Lower Anatomy 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
blod (ett)
Programmed cell death
United by joints
the shin bone
Pertaining to the chest
Pertaining to the kidneys
PhD prepared person who provides psychological counseling and cannot prescribe medication or medical treatment
exits at the inferomedial part of the greater sciatic foramen reenters the pelvis via the lesser sciatic foramen
the central superior projection
intercondylar eminence
Pertaining to the abdomen or belly
Opposite of dorsal
what is the structural classification of the sacroiliac joint
synovial planar
where does the iliotibial tract attach to
gerdys tubercle
the foot plantar flexors attach to which fibular surface
posterior surface
which anastomosis does the transverse branch of the medial femoral circumflex artery join
cruciate anastomosis
what compartment of the femoral sheath is the femoral artery in
lateral compartment
Growth of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells
the myotomes active during subtalar joint eversion/pronation arise from which ventral roots?
L-5 & S-1
what is the hyponychium?
the thickened skin adjacent to the free edge of the nail plate
what does the lateral sacral artery supply
sacral ala
what type of nerve is the superficial fibular nerve
when present what muscle does the accesory obturator nerve supply
pectineus muscle
when is inflammation of the ischial bursa painful
when sitting
this begins near the middle of the soleal line and extends inferiorly to the inferior one third
vertical line
this is a large triangular depression on the lateral surface of the distal extremity of the tibia
fibular notch
this extends from the head to the roughened triangular area at the distal extremity
interosseous border
AKA the medial compartment of the femoral sheath
femoral canal
what does the arcuate popliteal ligament reinforce
joint capsule posteriorly
what anastomosis is the decending genicular artery a part of
genicular anastomosis because both of its branches are part of the anastomosis
On or toward the midline of a body or structure
Opposite of lateral
proper dorsal digital nerve 2
supplies the dorsolateral aspect of the hallux and medial 1st intermetatarsal space
what spinal segments does the achilles reflex test?
S-1 and S-2
inferior cluneal nerves
S-1, S-2 & S-3
exit: gluteal fold
Supply: inferior aspect of gluteal region
branches of posterior femoral cutaneous
what type of nerve is the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
sensory nerve
what is the deep fascia that covers most of the obturator foramen
obturator membrane
what spinal level and division does the iliohypogastric come from
ventral division of L-1
what spinal level and division does the ilioinguinal nerve come from
ventral division of L-1
 what are the two ligaments of the pubic symphysis
superior pubic ligament
arcuate pubic ligament
this is deep and intermediate to the gemelli muscles
obturator internus tendon
this is a large triangular surface for articulation the talar body
malleolar articular facet
how many planes does the hip joint have motion in
three planes
what does the circumflex fibular artery anastomose with in the genicular anastomosis
inferior medial genicular
inferior lateral genicular
anterior tibial recurrent arteries
 what is the action of vastus intermedius muscle
extends the leg
what three structures does the femoral sheath enclose
femoral artery and vein
femoral branch of the gentiofemoral nerve
When is the PCL taut
when knee is flexed
Deep fibular nerve
L-5, S-1 & S-2
Exit: 1st metatarsal space
Supply: 1st metatarsal space
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
L-5, S-1 & S-2
exit: posterolateral edge of the knee region
supply: lateral 1/2 of the leg from knee to inferior 1/3 of leg
what does the superior gluteal artery supply before and after it exits the pelvis
before = piriformis and obturator internus
after = the three gluteal muscles
what divisions and spinal levels does the femoral nerve come from
dorsal divisions of L-2 through L-4
from what divisions and spinal levels does the tibial nerve come from
ventral divisions of L-4, L-5, S-1, S-2, S-3
what is the iliopsoas muscle
the combination of the iliacus muscle and the psoas major muscle oftern considered one muscle that flexes the thigh
What is the ventral sacroiliac ligament?
anterior thickening of the sacroiliac joint capsule
where does the deep circumflex artery run
arises laterally just prior to the inguinal ligament and psses superolaterally along the deep side of the ligament oto reach the ASIS
this is located intermediate to the gluteus maximus and lateral aspect of the greater trochanter of the femur
 trochanteric bursa of the gluteus maximus
what is the interosseous border/lateral border
the border that provides attachment for the interosseous membrane
intermediate to lateral and posterior surfaces
this is an oblique line on the posterior surface that extends from the head to the shafts distal 1/3
crista medialis/medial crest
where is the subcutaneous infrapatellar bursa
seperates skin from the patellar tendon and from the tibial tuberosity
what does the patellar tendon reinforce
the joint capsule anteriorly
what are the branches of the descending genicular artery
saphenous artery
articular artery 
Proper dorsal digital nerve 10
S-1 & S-2
continuation of lateral dorsal cutaneous
supplies dorsolateral aspect of 5th toe
what is the distal nail groove?
the shallow transverse groove between the hyponychium and the skin of the distal tuft of the toe
what is the largest terminal branch of the obturator artery
anterior branch of obturator artery
where does the sciatic nerve exit the pelvis at
via the greater sciatic foramen
what drains into the external iliac lymph nodes
superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes, iliac fossa and anterior part of the capsule of the hip joint
 where does the femoral branch of the gentiofemoral nerve run
 passes deep to the inguinal ligament with the femoral artery through the vascular lacuna to supply the skin of the anterior superior thigh
what is significant about the anastomsis between superior and inferior epigastric arteries
it can provide collateral circulation between the subclavian artery and the external iliac artery
what is the lacunar ligament
the most medial portion of the inguinal ligament where the fibers change direction and pass inferiorly
what does the internal iliac artery supply
psoas major and iliacus muscles
what is the origin and insertion of the gluteus maximus
 O: External iliac ala posterior to posterior gluteal line, the posterior iliac crest, external surfaces of the sacrum and coccyx, and sacrotuberous ligament
I: gluteal tuberosity of the femur and the posterosuperior iliotibial tract
what is the action of obturator externus
lateral rotation of the thigh
aids in flexion and adduction of the thigh
what are the articulations of the tibia
superior = femur
lateral = fibula
inferior = talus
what branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery supplies the neck and head of the femur
ascending branch passes along the intertrochanteric line
the horizontal groove on the posterior surface near the articular facet of the condyle
groove for insertion of semimembranosus muscle
what is the action of adductor brevis muscle
adduct and flex the thigh
aids in lateral rotation of the thigh
what are the two cutaneous nerves of the common fibular that arise in the popliteal fossa
lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
fibular communicating nerve/lateral sural cutaneous nerve
what are the contents of the femoral triangle
lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
femoral nerve
profunda femoris artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery
medial femoral circumflex artery
femoral sheath
what two arteries does the circumflex fibular artery anastomose with
inferior medial and lateral genicular arteries
 what is the action of semimembranosus muscle
extends the thigh
flexes and medially rotates the leg
Where do the following viens drain into?
1st and 2nd CDDV
3rd and 4th CDDV
5th and 6th CDDV
7th and 8th CDDV
1st dorsal metatarsal vien
2nd dorsal metatarsal vien
3rd dorsal metatarsal vien
4th dorsal metatarsal vien
What vien becomes the medial marginal vien and what does it drain?
 proper dorsal digital vein of the hallux
drains the dorsalmedial aspect of the hallux and the 1st metatarsalphalangeal joint
what is the function of the free edge of the nail plate?
protect the distal tuft of the toe from blunt trauma
what type of supply does teh lateral femoral cutaneous supply in the lower limb
cutaneous supply only in lower limb
what are the two parts of the dorsal sacroiliac ligament
long dorsal sacroiliac ligament
short dorsal sacroiliac ligament
where does the tibial nerve enter the foot
through the porta pedis after dividing into its terminal branches
what is the nervous and arterial supply to quadratus femoris
NS: nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus ventral divisions of L-4, L-5, S-1
AS: medial femoral circumflex artery
what are the divisions and spinal levels of superior gluteal nerve
dorsal divisions of L-4, L-5, S-1
what is the artery to the ligamentum capitis femoris
branch of acetabular artery which is a branch of the posterior division of the obturator artery
passes into acetabulum via acetabular foramen
supplies head of femur but not primary supply after 3
what is the function of the ACL
prevent the femur from sliding posteriorly off the tibia
what is the action of bicpes femoris short head
flexes and laterally rotates the leg
where do the anterior tibial lymph nodes lie?
near the proximal end of the anterior tibial artery near the interosseous membrane deep to the muscles here
what rami make up the lumbar plexus
ventral rami of L-3 through L-3
contribution from ventral rami of T-12 and L-4
when do the secondary centers of ossification fuse in the fibula
fuse between 15 to 19 years in the same order
where can the hamstring part of adductor magnus muscle be palpated at
 at the medial aspect of the knee region anterior to gracilis and sartorius muscles with resisted adduction of the thigh
where do the upper and lower bands of the iliofemoral ligament attach
upper = superior part of the intertrochanteric line
lower = inferior part of the intertrochanteric line
bone shaft
Study of cancer
Body form and shape
Pertaining to the bronchi
Upper, central, anterior abdominal area
Posterior aspect of the knee
A connection between two distinct structures
what percent of the population has an accessory obturator nerve
what are the longitudinal rigdes on the patella
Pertaining to the tail or distal end
Region between the anus and the external genitalia
Pertaining to the fold of peritoneum attaching the intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
Science of the development of embryos
what are the accessory ligaments of the sacroiliac joint
 sacrospinous ligament
sacrotuberous ligament
what spinal level does the subcostal nerve come from
what is the anterior projection at the inferior edge of the medial malleolus
anterior colliculus
the patellar tendon attaches here
tibial tuberosity
the largest sesamoid in the body
all the perforation branches of profunda femoris pierce which muscle
adductor magnus
A change in cell size, shape, or arrangement due to chronic irritation or inflammation
where do the dorsal metatarsal veins drain into?
dorsal venous arch
lateral calcaneal nerves
 S-1, S-2
branches of sural nerve supplying lateral 1/3 to 1/2 of the calcaneal region
the myotomes active during hip flexion, adduction, medical rotation arise from which ventral roots?
L-1 through L-4
another name for the inguinal ligament
pouparts ligament
what are the immediate branches of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery
obturator artery
inferior gluteal artery
internal pudendal artery
pelvic branches
this ligament reinforces the sacroiliac joint posteriorly
dorsal sacroiliac ligament
this ligament is seperated from the joint capsule by the interosseous sacroiliac ligament
dorsal sacroiliac ligament
where are intermuscular injections given in the buttocks
in the superolateral/upper outer quadrant
this is located inferior to the popliteal line and usually lateral to the vertical line
nutrient foramen
what is the pear-shaped articular facet on the lateral surface of the medial malleolus
medial malleolar facet
this splits at the distal extremity and forms the smooth lateral surface
anterior border
the lateral terminal branch of the popliteal artery
anterior tibial artery
what innervates the infrapatellar fat pad
 anterior tibial recurrent branch
the smallest of the three cuneiforms
intermediate cuneiform
3rd common digital plantar nerve
passes 3rd intermetatarsal space
exits at level of metatarsal necks
supplies 3rd toe = proper digital plantar nerve 6
4th toe = proper digital plantar nerve 7
where will inflammation been seen in deep pedal infections from
Any area
dorsum surface
planta surface?
deep inguinal lymph nodes
anterior tibial lymph node first
popliteal lymph nodes first
Are deep inguinal lymph nodes palpable?
only when inflammed
what are the cutaneous branches of the common fibular nerve
superficial fibular nerve
deep fibular nerve
lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
sural communicating nerve
what type of nerve is the nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus muscles
sensorimotor nerve
what type of nerve is the obturator nerve
sensorimotor nerve
the medial branch of the common iliac artery
internal iliac artery
what nerves exit the pelvis via greater sciatic foramen inferior to piriformis
posterior femoral cutaneous
nerve to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus m
sciatic nerve (usually)
inferior gluteal nerve
what nerve exits the pelvis by piercing the sacrotuberous ligament
perforating cutaneous nerve
this is a shallow groove on the posterior border of the lateral malleolus
lateral malleolar sulcus
what are the landmarks for the shaft of the tibia
tibial tuberosity superioly
fibular notch inferiorly
what are the borders and surfaces of the shaft of the fibula
anterior border
interosseous border
medial surface/extensor surface
crista medialis/medial crest
posterior surface/flexor surface
where does the medial patellar retinaculum come from
 fascia from vastus medialis
what are the menisci
cresent shaped pads of fibrocartilage
where is the suprapatellar bursa
seperates quadriceps femoris tendon from the femur
what is the position of each insertion at pes anserinus
semiteninosus = posteroinferior insertion
sartorius = anterosuperior insertion
gracilis = central insertion
What vien drains into the great saphenous vien?
medial marginal vien
what is the cuticle?
small ridge of trasparent skin dorsal to the proximal edge of the nail plate continuous with the eponychium
what is the anatomical position of the internal iliac vein in relationship to its artery
generally lies posterior to artery
what is the anatomical relationship of the external iliac vein to its artery
lies medial to artery distally
lies posterior to artery proximally
do the nerves to the psoas major exit the pelvis and are they branches of the femoral n
no and no
what type of a nerve is the lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf
sensory  nerve
what does the obturator membrane close and what does it form
closes the obturator groove to form the obturator canal
what is the pectineal ligament
extension of the lacunar ligament along the pubic pectineal line
what are the medial attachements of the sacrospinous ligament
dorsolateral margin of the inferior one-half of the sacrum
dorsolateral margin of the coccyx
what are the terminal branches of the tibial nerve
medial and lateral plantar nerves
what are the actions of gluteus minimus
abduction and medial rotation
which parts of the patella are rough and which are smooth
rough = anterior side, medial, lateral, and superior edges of the posterior side
Smooth = posterior side for articulation with condyles
what is the acetabular labrum
pad of fibrocartilage that lies along and attaches to the acetabular rim
what are the two large projections at the proximal end of the tibia
medial and lateral condyles
where is the gastrocnemius bursa
between medial head of gastroc and the knee joint
what is the infrapatellar fat pad
adipose tissue which seperates the synovium from the patellar tendon
what are the attachments of the PCL
from the posterior intercondylar fossa of the tibia posterior to both meniscal attachments to medial intercondylar notch of the femur
what is the nervous and arterial supply of vastus intermedius muscle
NS: femoral nerve
AS: Decending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery
what two arteries does the superior medial genicular artery anastomose with
inferior medial genicular artery
superior lateral genicular artery
 what two arteries does the inferior lateral genicular artery anastomose with
superior lateral genicular artery
inferior medial genicular artery
how does the saphenous nerve exit the adductor canal
 pierces the subsartorial fascia inferomedially and becomes cutaneous
infrapatellar branch pierces the sartorius muscle to become cutaneous and join the patellar plexus
what is the function of the matrix?
produce the nail plate
proper digital plantar nerve 1
exit near the distal 1st metatarsal shaft
supplies plantar medial aspect of hallux and the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint
what does the anterior branch of obturator artery supply
medial compartment thigh and obturator externus muscles
where does the tibial nerve provide innervation to
 muscular to knee and leg
articular to knee and ankle joionts
cutaneous branches
what is inflammation of the ischial bursa called
weavers bottom and sometimes saddle soar
what is the course of the obturator internus
 passes posterolaterally to exit the pelvis via the lesser sciatic foramen then angles anteriorly around the lesser sciatic notch
what are the distal, anterior, posterior attachements of the hip joint capsule
distal = neck of the femur
anterior = inferior margin of the femoral neck at the intertrochanteric line
posterior = to the mid region of the neck
what is the lateral /extensor surface of the tibia
slightly concave surface that faces laterally and is lateral to the tibial crest
what is the hamstring part of adductor magnus
 inferior vertical fibers of the muscle
originate on ischial tuberosity and insert on the medial lip of linea aspera and adductor tubercle
where can the femoral pulse be palpated at
just inferior to the midpoint of the inguinal ligament
where do the posterior and anterior meniscofemoral ligaments run
 posterior = along the posterior aspect of the posterior cruciate ligament
anterior = anterior aspect of the posterior cructiate ligament
what is the action of semitendinosus muscle
extends the thigh
flexes and medially rotates the leg
what is the action of the articularis genu muscle
tense knee joint capsule/suprapatellar bursa during extension to prevent impingment of the capsule
what are the lateral nail grooves?
the concave junction of the lateral nail fold with the nail bed.
Common Dorsal Digital Viens
1 to 8 from medial to lateral
Drain into dorsal metatarsal viens
What is the superior extensor retinaculum/transverse crural ligament?
thickening of fascia cruris
distal tibia shaft and distal fibular shaft
holds extensor tendons of the foot and maintains their postions near tibia
what are the attachments for the lower band of the iliolumbar ligament
anterior aspect of the 5th lumbar vertebra
anterolateral aspect of the sacrum superiorly
where do the dorsal and ventral divisions of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve lie
dorsal lie near the inferior gluteal nerve divisions
ventral lie near the pudendal nerve divisions
where does the common iliac vein begin
at union of internal and external iliac veins at pelvic brim
where can the origin of obturator externus be seen at
deep to pectineus at the anterosuperior thigh region
what is the action of the superior gemellus m
lateral rotation of the thigh
what are the arteries that supply the hip joint
 artery to the ligamentum capitis femoris
medial femoral circumflex artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery
superior gluteal artery
inferior gluteal artery
what is the action of the sartorius muscle
flex and laterally rotate the thigh
flex the leg
What are the four branches of the medial plantar nerve?
proper digital plantar nerve 1
1st common digital plantar nerve
2nd common digital plantar nerve
3rd common digital plantar nerve
what does it supply in the lower limb
cutaneous supply only in the lower limb
posterolateral gluteal skin
where is the primary center of ossification for the tibia and when does it appear
in the shaft at the 7th fetal week
what forms the floor of the popliteal fossa
 popliteal surface of the femur = superior part
oblique popliteal ligament = central part
popliteus muscle and fascia = inferior part
how long does it take for finger and toenail replacement to occur?
finger = 6 months
toe = 9 months
when do patella centers of ossification appear and when do they fuse
appear = between 3 to 6 yrs of age
fuse = by puberty
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