Medical Anthropology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Conjugal Pairs:
Cultural Relativism:
power = profit
Language spoken in Mali
Household Production of Health:
"Hidden Health Care System”:
WHO Definition of Health:
The study of ancient diseases
includes the health-related beliefs, knowledge, and practices of a cultural group
Key Elements in Therapeutic Event:
complete acculturation, loss of original culture or ability to switch comfortably
10% fatality, headache, fever, abdominal pain, human disease, fecal/oral route, rare in US; prevalent in areas where health infrastructure is damaged
CULTURAL ASPECTS of HEALING SYSTEMS have PRAGMATIC consequences, such as ______s in HAITI
The scientific exploration of the relationships between biology and culture
Ethnographic interview
A form of qualitative research
indigenous peoples of the west indies
Complementary/Alternative/Integrative Medicine 
Complementary Medicine: is the practice of medicine that combines traditional and alternative medicine 
Alternative Medicine: spiritual healing; nonwestern medicine 
Integrative Medicine: is a practice of medicine that reaffirms the importance of relationship between practitioners and patient and focuses on the whole person
Franz Boas:
20th C anthropologist, disproved scientific racism, had ethnocentric ideas
the intensifying flow of capital, goods, people (tourists as well as immigrants and refugees), images, and ideas around the world
Life Chances:
opportunities for acquiring favorable life experiences--the good life, liberty, and happiness
process of ethnic group losing distinction and being absorbed into a majority culture. Sometimes creates a hybrid. Something that happens to people and something that people do.
Leonine facies
Lion face, result of leprosy
George Soper
hired to investigate Mary Mallon
Runaway slaves in the West Indies, Central America, South America, and North America, who formed independent settlements
Germ theory
The doctrine holding that infectious diseases are caused by the activity of microorganisms within the body
someone who can communicate with the supernatural (demons, spirits, ancestors) via ritual and/or trance often to heal, "rescue" souls, maintain order
Caribbean island where "from the bush" is located
Personalistic System
Active, purposeful intervention of a sensate agent 
Supernatural: God 
Nonhuman being: ghost, ancestor, evil spirits
Human being: witches, sorcerers 
The point of this system is that you do something to harm one of these people to deserve your illness
The study of disease in ancient populations 
Pluralistic Society:
a society which multiple cultures ideally co-exist, side-by-side. An ideal greatly endangered by prejudice and discrimination
who is considered to be your relatives
learned set of ideas and behaviors that are acquired by people as members of society
9-banded armadillo
only other animal affected by leprosy
What is morning sickness?
nausea, excess saliva, heightened sensitivity for odors, loss of appetite that occur early in the day.
Personalistic illness theories
Illness may be linked to transgressions of a moral or spiritual nature; if someone has breached a religious taboo, or violated a behavioral norm, he or she may invoke the wrath of a deity; sickness is often seen as a form of divine punishment; evil spirits are thought to cause illness in many cultures
Rheumatism/cold blood
Pain and stiffness in the joints caused by exposure to cold. Joints become cold when chilled blood runs past them.
hierarchy of resort
where you go/who you see classification for healing activities within medical systems
"common knowledge" - popular healthcare sector (general body of knowledge/household level)
-Professional healthcare sector
- folk sector

is the removal section of bone from the skull, which removes evil spirits, illness, etc. 
was the health care and medical knowledge of the Neandethrals 
was used to treat skull fractures, epilepsy,and was used to liberate the soul in the body, to lead spirits out of the head, and treated wounds. 
Universal Components of Human Societies:
technology,economy, politics, social organization, self expression, communication, system of beliefs, healing system
Structural Inequality:
when the unequal treatment comes from a system perpetuated by dominant groups, social systems and institutions
Hansen’s disease
– leprosy alt name honoring dr Hansen, no negative connotations
Plague pneumonia
– 2nd form, attacked lungs, nearly 100% fatality, killed more quickly, most infectious of trio
What is the couvade?
paternal bonding - ritualized or expressive behaviors of men during their wives' pregnancy, labor, delivery, and postpartum.
Critical medical anthropology
A branch of medical anthropology that applies critical theory in the consideration of the political economy of health and the effect of social inequality on people's health
Bwa Mawego
a pseudonym for one of the least developed villages in Dominica
Explanatory Models (EMS)/Arthur Kleinman 

Arthur Kleinman- a physician and anthropologist

He introduced the Explanatory Model- is the notion about an episode of those engaged in clinical process

EMS are held by both patients (and families) and practitioners 
EMS explains causes, symptoms, pathophysiology, natural hisotry, severity, and treatment
"Klienman's 8"- Faudiman called Klienman, while working on his book, he asked him to explain Lia Lee's EMS, he responds: if we believe in our biomedical system how do you expect someone who has a different believe/health culture to believe ours. 
Brotherhood of the Flagellants
religious brotherhood taken to beating themselves bloody with whips to atone for sins
What explanation does evolutionary medicine offer for morning sickness?
increased sense of smell triggers nausea product of natural selection. sensitivity to odors and lack of appetite reduces chances of eating toxic plants etc, vomiting allow her to rid of toxic chemicals. having MS gives a lower rate of miscarriage, premature labor, and stillbirth
free list interviews
interview in which a person is asked to list as many members of a domain as he can think of
the view that one's own way of life is naturally better than other, different ways of life
Summarize the argument the authors make regarding the gradual discrediting of home births and midwives in Europe and North America.
-competition from barber surgeons and male midwives. male doctors specialized in gyno by 1710
- bc of hospital births, attitudes that midwives were ignorant and harmful.
Life Expectancy:
the average age to which a person in a particular group or area is expected to live
How does seasonal stress influence reproductive health among the rural Nepali women that Panter-Brick studied?
- work much harder during monsoon season. women return to fields within a week after giving birth. women carry heavy loads.
- low levels of ovarian acitivty throughout the year. monsoon season, women lost weight, lower levels of ovarian function, less likely to conceive.
What is Pica? And why may it occur?
compulsive eating of non food substances like clay, dirt, and laundry starch - related to mineral deficiencies, especially low iron stores.
What is meant by k-selected and r-selected?
low birth rates ; humans and large mammals. quality over quantity.
k- selected: "carrying capacity", K population reproduces slowly stays at size compatible to environmental sustainability.
r- selected: large numbers over a short time. mice, rats and rabbits are usually r . have short life spans, mature rapidly, have several litters a year. quantity over quality.
What factors were at work from the 1700s to the present?
- routine interventions in labor and birth due to invention of forceps by physicians of Chamberlen family.
-midwives had competition from barber surgeons and male midwives who used forceps and hooks to help w/ difficult deliveries.
-male doctors specializing in gyno and obstetrics.
-attendants did not wash hands, transferred infection,
-introduction of antiseptic precautions reduced maternal mortality. high mortality associated with hospital births led to increased sense of danger
-50s, hospital births were dominant in US,but midwifery still pop elsewhere.
-70s, some American women used direct entry midwives....entered practice w/o formal nursing training.
-2003, 3,000 direct entry midwives practice, 5500 NURSE midwives attended births
-1995, Midwives' Alliance of North America created CPM
-2003, over 700 CPMS in US, 3 in Mexico
-not all countries support midwifery. Mexico, funding has been cut. C-section rate is one of highest in world.
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