Management by Daft 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
distinguishing perssonal characteristics, such as intelligence, values, and appearance
Digital Technology
flexible and decentralized
external environment
influences internal corporate culure
monetary payments (wages and salaries), and nonmonetary goods/commodities (benefits, vacations) used to reward employees
invisible culture
expressd values- underlying assumptions and deep beliefs
using computers and telecommunications equipment to do work without going to an office
P-->O expectancy
determining whether successful performance will lead to desired outcome. (high performance = high reward)
employment test
include intelligence test, aptitude and ability tests, and personality inventories
the set of characteristics that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in repsonse to ideas, objects, or peopl in the environment
organizational behavior
an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the study of how individuals and groups tend to act in organizations
the activities or practices that define the desired characteristics of applicants for specific jobs
emotional intelligence
self awareness, self management, social awareness, relationship awareness
decision makers choose the first solution alternative that satisfies minimal descision criteria
a cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way
consistency culture
rewards a methodical, rational, orderly way of doing things--internal strategic focus, and stable environment
Authority->Responsibility =>Accountability->Delegation
1. Authority is vested in organizational positions, not people2. Authority is accepted by subordinates3. Authority flows down the vertical hierarchy
existence needs
need or physical well being
anything that causes a certain behavior to be repeated or inhibited
Job rotation
systematically moves employees from one job to another, thereby increasing the number of tasks an employee performs without increasing the complexity of any one job (variety and stimulation).
performance appraisal
the process of observing and evaluating an employee's performance, recording the assessment, and providing feedback to the employee
application form
a device for collection information about an applicant's experienc, and other background characteristics
whether the person being observed has history of behaving the same way. (internal attributions about consistent behavior)
a decision making technique in which people are assigned to express competing points of view
the process of determining the skills, abilities, and other attributes a person needs to perform a particular job
matching model
an employee selection approach in which the organization and the applicant attempt to match each other's needs, interests, and values
job analysis
the systematic process of gathering and interpreting information about the essential duties, tasks, and responsibilities of a job
whether other people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way (external attribute)
the ability to influence people toward the attainment of organizational goals
an informal alliane among managers who support a specific goal
Decision Makeing Steps
1) recognition of decision requirement2) diagnosis and analysis of causes3) development of alternatives4) selection of desired alternative5) implementation of chosen alternatives6) evaluation and feedback
whether the behavior is unusual for that person. (if distinctive then perceiver will make an external attribution)
planned activity at a special event that is conducted for the benefit of an audience
the decision in which all the information the decision maker needs is fully availabe
conceptual style
considers a broad amount of information except are more socially oriented than those with an anlytical style
expectancy theory (process)
motivation depends on individuals expectations abouth their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards.
core job dimensions
determine a jobs motivational potential1.)skill variety2.)task identity3.)task significance4.) autonomy5.) feedback
fixed interval schedule
rewards employees at specific intervals
Matrix Approach:
combines aspects of both functional and divisional structures simultaneously in the same part of an organization. It has dual lines of authority, and some employees actually report to two supervisors. In a global matrix, two typical lines of authority are geographic and product.
Service technology:
intangible output and direct contact with customers. Tend to be more organic, flexible and decentralized.
Divisional Approach
departments are grouped together based on organizational outputs. Sometimes called a product structure, program structure, or self contained unit structure.
authority is pushed downward to lower organizational levels (the current trend in U.S. and Canada).
content theory
stress the analysis of underlying needs
hygeine factors
presence or absence of job dissatisfiers such as working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships
inititiating structure
a type of leader behviour that descrives the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activites toward goal attainment
sensation feeling
shows concern for current real life human problems
Big Five personality factors
describe an individual's extorversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional, stability, and openness to experience
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another's behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors
contigent workers
people who work for an organization but not on a permanent basis or full time basis
team competence
how skilled and committed are group members to working together as a team to solve problems
bounded rationality
people have thie time and cognitive ability to process only a limited amount of information on which to base decisions. (people have limits or boundries on how rational they can be)
realistic job preview
A recruiting approach that gives applicants all pertinent information about the job and the organization
a technique that uses face to face group to spontaneously suggest a broad range of alternatives for decision making
Herbert A. Simon
proposed two conepts that were instrumental in shaping the adinstrative model: bounded rationality and satisficing
human resource magement (HRM)
activities undertaken to attract, develop, and maintain an effective workforce within an organization
devil's advocate
a decision making technique in which an individual is assigned the role of challenging the assumptions and assertions made by the group to prevent premature consensus
managers know which goals they wish to achieve but information about alternatives is and future outcome is incomplete
job evaluation
the process of determining the value of jobs within an organization through an examination of job content
internal attribution
characteristics of the person led to the behavior
an object act or event that conveys meaning to others
risk propensity
the willingness to undertake risk with the opportunity of gaining an increased payoff
behavioral style
adopted by managers having a deep concern for others as an individuals
decision significance
how significant is this decision for the project or organization
narrative based on true events and is repeated frequently and shared among organizational employees
knowledge of the actual results of the work activities
equity theory (process)
focuses on individuals perceptions of how fairly they are treated compared with otherse
Job simplification
task efficiency by reducing the number of tasks one person must do. It’s based on the principles from scientific management and industrial engineering
Staff Authority
narrower and includes the right to advise, recommend, and counsel in their expertise. Staff department perform specialized skills in support of the line department.
safety needs
a. Basic – safe and secure physical and emotional environment and freedom from threatsb. Organizational – safe jobs, fringe benefits, and job security
technical complexity
the degree to which machinery is involved in the production to the exclusion of people
environmentally unstable
organic approach with more focus on horizontal structure
refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action
Work Specialization
in a department only perform tasks relevant to their specialized function. Jobs tend to be small but efficient, which leads to job boredom. Sometimes called division of labor.
programmed decisions
a decision made in response to a situation that has occured often enough to enable decision rules to be developed and applied in the future
involvlement culture
high value on meeting the needs of employees and values cooperation of employees -- internal strategic focus, and flexible environment
recognition of decision requirement
a problem occurs when organizational accomplishment is less than established goals. An opportunity exists when managers see potential accomplishment that exceedds specified current goals.
development of alternatives
after the problem or opportunity has been recognized and analyzed,decision makers begin to consider taking action
halo effect
an overall imprssion of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable
directive style
used by people who prefer simple clear cut solutions to problems. (quick decision, considers only a couple alternatives)
human resource information system
an integrated computer system designed to provide data and information used in HR planning and decision making
360 degree feedback
a process that uses multiple raters, including self rating, as a way to increase awareness of strengths and weaknesses and guide employee development
job description
a concis summary of the specific tasks and responsibilities of a particular job
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
personality test that measures a person's preference for introversion vs. extroversion, sensation vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling, and judging vs. perceiving
belongingness needs
a. Basic – desire to be accepted by peers, have friendship, be part of a group, and be lovedb. Organizational – good relationships with coworkers, participation in a work group, and a positive relationship with supervisors
critical psychological states
core job dimensions are more rewarding when individuals experience three psychological states in response to job design.
company’s goal: innovation, differentiation, or flexibility
horizontal structure allows for those freedoms. Horizontal structures allow companies to adapt quickly to the changing environment, but don’t use resources efficiently. The opposite is true for a functional structure
approaches to job design
job simplification, job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment
growth needs
needs that focus on the development of human potential and the desire for personal growth and increased competence
high values, low performance
good for moral, but not good results
on-the-job training (OJT)
a type of training in which an experienced employee "adopts" a new employee to teach him or her how to perform job duties
international human resource management
(IHRM)- a subfield of human resource mangement that addresses the complexity that results from recruiting, selecting, developing,and maintaining a diverse work force on a global scale
Virtual Network Structure
the firm sub contracts most of its major functions to separate companies and coordinates their activities from a small headquarters organization
job characteristics model
a model of job design that comprises core job dimensions, critical psychological states, employee growth need strength.
low values, low performance
may be going out of business; little emphasis on results or values
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory (content)
humans have five basic motivating needs and in order to move up the pyramid, the lower level need has to be satisfied first.
frustration regression principle
failure to meet a high order need may trigger regression to a low order need.
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