Marine Biology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Phylum Chordata
0-200 meters
eukaryotic...mostly multicellular..molds and yeast..cannot perform photosynthesis. decomposers
killer cnidarians
Arthropods include
marine insects
sea spiders
Phylum Annelida
"Segmented Worms"
Sperm whale
Physeteridae(Odontocete cetaceans)
living factors predation
type of nitoblast
using five senses
Most primitive marine animal.
where are nematodes common?
Indian river dolphin
Platanistidae(Odontocete cetaceans)
example of prokaryote
cyclobacterium marinus
example of siphonophore
man-of-war Physalia
transparent siliceous supporting structures of different shapes and sizes
Red Algae
Examples: Gelidium, Porphyra, Chondrus, Coralline Algae
Phylum Nematoda
"Roundworms" Hydrostatic (water filled) Skeleton. Some species are abundant in sediment (benthos).
Green Algae
Phy. Chlorophyta. Multicellular. Bright green becuase chlorophyll is not masked
This provides protection for arthropods.
200 m-1000 m (little light)
graze algae and marine grasses
marine protozoans that secrete delicate shells make of glass
green gland
collects and secretes urine
one portion to the leg...terrestrial
Red tides (blooms) contain Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax
Class Asteroidea
-Sea Stars (Starfish). Ambulacral grooves on ventral side of each arm. Tube feet with ampulla (bulbs). Ex: Oreoaster; Pisaster; Acanthaster
Subphylum Vertebrata
Fish (cartilaginous and bony), amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
This class includes crabs, lobsters and shrimp.
Internal Sharks
have this type of fertilization.
These organisms contain fatty acids and oil to help with buoyancy.
attach themselves to something solid and spend their adult life there. In order to colonize other habitats, they have a planktonic larva which are part of the meroplankton
what percent of surface primary production gets to bottom depths
What doe nematodes mostly feed on?
radiolarian ooze
abundant radiolarian shells that settle to the bottom of the ocean....they are more resistant to dissolving under pressure.
provide additional surface area for digestion
one shell...thought to be 1952 found some
plastic layer of the upper mantel
Consists of flat blades rolled into circles.
Phylum Porifera
"Sponges" Sessile (attatched to the sea floor) produce Planula larva to aid in dispersal. Filter feeders
Phylum Nemertina
"Ribbon Worms" or "Proboscis Worm". First animals with a complete digestive system. Research done on a cure for Alzheimer's Disease.
Arthropods Adaptations
Movement: walking vs. swimming legs. Feeding: Chelicerae vs. Mandibles. Larval Stages: Zooea, nauplius, cypris.
This type of organism, like the sponge, can produce both eggs and sperm.
photic zone
depth of ocean with sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis to occur
Accessory Pigments
These allow phytoplankton and seaweeds to live deeper in the ocean where light is very reduced.
Biogeochemical cycles
nutrient cycles from inorganic to organic form
blue green algae, prokaryote, the most primitive autotroph.
what is the largest group of Arthropods?
organisms with cells that contain a nucleus and other organelles that are enclosed by membranes.
crystalline style
rodlike structure in some molluscs made of enzymatic protein required for digestion. Cilia lining the stomach rotate the crystalline style which grinds against the gastric sheild releasing the digestive enzymes.
ancestor of all said to be extinct
Class Anthozoa
Polyp only. Contains Hard Corals - Diploria (Brain, Staghorn and Elkhorn corals) Soft Corals - Sea fans (Gorgonia) and Sea anemones (Metridium and Condylactus)
material that makes up the cell walls of the dinoflagellates
Fish and other organisms that live in the water column are known as this.
What species is characteristic of tropical seagrass meadows?
Turtle grass, Thalassia
How does seagrass reproduce?
Asexually (rhizomes) and sexually (flowers)
euphotic zone
water column with enough light for photosynthesis to take place
What is very abundant in seawater and constantly attacks bacteria?
Sea otter, marine otter, and river otter
Mustelidae(Marine Otter)
synapamorphies of the echinoderms
have a water vascular system
have an endoskeleton
Fastest growing plant - up to 45 cm (18in/day) Forms thick kelp forests in CA.
How is most energy exported from estuary ecosystems?
by living organisms
What are some biological consequences of tides?
Salinity changes; osmotic concentration changes; temperature changes; nutrient mixing, etc
coral bleaching
occurs when water temps get so high that the dinoflagellates swim away from the coral, thus making hte coral most likely perish
Lobsters, Starfish, and Oysters are?
meroplankton, during their larvae stage.
What is biogenic sorting?
When organisms make smaller particles on top, and larger particles on bottom
what is the reef coral temp limit?
20 degrees celsius
heterocercel ...homocercel
the two tail lobes are different sizes to provide lift
the two tail lobes are the same size made for speed
mid atlantic ridge
the mid ocean ridge in the atlantic
Define trophic level.
Each of the steps in a food chain
what are some examples of primary producers
phytoplankton, macroalgae, seagrasses and mangroves
coral relationship with dinoflag
live symbiotically with coral, and are a major source of energy for the coral
what are wetlands?
they are low lying coasta areas that are submerged by salt water, and their sediments have little or no oxygen. Consists of marshes and mangroves
What are vertically mixed estuaries?
shallow, low volume, strong tidal mixing, low river flow
what are phycobilins
capable of using blue and green light which can penetrate the deepest into the ocean.
What is Auxotrophic algae ?
Algae requiring a few organically derived substances, such as vitamins, along with dissolved inorganic nutrients for photosynthesis.
east pacific rise
the main section of ridge in the eastern pacific
What are three estuarine macrophyte communities?
1. Saltmarshes; 2. Seagrass Meadows; 3. Mangals (more tropical)
photosynthesis ceases when?
at below the depth of the 1% light level
how do cnidarians eat?
They use tentacles to put food in their mouth and they have no anus so tehy poop out of their mouth tehee!!!!
Is symbiotic bacteria essential for its host?
YES!!! they coevolve- evolve in response to one another so that they can become essential
What is the Abyssopelagic Zone ?
'Abysso' meaning 'no bottom', this zone of the ocean begins 4000 m below the surface of the ocean and extends down to the sea floor.
Where is the critical depth in winter? How about the compensation depth?
Critical= near surface; Compensation= shallow
where does the high concentration of nitrate come from?
The high concentration of nitrate comes from breakdown of fecal pellets and other organic matter by bacteria.
What is a lysogenic attack?
the virus becomes part of the DNA until the host starts producing other viruses
homotrema rubrum  is a foraminiferan that forms what?
bright red calcarous growths at the base of corals in the tropics...its skeletons are responsible for the island's pink beaches
What is an Adipose Fin ?
The small fin located between the dorsal fin and the caudal fin. It seems to serve no purpose.
What area of the water column contains the least amount of nutrients?
Near the surface...because there are lots of phytoplankton using them up
what is a salt-wedge estuary?
surface water is fresh, but there is a salty wedge underneath teh fresh water
difference in skates and rays
skates have a caudal fin while rays do not
Which is more productive, the tropical or Antartic phytoplankton?
average out to be the same; tropics are constanty low and Antartic has none except for one large peak
what do sponges have living in their tissues?
symbiotic algae live in the tissues. The algae photosynthesize and provide food for the sponges
What is a Dorsal fin ?
The fin directly on the top of the body (it's the fin that sticks out of the water when you see a shark). Some fish have two dorsal fins one directly behind the other.
Most algae and sea grasss spend their whole life in seawater; how are they different?
Sea grass is a true vascular plant; algae isn't
What is a long term effect of seagrass structure?
They trap sediment carried in the wind and water which builds up and extends coastline/makes islands, etc
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