Micro 38 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
True/FalseFor transformation experiments, the competence of E. coli can be enhanced by chilling then heating the bacteria.
True
Sucrase is a
Enzyme
Transformation occurs in approoximately _____percent of a bacterial populationa.1b.15c.50d.80
A
8. Gastroenteritis
Infection of intestine
Digestion of cellular compunds
Catablism
Term_____ LysogenyCharacteristicA. Cell capable being transformedB. Cell that conjugates; donates bacterial DNA genesC. Cell with conjugation pilus; plasmid in cytoplasmD. Closed circular DNA, with few genes, non-essential to the cellE. Condition in
E
True/FalseThe discovery of restriction enzymes that leave sticky ends on plasmids enhanced research in genetic engineering because such plasmids are easily attached to DNA fragments.
True
. Buboes
Swellings in lymph nodes
16. The term ‘hyperbaric oxygen’ is aA. symptom in which the lungs collect oxygen but cannot expel CO2.B. treatment in which oxygen is forced into a wound to treat gas gangrene.C. treatment in which oxygen is forced into the lungs to treat pneumonia.D
B
________ 5. ParvovirusA. Inflammation of corneaB. Diseases that may be congenitally acquiredC. Giant multinucleate cellsD. Enzyme assisting virus to release from host cellE. May cause fifth diseaseF. Sac containing fluid or gasG. Projection on viral envel
C
can by stored as glycogen
Carb
Scientist often abbreviate teh microbial names by writing the first letter of the genus name or some accepted subsitiution together with the full specific species name
T
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ primarily with regard to the absence or presence of a
Nucleus
T/FSome anaerobic prokaryotes use sulfur in their metabolic activities instead of oxygen, and therefore they produce hydrogen sulfide (H2S) rather than water (H20) as a waste product of their metabolism.
True
Purple nonsulfur bacteria
Uses light engery.
_____ occurs in generalized and specialized forms.A. ConjugationB. TransductionC. Transformation
B
Term_____ PilusCharacteristicA. Cell capable being transformedB. Cell that conjugates; donates bacterial DNA genesC. Cell with conjugation pilus; plasmid in cytoplasmD. Closed circular DNA, with few genes, non-essential to the cellE. Condition in wh
H
Restriction enzymes are notable for their ability to A. Stitch together fragments of DNAB. Produce Okazaki fragments from plasmids.C. split nucleic acid molecules at a specific pointD. induce transformations
C
True/FalseHuman genomes contain a fair amount of DNA from bacteria and viruses.
True
40. The organism that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever isA. Rickettsia rickettsii.B. Rickettsia prowazekii.C. Bartonella quintana.D. Borrelia recurrentis.
A
True or false? Leptospira interrogans causes epidemic relapsing fever which is carried by the body louse Pediculus humanus. It is a disease of crowded conditions and war, such as in World War II when some 10 million people were infected.
6. The toxins produced by tetanus bacilliA. are endotoxins.B. induce uncontrolled contractions of the muscles.C. cause paralysis.D. are produced under aerobic conditions.
B
36. Because viruses have neither a cell wall nor metabolism, they are not susceptible toA. antibodies.B. interferon.C. antibiotics.D. attenuation.
C
________ 11. RubellaA. Inflammation of corneaB. Diseases that may be congenitally acquiredC. Giant multinucleate cellsD. Enzyme assisting virus to release from host cellE. May cause fifth diseaseF. Sac containing fluid or gasG. Projection on viral envelop
I
________ 12. MeaslesA. Inflammation of corneaB. Diseases that may be congenitally acquiredC. Giant multinucleate cellsD. Enzyme assisting virus to release from host cellE. May cause fifth diseaseF. Sac containing fluid or gasG. Projection on viral envelop
L
________ 9. SpikeA. Inflammation of corneaB. Diseases that may be congenitally acquiredC. Giant multinucleate cellsD. Enzyme assisting virus to release from host cellE. May cause fifth diseaseF. Sac containing fluid or gasG. Projection on viral envelopeH.
J
________ 1. TORCHA. Inflammation of corneaB. Diseases that may be congenitally acquiredC. Giant multinucleate cellsD. Enzyme assisting virus to release from host cellE. May cause fifth diseaseF. Sac containing fluid or gasG. Projection on viral envelopeH.
B
1. Enterotoxin
Intertinal symptoms produced by toxin
The carboxyl group is important biologically. What is its chemical formula?
COOH
Most abundant orgainic element in microorganism
Protein
many prokaryotic cells exhibit motility. this is generally by
uncovered flagella
involves staining objects with heavy metals after sectioning
trainsmission
Some organisms like Neisseria grow well in an atmosphere that is low in oxygen and rich in carbon dioxide. This can ve created by lighting a candle, putting it in a jar, inserting te culture medium, then closing the lid of the jar. What is the best name f
B
__________these organisms live at the bottom of the ocean
psychrotroph
Photoautotroph
Uese light engery. Uses carbon dioxide.
Cyanobacterium
Uses light engery. Uses carbon dioxide.
Chemoheterotroph
Uses chemical reations for engery. Uses organic compounds.
The competence of a vacterium refers to its ability toa.support viral replicationb.take up DNA from the environmentc.conjugate with other competent bacteriad.change from an F+ call to an F- cell
B
1. A zoonosis is a diseaseA. found in animals and arthropods.B. transferred from animals to humans.C. found in epidemic proportions around animals.D. transmitted from humans to animals
B
is accompanied by contractions of the body's muscles.A. TetanusB. Bubonic plagueC. Rocky Mountain spotted feverD. Anthrax
A
is caused by a gram-positive aerobic sporeforming rod.A. TetanusB. Bubonic plagueC. Rocky Mountain spotted feverD. Anthrax
D
11. Which of the following symptoms of tetanus is the most deadly?A. General muscle stiffness throughout the bodyB. Spasms of the jaw muscles which cause teeth to clenchC. Seizures in the diaphragm and rib musclesD. All of the above lead to death in an un
C
produces symptoms caused by a single powerful exotoxin.A. TetanusB. Bubonic plagueC. Rocky Mountain spotted feverD. Anthrax
A
25. Herpes zoster, or shingles, is an adult disease caused byA. an RNA virus with spikes.B. the rubeola virus.C. a virus transmitted mainly by arthropods.D. the same virus that causes chickenpox.
D
41. Why is there a concern that smallpox could be used as an agent of bioterrorism?A. No one has been vaccinated in the United States since 1972.B. There may be stockpiles of the virus in other places.C. It is highly contagious and lethal.D. All of the ab
D
3. Gingivitis develops when plaque bacteria multiply and build up on the teeth and gums. This buildup is due to A. Fusobacterium.B. Prevotella.C. Peptostreptococcus.D. All of the above can be involved.
D
37. The most important consideration in properly treating patients who have bacterial dysentery caused by Shigella sonnei isA. replacement of lost fluids.B. a blood transfusion to relieve the anemia.C. removal of coronary thromboses.D. prevention of
A
15. The botulism toxin induces paralysis in the body byA. degenerating the synaptic end brushes.B. inhibiting protein synthesis in the end brushes.C. degrading the cell membranes of nerve cells.D. preventing the release of acetylcholine in synapses.
D
51. Brucellosis is an occupational hazard of those whoA. have organic gardens.B. own mosquito eradication companies.C. work with dairy herds.D. travel abroad often.
C
Molecule such as adenine and guanine
Nitrogenous base
T/F hydrogen bonds hold amino acids together in a chain, forming the primary structure of the protein
F
Hydrogen bonding is not a
strong stable force
aids in the visualization of the bacterium that causes syphilis, Treponema
Darkfeild
how do bacterial cells control water balance?
Osmosis
T/FA population of bacteria that forms capsules can be expected to have a longer stationary phase than a population whose cells do not form capsules
True
The catabolic process in which glucose is converted into pyruvate is called
glycolysis
can not be products of carb catabbolism b aerobic or anaerobic respiration
Enzymes
T/FIn prokaryotes, the ATP is formed on the cell membrane, while in eukaryotes the reactions occur primarily in the mitochondria.
True
Starts with the oxdiation of NADH
Oxidative phosphorylation
A prophage is A. viral DNA integrated into the bacterial chromosome.B. avirulent phage that undergoes a lytic cycleC. another name for a bacteriophageD. a plasmid consisting of viral DNA
A
Gene transfer in plants often uses a plasmid isolated from the bacteriuma.bacillusb.agrobacteriumc.pseudomonasd.enterobacter
B
2. Anthrax may be acquired by all of the following methods exceptA. consumption of contaminated meat.B. inhalation of airborne spores.C. contact with infected animals.D. consumption of food from vacuum sealed jars.
D
True or false? Leukopenia is a symptom of infection with both Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum
True
was the disease caused by the organism Koch used to devise Koch's postulates A. TetanusB. Bubonic plagueC. Rocky Mountain spotted feverD. Anthrax
D
A. Herpes simplexB. InfluenzaC. MeaslesD. Chickenpox61. ___also is known as rubeola.
A
73. True or false? The respiratory syncytial virus takes its name from syncytia, the giant cells that form from the fusion of infected culture cells.
True
38. One of the reasons for the success of the smallpox eradication campaign was thatA. smallpox could be treated with antibiotics.B. smallpox viruses were used in the vaccine.C. smallpox occurred only in humans.D. smallpox was not a transmissible disease.
C
18. Which one of the following conditions is not caused by Clostridium botulinum?A. wound botulismB. blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing and chewingC. intestinal ulcersD. flaccid paralysis
C
68. ___ can be treated with ceftriaxone, the drug of choice.A. Typhoid feverB. BrucellosisC. BotulismD. Cholera
A
44. Which one of the following complications is not associated with E. coli O157:H7?A. Rice water stools B. Hemorrhagic colitisC. Hemolytic uremic syndromeD. Colonic perforation
A
T/F An atom whose outer shell have seven electrons would be expected to form an ionic bond with another atom that has one electron in the outer shell
T
There are _____ amino acids that build proteins
twenty
Bergey's manual of Systematic Bacteriolgy may be used to
Classify an unknown microorganism
At what stage of the bacterial growth curve do the reproductive and death rates equalize?a.lead phaseb.lag phasec.log phased.stationary phasee.decline phase
D
A process in which most bacteria reproduce is known as
Binary fission
T/FIn the Krebs cycle citrate is the first intermediate and is formed from acetyl CoA and oxaloaccetate.
True
A bacterium that uses glucose as an energy source has been isolated from an anarobic environment. After the growth of the bacterium, the pH of the growth medium is measured and found to be very acidic. When analyzed the medium is found to have a high conc
Fermentation
True/FalseGenetic recombination is the alteration of the bacterial chromosome by a change in its nucleotide sequence.
FalseTransfer of plasmid or chromosomal DNA fragments laterally from donor to recipient cell
22. What is a drug that can inhibit a viral disease like herpes simplex?A. Acyclovir.B. Zanamivir.C. Amantadine.D. TORCH.
A
14. One of the most important factors in controlling foodborne and waterborne disease is toA. isolate infected persons because person-to-person transmission is so easy.B. educate people in proper methods of sanitation and personal hygiene.C. control a
B
46. In 2005, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for determining that Helicobacter pylori causedA. dysentery.B. hemorrhagic colitis.C. traveler's diarrhea.D. stomach ulcers.
D
8. The definition of infection is the result of A. living pathogens entering and growing in the body.B. dead pathogens causing inflammation in the body.C. extracellular products, but no living pathogens, enter the body and cause damage.D. pathogens a
A
59. ___ is related to consumption of contaminated canned food.A. Typhoid feverB. BrucellosisC. BotulismD. Cholera
C
35. Excessive water loss in the feces is a symptom of all of the following diseases, exceptA. infantile diarrhea.B. staphylococcal food poisoning.C. typhoid fever.D. clostridial food poisoning.
C
Result of one atom donating it's outer electrons to another atom
Ionic bond
t/F Acids usually have a bitter taste whiel bases have a sour taste
F backwards
What makes up the atomic number of an element?
Protons
Which one of the groups is not resoled with the light microscope?
Viruses
An acidophile would grow best at a pH ofa.2b.6c.9d.12
A
T/FATP is formed in mitochondria in prokaryotic microbes.
FIn eukarystc microbes
What is the ATP yield from one glucose molecule by the krebs cycle, including the electron transport system and chemiosmosis in bacteria
38
True or false? Clostridium welchii, the gas gangrene bacillus, rarely is found in the soil.
FalseClostridium perfringens is the causative agent of gas gangrene
74. True or false? For clostridial food poisoning to occur, the causative organisms must grow under aerobic conditions and produce their toxin.
FalseUnder anaerobic conditions
Which one of the following is not an organic molecule?
Table salt
Requires the objects be placed in a vacuum
Transmission electron microscopy
T/FCarbohydrate is forned during the engery fixing reactions of photosynthesis.
FalseDuring the carbon fixing reactions
76. True or false? Identification and treatment of the carrier represent the major methods for containing outbreaks of botulism.
FalseOutbreaks of typhoid fever
What happens in the formation of an ionic bond?
A transfer of electrons
What test are used to help identify bacteria today?
Physical chararcteristics, Biochemical test, seriological test. ( All the above)
T/FAnaerobic repiration lacks a chemiosmosis step for ATP production because the process cannot occur without oxygen.
False Posses a chemiosmotic step.. the process can occur using another inorganic final accpetor besides oxygen
78. True or false? Most children have been infected by rubella by the time they enter kindergarten and up to 80 percent of adults have antibodies against HHV-6. 30 to 60 percent of bone marrow transplant recipients suffer a HHV-6 viremia during the firs
FalseBy roseol a virus
In 1866, ernst haeckel, devised a three kingdom system. One kingdom was Plants, the second was animals. What was the third kingdom and what did it include?
Protist: bacteria Potozoa, algae, and fungi
The aerobic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa grows on a glucose containing medium. Metabolic products you would expect to find include
CO2, ATP, and H2O ( all the above)
80. True or false? The MMR vaccine provides immunization to measles, molluscum contagiosum, and rubeola.
FalseTo measules, mumps and rubella
how is asexual reproduction used in prokaryotic cells?
Meiosis is a process called reduction division
69. True or false? Among the major causes of warts in humans are the adenoviruses, a group of icosahedral, DNA virions.
False2 antiviral drugs, zanamivir and oseltamivir
why are bacteria considered to be the most diverse organisms on the planet?
live in the greatest extremes of temp,salt and pH. Can resist large doses of radiation,
The use of nitrate by E. coli is important to the organism because nitrate
is a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration
/ 108
Term:
Definition:
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