Lower Anatomy 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
 
Digital
 
 
Fingers
 
 
Axillary
 
 
Underarm
 
 
Lingual
 
 
Tongue
 
 
Patellar
 
 
Knee
earlobe
örshibb
artery
artär
blood
blod (ett)
 
 
Apoptosis
 
 
Programmed cell death
 
 
Articulate
 
 
United by joints
 
 
 
the shin bone
 
 
 
tibia
 
 
Thoracic
 
 
 
Pertaining to the chest
 
 
Renal
 
 
Pertaining to the kidneys
 
 
Psychologist
 
 
PhD prepared person who provides psychological counseling and cannot prescribe medication or medical treatment
 
 
 
exits at the inferomedial part of the greater sciatic foramen reenters the pelvis via the lesser sciatic foramen
 
 
 
the central superior projection
 
 
 
intercondylar eminence
 
 
Ventral
 
 
Pertaining to the abdomen or belly
Opposite of dorsal
 
 
 
what is the structural classification of the sacroiliac joint
 
 
 
 
synovial planar
 
 
 
where does the iliotibial tract attach to
 
 
 
gerdys tubercle
 
 
 
 
the foot plantar flexors attach to which fibular surface
 
 
 
 
posterior surface
 
 
 
which anastomosis does the transverse branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery join
 
 
 
 
cruciate anastomosis
 
 
 
what compartment of the femoral sheath is the femoral artery in
 
 
 
lateral compartment
 
 
Hypertrophy
 
 
 
Growth of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells
 
 
 
the myotomes active during subtalar joint eversion/pronation arise from which ventral roots?
 
 
 
L-5 & S-1
 
 
 
 
what is the hyponychium?
 
 
 
 
the thickened skin adjacent to the free edge of the nail plate
 
 
 
what does the lateral sacral artery supply
 
 
 
sacral ala
 
 
 
what type of nerve is the superficial fibular nerve
 
 
 
sensorimotor
 
 
 
when present what muscle does the accesory obturator nerve supply
 
 
 
pectineus muscle
 
 
 
when is inflammation of the ischial bursa painful
 
 
 
when sitting
 
 
 
this begins near the middle of the soleal line and extends inferiorly to the inferior one third
 
 
 
vertical line
 
 
 
this is a large triangular depression on the lateral surface of the distal extremity of the tibia
 
 
 
fibular notch
 
 
 
 
this extends from the head to the roughened triangular area at the distal extremity
 
 
 
 
interosseous border
 
 
 
AKA the medial compartment of the femoral sheath
 
 
 
 
femoral canal
 
 
 
what does the arcuate popliteal ligament reinforce
 
 
 
joint capsule posteriorly
 
 
 
what anastomosis is the decending genicular artery a part of
 
 
 
 
genicular anastomosis because both of its branches are part of the anastomosis
 
 
Medial
 
 
On or toward the midline of a body or structure
Opposite of lateral
 
 
 
proper dorsal digital nerve 2
 
 
 
supplies the dorsolateral aspect of the hallux and medial 1st intermetatarsal space
 
 
 
what spinal segments does the achilles reflex test?
 
 
 
S-1 and S-2
 
 
 
inferior cluneal nerves
 
S-1, S-2 & S-3
exit: gluteal fold
Supply: inferior aspect of gluteal region
branches of posterior femoral cutaneous
 
 
 
what type of nerve is the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
 
 
 
 
sensory nerve
 
 
 
what is the deep fascia that covers most of the obturator foramen
 
 
 
 
obturator membrane
 
 
 
what spinal level and division does the iliohypogastric come from
 
 
 
 
ventral division of L-1
 
 
 
 
what spinal level and division does the ilioinguinal nerve come from
 
 
 
ventral division of L-1
 
 
 
 what are the two ligaments of the pubic symphysis
 
 
 
superior pubic ligament
arcuate pubic ligament
 
 
 
this is deep and intermediate to the gemelli muscles
 
 
 
obturator internus tendon
 
 
 
 
this is a large triangular surface for articulation the talar body
 
 
 
malleolar articular facet
 
 
 
how many planes does the hip joint have motion in
 
 
 
three planes
triplanar
 
 
 
what does the circumflex fibular artery anastomose with in the genicular anastomosis
 
 
inferior medial genicular
inferior lateral genicular
anterior tibial recurrent arteries
 
 
 
 what is the action of vastus intermedius muscle
 
 
 
 
extends the leg
 
 
 
what three structures does the femoral sheath enclose
 
 
 
femoral artery and vein
femoral branch of the gentiofemoral nerve
 
 
 
When is the PCL taut
 
 
 
when knee is flexed
 
 
 
Deep fibular nerve
 
L-5, S-1 & S-2
Exit: 1st metatarsal space
Supply: 1st metatarsal space
 
 
 
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
 
L-5, S-1 & S-2
exit: posterolateral edge of the knee region
supply: lateral 1/2 of the leg from knee to inferior 1/3 of leg
 
 
 
what does the superior gluteal artery supply before and after it exits the pelvis
 
 
 
before = piriformis and obturator internus
 
after = the three gluteal muscles
 
 
 
what divisions and spinal levels does the femoral nerve come from
 
 
 
dorsal divisions of L-2 through L-4
 
 
 
from what divisions and spinal levels does the tibial nerve come from
 
 
 
ventral divisions of L-4, L-5, S-1, S-2, S-3
 
 
 
 
what is the iliopsoas muscle
 
 
 
 
the combination of the iliacus muscle and the psoas major muscle oftern considered one muscle that flexes the thigh
 
 
 
What is the ventral sacroiliac ligament?
 
 
 
anterior thickening of the sacroiliac joint capsule
 
 
 
where does the deep circumflex artery run
 
 
 
arises laterally just prior to the inguinal ligament and psses superolaterally along the deep side of the ligament oto reach the ASIS
 
 
 
this is located intermediate to the gluteus maximus and lateral aspect of the greater trochanter of the femur
 
 
 
 trochanteric bursa of the gluteus maximus
 
 
 
what is the interosseous border/lateral border
 
 
 
the border that provides attachment for the interosseous membrane
intermediate to lateral and posterior surfaces
 
 
 
 
this is an oblique line on the posterior surface that extends from the head to the shafts distal 1/3
 
 
 
 
crista medialis/medial crest
 
 
 
where is the subcutaneous infrapatellar bursa
 
 
 
 
seperates skin from the patellar tendon and from the tibial tuberosity
 
 
 
what does the patellar tendon reinforce
 
 
 
the joint capsule anteriorly
 
 
 
what are the branches of the descending genicular artery
 
 
 
saphenous artery
articular artery 
 
 
 
 
 
Proper dorsal digital nerve 10
 
S-1 & S-2
continuation of lateral dorsal cutaneous
supplies dorsolateral aspect of 5th toe
 
 
 
what is the distal nail groove?
 
 
 
the shallow transverse groove between the hyponychium and the skin of the distal tuft of the toe
 
 
 
what is the largest terminal branch of the obturator artery
 
 
 
anterior branch of obturator artery
 
 
 
where does the sciatic nerve exit the pelvis at
 
 
 
via the greater sciatic foramen
 
 
 
what drains into the external iliac lymph nodes
 
 
superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes, iliac fossa and anterior part of the capsule of the hip joint
 
 
 
 where does the femoral branch of the gentiofemoral nerve run
 
 
 
 passes deep to the inguinal ligament with the femoral artery through the vascular lacuna to supply the skin of the anterior superior thigh
 
 
 
what is significant about the anastomsis between superior and inferior epigastric arteries
 
 
 
 
 
it can provide collateral circulation between the subclavian artery and the external iliac artery
 
 
 
what is the lacunar ligament
 
 
 
 
the most medial portion of the inguinal ligament where the fibers change direction and pass inferiorly
 
 
 
what does the internal iliac artery supply
 
 
 
psoas major and iliacus muscles
 
 
 
what is the origin and insertion of the gluteus maximus
 
 
 O: External iliac ala posterior to posterior gluteal line, the posterior iliac crest, external surfaces of the sacrum and coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament
I: gluteal tuberosity of the femur and the posterosuperior iliotibial tract
 
 
 
what is the action of obturator externus
 
 
 
lateral rotation of the thigh
aids in flexion and adduction of the thigh
 
 
 
what are the articulations of the tibia
 
 
superior = femur
lateral = fibula
inferior = talus
 
 
 
what branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery supplies the neck and head of the femur
 
 
 
ascending branch passes along the intertrochanteric line
 
 
 
the horizontal groove on the posterior surface near the articular facet of the condyle
 
 
 
groove for insertion of semimembranosus muscle
 
 
 
what is the action of adductor brevis muscle
 
 
 
adduct and flex the thigh
aids in lateral rotation of the thigh
 
 
 
what are the two cutaneous nerves of the common fibular that arise in the popliteal fossa
 
 
 
lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
fibular communicating nerve/lateral sural cutaneous nerve
 
 
 
what are the contents of the femoral triangle
 
lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
femoral nerve
profunda femoris artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery
medial femoral circumflex artery
femoral sheath
 
 
 
what two arteries does the circumflex fibular artery anastomose with
 
 
 
inferior medial and lateral genicular arteries
 
 
 
 what is the action of semimembranosus muscle
 
 
 
extends the thigh
flexes and medially rotates the leg
Where do the following viens drain into?
 
1st and 2nd CDDV
3rd and 4th CDDV
5th and 6th CDDV
7th and 8th CDDV
 
1st dorsal metatarsal vien
2nd dorsal metatarsal vien
3rd dorsal metatarsal vien
4th dorsal metatarsal vien
 
 
 
What vien becomes the medial marginal vien and what does it drain?
 
 
 proper dorsal digital vein of the hallux
drains the dorsalmedial aspect of the hallux and the 1st metatarsalphalangeal joint
 
 
 
 
what is the function of the free edge of the nail plate?
 
 
 
protect the distal tuft of the toe from blunt trauma
 
 
 
what type of supply does teh lateral femoral cutaneous supply in the lower limb
 
 
 
cutaneous supply only in lower limb
 
 
 
what are the two parts of the dorsal sacroiliac ligament
 
 
 
 
long dorsal sacroiliac ligament
short dorsal sacroiliac ligament
 
 
 
where does the tibial nerve enter the foot
 
 
 
through the porta pedis after dividing into its terminal branches
 
 
 
what is the nervous and arterial supply to quadratus femoris
 
 
NS: nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus ventral divisions of L-4, L-5, S-1
AS: medial femoral circumflex artery
 
 
 
what are the divisions and spinal levels of superior gluteal nerve
 
 
 
dorsal divisions of L-4, L-5, S-1
 
 
 
what is the artery to the ligamentum capitis femoris
 
 
branch of acetabular artery which is a branch of the posterior division of the obturator artery
passes into acetabulum via acetabular foramen
supplies head of femur but not primary supply after 3
 
 
 
what is the function of the ACL
 
 
 
prevent the femur from sliding posteriorly off the tibia
 
 
 
what is the action of bicpes femoris short head
 
 
 
flexes and laterally rotates the leg
 
 
where do the anterior tibial lymph nodes lie?
 
 
 
near the proximal end of the anterior tibial artery near the interosseous membrane deep to the muscles here
 
 
 
what rami make up the lumbar plexus
 
 
 
ventral rami of L-3 through L-3
contribution from ventral rami of T-12 and L-4
 
 
 
when do the secondary centers of ossification fuse in the fibula
 
 
 
fuse between 15 to 19 years in the same order
 
 
 
where can the hamstring part of adductor magnus muscle be palpated at
 
 
 
 at the medial aspect of the knee region anterior to gracilis and sartorius muscles with resisted adduction of the thigh
 
 
 
where do the upper and lower bands of the iliofemoral ligament attach
 
 
 
upper = superior part of the intertrochanteric line
lower = inferior part of the intertrochanteric line
 
 
Frontal
 
 
Forehead
 
 
Buccal
 
 
Cheek
 
 
Osis
 
 
Disease
 
 
Heme
 
 
Blood
skeleton
benrangel
nape
nacke
waist
midja
thigh
lår
ankle
fotled
toe
mouth
mun
bone shaft
benpipa
 
 
Oncology
 
 
Study of cancer
 
 
Morphology
 
 
Body form and shape
 
 
Bronchial
 
 
Pertaining to the bronchi
 
 
Epigastric
 
 
Upper, central, anterior abdominal area
 
 
 
 
Popliteal
 
 
Posterior aspect of the knee
 
 
Anastomosis
 
 
A connection between two distinct structures
 
 
 
what percent of the population has an accessory obturator nerve
 
 
 
8%
 
 
 
what are the longitudinal rigdes on the patella
 
 
 
striae
 
 
Caudal
 
 
Pertaining to the tail or distal end
 
 
Perineal
 
 
Region between the anus and the external genitalia
 
 
Mesenteric
 
 
Pertaining to the fold of peritoneum attaching the intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
 
 
Embryology
 
 
 
Science of the development of embryos
 
 
 
what are the accessory ligaments of the sacroiliac joint
 
 
 
 sacrospinous ligament
sacrotuberous ligament
 
 
 
what spinal level does the subcostal nerve come from
 
 
 
 
T-12
 
 
 
 
what is the anterior projection at the inferior edge of the medial malleolus
 
 
 
 
anterior colliculus
 
 
 
the patellar tendon attaches here
 
 
 
tibial tuberosity
 
 
 
the largest sesamoid in the body
 
 
 
patella
 
 
 
all the perforation branches of profunda femoris pierce which muscle
 
 
 
 
adductor magnus
 
 
Dysplasia
 
 
A change in cell size, shape, or arrangement due to chronic irritation or inflammation
 
 
 
where do the dorsal metatarsal veins drain into?
 
 
 
dorsal venous arch
 
 
 
 
lateral calcaneal nerves
 
 
 
 S-1, S-2
branches of sural nerve supplying lateral 1/3 to 1/2 of the calcaneal region
 
 
 
the myotomes active during hip flexion, adduction, medical rotation arise from which ventral roots?
 
 
 
L-1 through L-4
 
 
 
another name for the inguinal ligament
 
 
 
 
pouparts ligament
 
 
 
what are the immediate branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery
 
 
obturator artery
inferior gluteal artery
internal pudendal artery
pelvic branches
 
 
 
this ligament reinforces the sacroiliac joint posteriorly
 
 
 
 
dorsal sacroiliac ligament
 
 
 
this ligament is seperated from the joint capsule by the interosseous sacroiliac ligament
 
 
 
 
dorsal sacroiliac ligament
 
 
 
where are intermuscular injections given in the buttocks
 
 
 
in the superolateral/upper outer quadrant
 
 
 
this is located inferior to the popliteal line and usually lateral to the vertical line
 
 
 
nutrient foramen
 
 
 
 
what is the pear-shaped articular facet on the lateral surface of the medial malleolus
 
 
 
 
medial malleolar facet
 
 
 
this splits at the distal extremity and forms the smooth lateral surface
 
 
 
 
anterior border
 
 
 
the lateral terminal branch of the popliteal artery
 
 
 
anterior tibial artery
 
 
 
what innervates the infrapatellar fat pad
 
 
 
 anterior tibial recurrent branch
 
 
 
 
the smallest of the three cuneiforms
 
 
 
 
intermediate cuneiform
 
 
 
3rd common digital plantar nerve
 
 
passes 3rd intermetatarsal space
exits at level of metatarsal necks
supplies 3rd toe = proper digital plantar nerve 6
4th toe = proper digital plantar nerve 7
 
 
where will inflammation been seen in deep pedal infections from
Any area
dorsum surface
planta surface?
 
 
deep inguinal lymph nodes
anterior tibial lymph node first
popliteal lymph nodes first
 
 
Are deep inguinal lymph nodes palpable?
 
 
 
only when inflammed
 
 
 
what are the cutaneous branches of the common fibular nerve
 
 
superficial fibular nerve
deep fibular nerve
lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
sural communicating nerve
 
 
 
what type of nerve is the nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles
 
 
 
sensorimotor nerve
 
 
 
what type of nerve is the obturator nerve
 
 
 
sensorimotor nerve
 
 
 
the medial branch of the common iliac artery
 
 
 
internal iliac artery
 
 
 
what nerves exit the pelvis via greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis
 
 
posterior femoral cutaneous
nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus m
sciatic nerve (usually)
inferior gluteal nerve
 
 
 
 
what nerve exits the pelvis by piercing the sacrotuberous ligament
 
 
 
perforating cutaneous nerve
 
 
 
 
this is a shallow groove on the posterior border of the lateral malleolus
 
 
 
 
lateral malleolar sulcus
 
 
 
what are the landmarks for the shaft of the tibia
 
 
 
tibial tuberosity superioly
fibular notch inferiorly
 
 
 
what are the borders and surfaces of the shaft of the fibula
 
 
 
anterior border
interosseous border
medial surface/extensor surface
crista medialis/medial crest
posterior surface/flexor surface
 
 
 
where does the medial patellar retinaculum come from
 
 
 
 fascia from vastus medialis
 
 
 
what are the menisci
 
 
 
cresent shaped pads of fibrocartilage
 
 
 
where is the suprapatellar bursa
 
 
 
seperates quadriceps femoris tendon from the femur
 
 
 
 
what is the position of each insertion at pes anserinus
 
 
 
semiteninosus = posteroinferior insertion
sartorius = anterosuperior insertion
gracilis = central insertion
 
 
What vien drains into the great saphenous vien?
 
 
 
medial marginal vien
 
 
 
what is the cuticle?
 
small ridge of trasparent skin dorsal to the proximal edge of the nail plate continuous with the eponychium
 
 
 
what is the anatomical position of the internal iliac vein in relationship to its artery
 
 
 
generally lies posterior to artery
 
 
 
what is the anatomical relationship of the external iliac vein to its artery
 
 
 
lies medial to artery distally
lies posterior to artery proximally
 
 
 
do the nerves to the psoas major exit the pelvis and are they branches of the femoral n
 
 
 
no and no
 
 
 
what type of a nerve is the lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
 
 
 
sensory  nerve
 
 
 
what does the obturator membrane close and what does it form
 
 
 
closes the obturator groove to form the obturator canal
 
 
 
what is the pectineal ligament
 
 
 
 
extension of the lacunar ligament along the pubic pectineal line
 
 
 
what are the medial attachements of the sacrospinous ligament
 
 
 
dorsolateral margin of the inferior one-half of the sacrum
dorsolateral margin of the coccyx
 
 
 
what are the terminal branches of the tibial nerve
 
 
 
 
medial and lateral plantar nerves
 
 
 
what are the actions of gluteus minimus
 
 
 
abduction and medial rotation
 
 
 
which parts of the patella are rough and which are smooth
 
 
 
rough = anterior side, medial, lateral, and superior edges of the posterior side
Smooth = posterior side for articulation with condyles
 
 
 
what is the acetabular labrum
 
 
 
pad of fibrocartilage that lies along and attaches to the acetabular rim
 
 
 
what are the two large projections at the proximal end of the tibia
 
 
 
medial and lateral condyles
 
 
 
 
where is the gastrocnemius bursa
 
 
 
 
between medial head of gastroc and the knee joint
 
 
 
what is the infrapatellar fat pad
 
 
 
adipose tissue which seperates the synovium from the patellar tendon
 
 
 
what are the attachments of the PCL
 
 
 
from the posterior intercondylar fossa of the tibia posterior to both meniscal attachments to medial intercondylar notch of the femur
 
 
 
 
what is the nervous and arterial supply of vastus intermedius muscle
 
 
 
NS: femoral nerve
 
AS: Decending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery
 
 
 
what two arteries does the superior medial genicular artery anastomose with
 
 
 
inferior medial genicular artery
superior lateral genicular artery
 
 
 
 what two arteries does the inferior lateral genicular artery anastomose with
 
 
 
superior lateral genicular artery
inferior medial genicular artery
 
 
 
how does the saphenous nerve exit the adductor canal
 
 
 pierces the subsartorial fascia inferomedially and becomes cutaneous
infrapatellar branch pierces the sartorius muscle to become cutaneous and join the patellar plexus
 
 
 
what is the function of the matrix?
 
 
 
 
produce the nail plate
 
 
 
proper digital plantar nerve 1
 
 
exit near the distal 1st metatarsal shaft
supplies plantar medial aspect of hallux and the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint
 
 
 
what does the anterior branch of obturator artery supply
 
 
 
medial compartment thigh and obturator externus muscles
 
 
 
where does the tibial nerve provide innervation to
 
 
 muscular to knee and leg
articular to knee and ankle joionts
cutaneous branches
 
 
 
what is inflammation of the ischial bursa called
 
 
 
weavers bottom and sometimes saddle soar
 
 
 
what is the course of the obturator internus
 
 
 passes posterolaterally to exit the pelvis via the lesser sciatic foramen then angles anteriorly around the lesser sciatic notch
 
 
 
what are the distal, anterior, posterior attachements of the hip joint capsule
 
 
distal = neck of the femur
anterior = inferior margin of the femoral neck at the intertrochanteric line
posterior = to the mid region of the neck
 
 
 
what is the lateral /extensor surface of the tibia
 
 
 
slightly concave surface that faces laterally and is lateral to the tibial crest
 
 
 
 
what is the hamstring part of adductor magnus
 
 
 
 inferior vertical fibers of the muscle
originate on ischial tuberosity and insert on the medial lip of linea aspera and adductor tubercle
 
 
 
where can the femoral pulse be palpated at
 
 
 
 
just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament
 
 
 
where do the posterior and anterior meniscofemoral ligaments run
 
 
 posterior = along the posterior aspect of the posterior cruciate ligament
anterior = anterior aspect of the posterior cructiate ligament
 
 
 
what is the action of semitendinosus muscle
 
 
 
extends the thigh
flexes and medially rotates the leg
 
 
 
what is the action of the articularis genu muscle
 
 
 
 
tense knee joint capsule/suprapatellar bursa during extension to prevent impingment of the capsule
 
 
 
what are the lateral nail grooves?
 
 
 
the concave junction of the lateral nail fold with the nail bed.
 
 
 
Common Dorsal Digital Viens
 
1 to 8 from medial to lateral
Drain into dorsal metatarsal viens
 
 
 
What is the superior extensor retinaculum/transverse crural ligament?
 
thickening of fascia cruris
distal tibia shaft and distal fibular shaft
holds extensor tendons of the foot and maintains their postions near tibia
 
 
 
what are the attachments for the lower band of the iliolumbar ligament
 
 
 
 
anterior aspect of the 5th lumbar vertebra
anterolateral aspect of the sacrum superiorly
 
 
 
where do the dorsal and ventral divisions of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lie
 
 
dorsal lie near the inferior gluteal nerve divisions
 
ventral lie near the pudendal nerve divisions
 
 
 
where does the common iliac vein begin
 
 
 
at union of internal and external iliac veins at pelvic brim
 
 
 
where can the origin of obturator externus be seen at
 
 
 
deep to pectineus at the anterosuperior thigh region
 
 
 
what is the action of the superior gemellus m
 
 
 
lateral rotation of the thigh
 
 
 
what are the arteries that supply the hip joint
 
 artery to the ligamentum capitis femoris
medial femoral circumflex artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery
superior gluteal artery
inferior gluteal artery
 
 
 
what is the action of the sartorius muscle
 
 
 
 
flex and laterally rotate the thigh
flex the leg
 
 
 
What are the four branches of the medial plantar nerve?
 
proper digital plantar nerve 1
1st common digital plantar nerve
2nd common digital plantar nerve
3rd common digital plantar nerve
 
 
 
what does it supply in the lower limb
 
 
 
cutaneous supply only in the lower limb
posterolateral gluteal skin
 
 
 
where is the primary center of ossification for the tibia and when does it appear
 
 
 
 
in the shaft at the 7th fetal week
 
 
 
what forms the floor of the popliteal fossa
 
 
 popliteal surface of the femur = superior part
oblique popliteal ligament = central part
popliteus muscle and fascia = inferior part
 
 
 
how long does it take for finger and toenail replacement to occur?
 
 
finger = 6 months
 
toe = 9 months
 
 
 
when do patella centers of ossification appear and when do they fuse
 
 
 
appear = between 3 to 6 yrs of age
 
fuse = by puberty
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