thinkers called the Geneva School. Phenomenology relates to philosophic questions about the relationships between meaning and object, and is founded upon assumptions that objects themselves do not have inherent meaning but instead meaning comes from the meaning a person perceives in that object.  
Discourse (Discourse analysis) 
Broadly defined, discourse is any mode of utterance which is part of social practice. Often discourse describes a discourse community that shares specific word or word usages, rules, and ideas. In linguistics, discourse describes units of language longer than a single sentence. In literary studies, discourse also includes the thoughts, statements, utterances, and dialogues of literary characters. Discourse analysis is a) the study of the relationships between sentences in written and spoken discourse, and b) the study of the way human knowledge is collected and structured into discourse or discourse communities.
French for "type." Genre is used to classify literature according to form, style, or content. Sonnet, novel, tragedy, and elegy are all examples of genre.
thick description
New Historicism - by focusing on small details, one can reveal the inherent contradictory forces in culture
Sonnet sequence/cycle
A group of sonnets written by one poet and interconnected by theme. Sonnet sequences usually depict love and the progression or disintegration of the love relationship.
A figure of speech where a part of something is used to represent the whole (for example, "hands" to refer to manual labor) or where the whole is used to represent the part (for example, "Montréal" is used to refer to the Montréal Canadiens). A kind of metonymy.  
Stream of consciousness
A type of prose narration often evident in modern period fiction and used to replicate the way the human mind works. A kind of interior monologue, stream of consciousness attempts to convey a character's thoughts directly and with immediacy; stream of consciousness prose is associative, flowing, continual, fragmented, sensory, and often disjointed. Like our thought patterns, stream of consciousness often blurs past and present.
Carpe diem 
Latin for "seize the day," carpe diem is a frequent and traditional literary theme. In lyric poetry, carpe diem is used to convey the transience of life, youth, and love, and to implore readers to make the most of each fleeting moment.
Middle English period
The Middle English period runs from the Norman invasion of England in 1066 to 1500; unlike Old English, Middle English closely resembles our own English language. After the Norman invasion, there were linguistic, social, and cultural changes and also changes in the literature; the Middle English period is the first major age of secular literature in English. The fifteenth century saw a growth in literature aimed at a popular audience. In the Middle English period, a range of genres emerged including chivalric romances, secular and religious songs, folk ballads, drama, morality plays, and miracle plays. For major writers and works in this period, see the Literary History Chart in the Writing and Research section.
Pathetic Fallacy 
A term attributed to John Ruskin and used to describe the giving of human emotions, capabilities, and sensations to inanimate nature. For Ruskin, the term was meant as a pejorative as he believed attributing human qualities to inanimate nature was a sign of artistic weakness because it did not capture truth. Though he conceded art could create beauty, Ruskin asserted that capturing truth, not beauty, was the aim of art. Related to personification, the pathetic fallacy is a much more limited concept.
Signifier and signified 
The signifier is the word (either written or spoken) or symbol that refers to the signified (the concept to which the word or symbol is referring). The connection between the signifier and the signified is arbitrary, but agreed upon by convention. Together, the signifier and the signifier form what Saussure called a sign, the study of which is semiotics.  
Flash fiction
A short story under 1000 words. Also called sudden fiction.
Omniscient narrator 
The narrator of a story told from the perspective of an all-knowing, third-person use of “he” or “she” who has complete knowledge of all characters' thoughts and histories, as well as the story's events, settings, and contexts. An omniscient narrator can move freely between any number of characters. An omniscient narrator is distinct from a limited-omniscient narrator, who has access to one or more (but not all) characters’ thoughts and some of the story's events and contexts. Charles Dickens’s A Tale of Two Cities is recounted by an omniscient narrator, giving readers access to the thoughts of all major characters and the novel’s events, as well as the historical context of the French Revolution.
Beat Writers (Beat Generation)
Refers to a period of American literature in the 1950s which was anti-traditional, anti-establishment, and anti-intellectual.
The use of symbols or a set of related symbols or a sustained use of symbols. Symbolisme was also a literary movement in late-nineteenth-century France as a reaction to realist impulses in literature; Symbolists often developed their own independent and subjective systems of symbolism.
Foot (feet)
A unit of rhythm, created by one or more stressed syllables combined with one or more unstressed syllables, that makes up a line of poetry. Examples of feet include iamb (iambic, adj.), an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable; trochee (trochaic, adj.), a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable; dactyl (dactylic, adj.), a stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables; and anapest (anapestic, adj.), two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. Two less-common metrical feet include the spondee (spondaic, adj.), a foot of two successive syllables that are equally or almost equally stressed, and the pyrrhic (pyrrhic, adj.), a foot of two successive syllables that are equally or almost equally unstressed. The type of foot and the number of feet per line determine the poem’s meter.
Deus ex Machina 
Latin for "god out of a machine." It refers to a) the practice in Greek drama of a god descending into the play from a crane-like machine in order to solve a problem in the plot and thus enable the play to end, or b) an unexpected, contrived, or improbable ending or solution in a literary text.
Frame narrative (frame story)
A story or narrative that includes or encloses one or more stories. Usually there is a thematic or plot-based connection between the frame narrative and the interior stories. Also called "tale within a tale."
Renaissance period in British literature
The Renaissance usually refers to the period following the Middle Ages in Europe. The Renaissance (meaning "rebirth") is used broadly to refer to the flourishing of literature, painting, sculpture, architecture, and learning in general that began in Italy in the fourteenth century and spread across Europe. The Renaissance saw the use and adaptation of classical or classically inspired forms. The Renaissance period in British literature spans the years 1500 to 1660 and is usually divided into five subsections: Early Tudor, Elizabethan, Jacobean, Caroline, and Commonwealth (or Puritan Interregnum).  
Anxiety of influence 
Bloom's work about how a poet needs to resist the influence of others to develop his own poetic style.
Age of Sensibility (Age of Johnson)


A period of British literature that anticipates the Romantic period.
everday situation
neoclassicism took place in
according to modernism, "knowledge isn't ______"
romanticisim occured in the
18th century
the doctrine advocating social, political, and all other rights of women equal to those of men.
what movement does rushdie belong to
a social theory advocating the liberty, rights, or independent action of the individual.
what is the symbolism of death?
decay,renewal,black humour
the principle or habit of accepting reason as the supreme authority in matters of opinion, belief, or conduct.
the state or quality of being esoteric.
post modernism reflects
absence of tradition & structure in a society driven by technology & consumerism
of or pertaining to Cyrenaica, or its chief city, Cyrene.
existensialism is the philosophical notion that ________
individuals are responsible for creating meaning and essence of their own lives
what were metaphysics influenced by
neoplatonism, ideal monoism god, sslavational
what is the primary similairy with post/modernism
fragmentation of culture
belief in the existence of a God on the evidence of reason and nature only, with rejection of supernatural revelation (
explain the characteristics of a metaphysical poem
complex, contradictory, rough verse, express honesty
a logical fallaciy is an
argument or reasoning that might have the parts but reflects unsound thinking like false analogy, ignoring hthe issue, scape goat
the enlightenment was called the age of reason because it
stressed logic, authority, more freedom for commoners based on self governance, natural rights, natural laws, emphasis on liberty, individual rights, reason and common sense
explain the four pressures that zinsser describes in college pressures
economic, parental, peer, self= money problems is college problems, keep up with jobs and shit. parents want you to do mad good. your friends compete with you. you have standards for yourself.
neoclassicism thinkers believe man
can find meaning in order of nature & hierarhy, government and religion
what was the premise behind swift's a modest proposal
commentary on the ways government used to fix famine in ireland, trying to help the greater good
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