Literary Terms 14 Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
letter
epistolary
Anecdote
short story
apparent contradiction
paradox
Setting
Time and place.
hubris
arrogance, excessive pride
Metaphor N.
Implied comparison
farce
low comedy; ex: clowning
cacophony
harsh, non-melodic, unpleasant sounding arrangement of words
Imageryvery vivid descriptive writing
PhrasePicture
resolution
a resolve or determination:
anaphora
The intentional repetition of beginning clauses in order to create an artistic effect.
hyperbole
extreme exaggeration or overstatement used for emphasis or for comic effect
charisma
synonym of: allure, magnetism, fascination, witchery, appeal, attractiveness
conceit
a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor
Fallacy
A failure of logical reasoning
Inference
Something implied, but not stated
Romanticism
Literary movement characterized by emotion, imagination, and goodness of people; little emphasis on reason. Opposite of classicism.
outfly
to fly out or forth
alliteration
consonant sounds repeated at the beginning of words
exposition
background information is given to understand the story better, characters are introduced, setting is established
Rhythm
The recurrence of stressed and unstressed sounds in poetry
fantasy
A highly imaginative story that contains magic, creatures, or other supernatural heroes etc.
allusion
a reference to something literary, mythological, or historical that the author assumes the reader will recognize
Allegory
an expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances
theme
a subject of discourse, discussion, meditation, or composition, topic
apophasis
process of elimination by stating negatives; 21 questions
antithesis
balancing words, phrases, or ideas that are strongly contrasted
narrator
the person who tells the story
Paradox
an apparent contradiction that points to a truth.
generally associated with physical action and is less intellectual
Low Comedy
Assonance
the repetition of accented vowel sounds in a series of words
imagery
the formation of mental images, figures, or likenesses of things, or of such images collectively:
tone
Irish nationalist and martyr for independence.
monologue
a form of dramatic entertainment, comedic solo, or the like by a single speaker:
Metonymy
Metonymy is substituting a word for another word closely associated with it. / Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea.
characterization
Process in which the writer reveals the personality of a character
plot
the structure of the story. Sequence of events with a problem and solution
Flat character
a character whose distinguishing moral qualities or personal traits are summed up in one or two traits.
Example- MB " Two young girls in red..." (118).
Irony
is a contrdiction that occurs during the story in the people, events, or situations.
Personification
the attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects
ex. island in LOTF
round character
has more dimensions to their personalities-they are complex, just as real people are
Pathetic Fallacy
the poetic convention whereby natural phenomena which cannot feel as humans do as described as if they could
chiasmus
a statement consisting of two parallel parts in which the second part is structurally reversed ("Susan walked in, and out rushed Mary.")
Conflict
Struggle that takes place in a story
epigram
a brief, pithy, and often paradoxical saying
onomatopoeia
figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words-examples: buzz, hiss, hum, crack, whinny, murmur
antagonist
a rival, opponent, or enemy of protagonist
stanza
a unified group of lines in poetry.
Define: Mood
feeling or emotion the writer creates in a literary work.
Novel, Gothic
Novel with medieval setting suggesting mystery and/or horror.
novella
a fictional prose narrative that is longer and more complex than a short story; a short novel.
biography
a written account of another person's life:
anacoluthon
a construction involving a break in grammatical sequence, as
stage directions
The stage directions, usually printed in italics, tell how the actors should look, move, and speak. They also describe the setting, sound effects, and lighting.
archetype
the original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; a model or first form; prototype.
Connotation
What is suggested by a word, apart from what it explicitly and directly describes.
soliloquy
a long speech spoken by a character alone on stage
aphorism
a brief saying embodying a moral, a concise statement of a principle or precept given in pointed words.
Trimeter
Lines of poetry with three feet per line.
Internal Conflict
a struggle that occurs in a character's mind; man vs. himself
Climax
result of crisis, high point of story, outcome of conflict can be predicted
Short Story
a narrative that is brief in nature
synecdoche
using one part of an object to represent the entire object (for example, referring to a car simply as "wheels"
rhetorical modes
the variety the conventions and the purposes of the major kinds of writing
pun
a "play on words" based on the multiple meanings of a single word or on words that sound alike but mean different things
eulogy
a formal speech praising a person who has died
style
an evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices.
diction
The choice of a particular word as opposed to others
syllepsis
a construction in which one word is used in two different senses ("After he threw the ball, he threw a fit")
foreshadow
a hint that suggests future events in a story
Action
what happens in a story:  the events or conflicts.  If the action is well organized, it will develop into a pattern or plot
denouement
consists of a series of events that follow a dramatic or narrative's climax, thus serving as the conclusion of the story.
Define: Onomatopoeia
a poetic device through which the words in a line of poetry are used to make that particular sound.
in medias res
Beginning in the middle of events.
foil
character who acts as a contrast to another character
anthology
a book or other collection of selected writings by various authors, usually in the same literary form, of the same period, or on the same subject:
parody
a humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of literature or writing:
point of view
perspective from which a story is told
Rising action
That development of plot in a story that precedes and leads up to the climax
Example - In SLOB Lily finds a jar of honey with the Black Madonna on it, which her leads her to the Calendar Sisters.
Situational Irony
An incident that is the opposite of what is expected to happen. i.e. a police officer getting ticket for speeding.
Man Vs. Nature
Any conflict the protagonist has with nature
External conflict
a struggle between a character and an outside force
gothic
of or relating to a style of fiction characterized by the use of desolate or remote settings and macabre, mysterious, or violent incidents (Poe)
Couplet
The last two lines of the sonnet that rhyme with one another.
Onomonapeoeai
The imitation of the sound made by the described item.Ex* Clip clop, crash, boom, bang, etc.
sentence structure
analyzing this asks that you look at sentence length; simple, compound, complex, unusual phrases, repetition, altered word order
Literary Ballad
a narrative poem that is written in deliberate imitation of the language, form, and spirit of the traditional ballad.
INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION
the author reveals to the reader what the character is like by describing how the character looks and dresses, by letting the reader hear what the character says, by revealing the character’s private thoughts and feelings, by revealing the characters effect on other people (showing how other characters feel or behave toward the character), or by showing the character in action. Common in modern literature
simile
a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, as in "she is like a rose."
figure of speech
An expression in which the words are used in a non-literal sense to present a figure, picture or image.
falling action
the last section of a play or story that works out the decision arrived at during the climax
FlashBack / time shift
a scene that interrupts the normal chronological sequence of events in a story to depict something that happened at an earlier time.
metaphor
a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in "A mighty fortress is our God."
Lyric Poem
a poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or thoughts of the speaker. A ballad tells a story.
static character
does not change
a symbolic story or narrative
allegory
juxtaposition
literary device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another
parallelism
repetition of words or similar grammatical phrases
apologia
a written defense at one's beliefs/philosophies
An imaginative comparision between two unlike things in which one thing is said to be another thing.
metaphor
low comedy
Humorous material that employs physical actions or jokes of questionable taste.
The main character in the story.
Protagonist
apostrophe
a work addressed to an absent audience
pathos
from the greek for "passion" and "suffering"
A conversation between two or more characters
dialogue
high comedy
Comedy that is characterized by intellect or wit.
Rounds out and concludes the action.
Resolution (Denouement)
analogy
a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based; similarity or comparability
satire
the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.
An interruption in the action of a plot to tell what happened at an earlier time.
flashback
The elements of a drama are often descibed as resolution.
resolution
Subject
- expressed in one or two words
repetition
a writing technique in which a workd or phrase is repeatd to give special emphasis
Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, and alliteration.
Figurative Language
consonance
the repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables. (e.g., hid head)
The narrator focuses on the thoughts and feeling of only one character.
third person limited
Sarcasm
- verbal irony
- person appears to be praising but is actually insulting
Flash Back
an interruption in the progress of a story
hyperbaton
the use, esp. for emphasis, of a word order other than the expected or usual one, as in "Bird thou never wert."
anecdotal evidence
- Support for a thesis
- isolated and individual story
- Science prefers statistical evidence which is gathered over time and occurs in more than one instance and is, therefore, more credible.
Figures of speech
- describes one thing in terms of other
- imaginative comparison
- usually simile, metaphor, and personification
portmanteau word
blend
fustian
pompous or pretentious language
Anti-Petrarchan
Petrarchan poetry generally consisted of lover-warriors amid a landscape drowned by the lover's tears and blasted by the winds generated by their sighs. Petrarch invented this repertoire of conceits as an amusing way to play with the intensification of feeling he sought to achieve. Anti-Petrarchan poems disavowed those conceits and usually protested a form of honest reportage about the beloved and the love.
lexicography
writing or compiling of dictionaries
comedy
any literary composition dealing with a theme suitable for comedy, or employing the methods of comedy.
chrestomathy
a collection of selected literary passages, often by one author and esp. from a foreign language.
picaresque
pertaining to, characteristic of, or characterized by a form of prose fiction, originally developed in Spain, in which the adventures of an engagingly roguish hero are described in a series of usually humorous or satiric episodes that often depict, in rea
apollonian
serene, calm, or well-balanced; poised and disciplined.
flashback
Interruption of a narrative by the introduction of an earlier event or by an image of a past experience
a poem that tells a story
narrative poem
contradiction
assertion of the contrary or opposite; denial.
hudibrastic
of, pertaining to, or resembling the style of Samuel Butler's Hudibras (published 1663–78), a mock-heroic poem written in tetrameter couplets.
occam's razor
the maxim that assumptions introduced to explain a thing must not be multiplied beyond necessity.
genre
of or pertaining to a distinctive literary type.
can touch, smell, taste, or see it
concrete noun
annotation
a critical or explanatory note or body of notes added to a text.
realism
interest in or concern for the actual or real, as distinguished from the abstract, speculative, etc.
chanson
any of several types of song with French lyrics, occurring from the Middle Ages to the present in a variety of musical styles.
grimm's law
the statement of the regular pattern of consonant correspondences presumed to represent changes from Proto-Indo-European to Germanic, according to which voiced aspirated stops became voiced obstruents, voiced unaspirated stops became unvoiced stops, and u
opera bouffe
a comic opera, esp. of farcical character.
minstrel
a medieval poet and musician who sang or recited while accompanying himself on a stringed instrument, either as a member of a noble household or as an itinerant troubadour.
anti hero
a protagonist who lacks the attributes that make a heroic figure, as nobility of mind and spirit, a life or attitude marked by action or purpose, and the like.
deus ex machina
Literally, when the gods intervene at a story's end to resolve a seemingly impossible conflict. Refers to an unlikely or improbable coincidence; a cop-out ending
aposiopesis
a sudden breaking off in the midst of a sentence, as if from inability or unwillingness to proceed.
distich
a unit of two lines of verse, usually a self-contained statement; couplet.
prothesis
the addition of a sound or syllable at the beginning of a word, as in Spanish escala "ladder" from Latin scala.
arsis
the part of a metrical foot that bears the ictus or stress.
What is a limerick?
It is a type of verse (often 'nonsense' verse) with, usually, a five line stanza, the rhyme scheme 'aabba', and a specific rhythmic pattern.
What does compact mean?
It means to pack a lot of ideas into very few words.
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