Management and Research terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Scapegoating
defensive tactic
"buck-passing"
method of shifting responsibility to the wrong person, blaming other people
COMMUNICATION METHODS
1.FACE-TO-FACE2.TELEPHONE3.GROUP MEETINGS4.FORMAL PRESENTATIONS5.MEMOS6.TRADITIONAL MAIL7.FAX MACHINE8.EMPLOYEE PUBLICATIONS9.BULLETIN BOARDS10.OTHER COMPANY PUBLICATIONS11.AUDIO- & VIDEOTAPES12.HOT LINES13.ELECTRONIC MAIL14.COMPUTER CONFERENCING15.VOICE MAIL16.TELECONFERENCES17.VIDEOCONFERENCES
Equity Theory
*J. Stacy Adams
beliefs
____ = expectations about reality


Functions of Management:
Controlling
Learning and changing
BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE
Leadership behaviors clusteraround task and people oriented actions
Companies often establish largely independent, self-contained units in each national market under which of these strategies?RetrenchmentGlobalMultinational
Multinational
selection
choosing from amond qualified applicants to hire into an organization
commodity exchange
securities exchange that specializes in the buying and selling of precious metals and minerials (i.e. silver, foreign currencies, gasoline) and agricultural goods (e.g. wheat, cattle, sugar)
matrix structure
combines functional and divisional approaches to emphasize project or program teams
Cognitive Conflict
Issue based difference in perspective
Unwritten rules of conduct that prescribe how people are supposed to act in specific situations.
Norms
underbounded
-power is diffused-system is loosely concentrated
five step process
1) mission/vision statement2) establish the grand strategy3) formulate the strategic plans4) carry out the strategic plans5) maintain strategic control
FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE
ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN THAT GROUPS RELATED OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTIES TOGETHER, DEPARTMENTALIZATION APPLIED TO THE ENTIRE ORGANIZATION
Moods
generalized feelings or states of mind. bad emotions= bad moodemployees bring emotions and moods to work. dont just check them at the door. a manager has to be aware of this and recognize bad moods and emotions.
Carrying out plans and helping employees work effectively
Implementing
Openness to experience
- curious, imaginative, creative, complex, sophisticated. Adapt easily
Group Norms (property)
-Acceptable STANDARDS of BEHAVIOR shared by grp. mems.
 
-PERFORMANCE norm most common
 
HAWTORNE STUDIES (Illumination Intensity)
 
Conformity:  Conform b/c of desired acceptance.  Conform to improve group
 
SOLOMAN ASH (3 Line Card)
 
     Reference Groups:  Person aware of mems, defines himherself as mem. or desires it, mems. significant to him/her
 
Deviant Workplace Behavior
-VOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR that violates sig. org. norms and threatens well-being of org. or mems.
 
*Grps provide SHIELD OF ANONYMITY:  Someone who normally would not steal, might feel others have same opportunity to get caught so does it.
feedback
the outcome provides direct and clear information to employees about their performance
Celebrity endorsements


o   Requires celebrities to be sure that why they claim in their ads is the truth
o   Cannot make any claims about product use unless they have actually used and experienced the product
o   Celebrities cannot make claims about the product or service that are not based on their own experience 
Ethics code
address subjects such as employee conduct, community and environment, shareholders, customers, and suppliers
slogans
phrase or sentence which expresses key corporate value
what is the functional u design form
departmentalization
MENTORING
Learning from others more senior who provide role models and assist in career
contributory creativity
responding to problems presented to you because you want to be creative
individualism
indicates a preference for a loosely knit social framework in which people are expected to take care of themselves
Anti-Trust Laws
1. Rules of capitalism: preserve competition2. Engine of free enterprise is competition. Keeps numerous sellers for numerous buyers. Those w/best G/S win.3. Sometimes competition fails b/c private co's force out competitors4. Historical perspective: NO TRUSTS-- Ex. Standard Oil.. therefore anti-trust laws created.
Performance appraisal (HRM): Common Errors
LeniencyStrictnessCentral tendencyHalo effectRecency & Primacy
the strategy that attempts to improve a firm's competitve psotiion by delveooping unique products
differentiation
***leadership grid***
-impoverished leader- located at 1,1; has very little concern for product or people
***country club- located at 1,9; leader gets very little done because all they care about are the people. so employees are happy but don't get much done***
-middle of the road- located at 5,5; leader has the attitude "we're good enough" this isnt very successful
-authoritarian- located at 9,1; leader has very little concern for people, only care about product
-team leadership- located at 9,9; leader has concern for product and people, you want to be as close to this point as possible b/c this is where the best and most successful leaders are
scope
extent or range of view, outlook, application, operation, effectiveness, etc.:
over-the-counter market
exchange that provides a means to trade stocks not listed on the national exchanges
timely controls
provide information when it is needed most
(strategic goal) 


o   “food warranty”


§  warranty that provides a remedy when we find odd items in our purchased or restaurant food 
-implied warranty of merchantability
anticipatory stage
stage trying to figure out culture before you come to a new company
General Environment
The layer of the external environment that affects the organization indirectly.
what is a functional group
grouped based on function
Planned Economy
An economic system in which all economic decisions are planned by a central government
mixed messages
occur when a person’s words and nonverbal signals communicate different things.
articles of partnership
agreement made by partners before going into business together
4 CONDITIONS INFLUENCING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A ENCODED MESSAGE
1.SKILLS 2.ATTITUDES3.KNOWLEDGE OF SENDER4.SOCIOCULTURAL SYSTEM
Conceptual Skills
The ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations
Describe grievance procedures.
1st step) Oral Warning2nd step) Written documentat
When there are plenty of potential purchaser but the product does not exist yet
Latent demand
Authoritative LS
Obama, Moves ppl towards a common goal or vision, come with me 'yes we can', when clear direction is needed, strongly positive
Richness
the ability of a medium or channel to elict or evoke meanng in th receiver


o   Record


§  New to the Received UCC and expands the definition of writing to include electronic communications such as e-mails and faxes 
Necessity entrepreneurs:
people who suddenly must earn a living and are simply trying to replace lost income and are hoping a job comes along
what is a contingency plan
handle each situation differently depending on the situation
Uncertain Environment (Dynamic)
-managers do not have sufficient info about factors to understand and predict change sand needsdecentralized, fluid, flat orgs work best
compensatory justice
justice of restoring to a persons lost due to a wrong doing
CUSTOMER DEPARTMENTALIZATION
GROUPS JOBS ON THE BASIS OF COMMON CUSTOMERS WHO HAVE COMMON NEEDS OR PROBLEMS THAT CAN BEST BE MET BY HAVING SPECIALISTS FOR EACH
span of control
the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and efectively direct
Problem-Focused Coping
The steps people take to deal directly with and act on the source of stress.
breach of contract
when one party fails to follow the terms of a contract
cost leadership strategy
seeks to operate with lower costs than competitors
What is the best indicator of a person's future behavior?
their past behavior
Universalist View
-what works one time in one place will work every time in every place
Health care
NO state or fed rule that says co. must provide health caregov't funded for poor children and those over 67
Acquired needs theory of motivation
people acquire needs through life experiences. similar to maslow because each person motivated by something different.Need for achievement- desire to do something better, solve problems, master complex tasks- prefer work that: indiv. respon. for results, achievable but challenging goals, feedback on perform.Need for Power- desire to control, influence behavior, responsible for others. prefer work that: control over ppl, impact of people and events, public recognition and attention
civil rights act of 1964
sexual harassment is a form of discrimination covered by the __________
Requirements for Implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose


§  The seller has skill or judgment in use of the goods
§  The buyer is relying on that skill or judgment
§  The seller knew or had reason to know of the buyer’s reliance
§  The seller makes a recommendation for the buyer’s use and purpose 
Time and Motion Studies
-observing how people work and how to improve that
Trait Approach to Personality- Big 5
Openness to experience- try new thingsConscientiousness- how careful are you, attention to detail, follow instructions well.Extroversion- social, outgoingAgreeableness- go with flowNeuroticism(emotional stability)- no hot to cold instantly.spells OCEAN
• The value of a good reputation
o Reputation, good or bad, stays with a business or an individual for a long time o Once a company makes poor ethical choices, it carries the baggage of those choices despite successful and sincere efforts to reform
what are the 4 functions of the HR department
attracting, developing, motivation, maintaining
what is the most important contribution of the decision sciences approach?
production mgmt-focuses on the flow of material in manufacturing
what are the five ways in which a business adpats to the enviornment
strategic responses, direct influence, merger, systems research approach, goal approach
what are the main reasons new businesses fail
do not have experience, do not have educational background, mismanagement
- Idea that you should seperate the "treatment variance" from the "common random variance" (corn could have grown higher because of other reasons besides the pesticides)
- Put in charge of 1940 census sampling
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