Microbiology - Exam 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dissolve clots
Staphylococcus aureus
Disproved Needham's experiment.
cell membrane disruption
Findings (Parasite hints):
perianal pruritus
Function: lysosome
digestion, self destruction
Lymphocyte Maturation

Lymphocyte Maturation

nprimordial stem cells arise in marrow

ndifferentiate into either erythropoietic (RBCs, phagocytes) or lymphopoietic cells

qT cells mature in thymus

qB cells mature in bursa (birds) or bone marrow

nantigen-specific receptors appear on each cell type during maturation

qallows specific recognition and binding to Ag (lock and key fit)

qreceptor is present even if person unexposed to the Ag (contained in genetic information)

qB cell receptor is antibody

qT cell receptor is TCR

nlymphocytes with Ag receptors that bind to “self” Ag are eliminated

nlymphocytes with Ag receptors that do not bind to “self” Ag have potential to bind to microbe Ag

nboth types of cells

qenter circulation

qcolonize nodes and other lymphatic organs
selective toxicity
specificaly targets bacteri
e.g. cell wall synthesis and ribisomes

positive- gypsey moth control
Schistosoma haematobium
Findings (Parasite hints):
Hematuria, bladder cancer
living hosts (humans, animals), inanimate objects could be
Is a mordant a stain?
Slime Molds
amoebal and fungal characteristics
2 types
chemical substances produced by microorganisms that are capable of killing other microorganisms. Some antibiotics are synthesized in the laboratory.
The conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to ribulose-5-phosphate uses parts of what other pathway?
Reverse PPP
name the organism:
G- enteric
facultative anaerobe
non-lactose fermenter
typhoid marry
reservoir in gall bladder

found in: human colon, eggs and poultry

and causes typhoid fever
Salmonella typhi
a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG), N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM), and short chains of amino acids
Inflammation is a (systematic/local) response of the body to injury
Candida albicans
Name the fungi:
-systemic or superficial fungal infection
-dimorphic yeast w/ pseudohyphae in culture at 20 degrees C, germ tube at 37 degrees (diagnostic)
-oral & esophageal thrush in immunocompromised, vulvovaginitis (diabetes, antibiotics), diaper rash, endocarditis in IV drug users, disserminated candidiasis to any organ
Tx = nystatin for superficial infection, amphotericin B for serious systemic infection
Which carbapenem is not effective against pseudomonas?
How do bacteria divide?
By binary fission
problem with all scopes, distorations to microbes.
Bactericidal against Gram + bacteria.  Interferes with the transport of peptidoglycan precursors. Common ingredient in non-prescription antibiotic ointments
round worms vs. flat worms
obvious definitions
Organisms are _______ and relationships are not required for survival
free living
Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have cell walls, when present, are chemically simple?
species of cultivated wine yeast
saccharomyces ellipsoideus
what is the protozoan resting form?
-found only in Gram-negative bacteria
-contains lipopolysaccharide, a toxic molecule
outer membrane
phase-contract mircoscopy
(compound light)Condenser with annular (ring-shaped) diaphragm, and difraction plate in the objective lens. Useful for detailed observation of internal structure of stained or living organisms.
a non-protein organic molecule that binds to an enzyme
What Contributes to food spoilage; causes infections and is very often found in the soil?
Thomas Sydenham
English physician introduced cinchona tree bark to treat malaria.
complicated malaria (clinical signs/symptoms- mention the major ones)
severe anemia

cerebral malaria, leads to seizures, coma

respiratory distress/pulmonary edema
renal failure- hemoglobinuria (black water fever due to increased Hb in blood stream giving you black piss)
circulatory failure/shock
rarely, vivax can cause splenic rupture that is fatal
Name 2 components of S. pneumoniae that induce inflammatory response when they reach alveoli.
causes pulmonary infection similar to TB: M. ___
M. kansasii
Electron microscope
developed by Ernst Ruska, reveals internal structure of cells
Metabolic Chemical Reaction
Catabolic chemical reaction: release energy, degredative, due to breakage of the organic bondsAnabolic reaction: Acquire energy, biosynthetic, building organic bonds
The mostly water, liquid portion of cytoplasm
_____ lakes have shallow, murky water, high BOD, low DO
what microbe grows best when higher CO2 levels are in the atmosphere?
What is meant by the term pathogenic?
How much of the cytoplasm is water?
programmed alterations in the genome of a single bacterium
Transmission Variation
how is francisella normally transmitted?
tick (Dermacentor)
contact and ingestion
name the zoonotic pathogen associated with birds and atypical pneumonia
chlamydophila psittaci
1. Releases energy from sugars or other organic molecules. 2. Dosen't require O2, but O2 can be present. 3. Dosen't require the use of the Krebs cycle or electron transport chain. 4. Uses organic molecule as final electron acceptor. 5. Small amount ATP pr
Selective media:
contains ingredients that inhibit the growth of some bacteria but enhance the growth of other bacteria. Medium is often formulated so that it is both selective and differential (Mannitol salt agar and MacConkey agar)
both host and organism derive mutual benfit
What is the alteration in characteristics of certain surface proteins called?
antigenic variation
Epulopiscium fischelsoni
daughter cells form inside, then leave
M marinum (epidemiology, dx, tx)
associated with lake, bay, ocean, pool, aquarium

pathogenesis- 1-2 mnths of incubation followed by granulomatous nodular ulcerative lesions (hand lesions common)
dx- biopsy or culture w/ in vitro drug susceptibillity may be useful
responds to Clarithromycine and Ethambutol OR Rifampin and Ethambutol
tx 1-2 months after symptoms resolve, typically 3-4 months duration total
Which organism is identified by india ink stain?
Cryptococcus neoformans.9-6
This is a candida albican infection of the oral cavity that produces a thick white growth on the mucous membrane of the mouth and throat.
Francisella tularensis
tularemia (hunter's fever)
Gram - Rod
tularemia (hunter's fever) - inf animal / tick bite -> lives in macrophages -> septicemia -> invasion of lungs -> Pneumonia
ID50: 10 m.o. via skin wound / 50 m.o. via inhalation
Resevoir = Rabbit
What are bacterial endospores resistant to?
heat, drying, numerous chemicals
Non protein ions or coenzymes used to activate enzymes.
Closteridium perfringens Gastroenteritits
responsible for gas gangrines. Found in meats and Stew contaminated with intesting contents of animals during slaughter. when meat is cooked, the low O2 levels alow it to grow still. Generation time is 20 minutes. It grows in intestinal tract and causes mild symptoms of abd pain/diarrhea.
Nutrients: Common Organic
Sugars, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids, Nucleic Acids.
Cause's the re-pairing, and catches mistakes during DNA replication
DNA polymerase I
Pasteurization Methods
Batch method - 63C for 30minFlash method - 72C for 15sec Ultra-high temp method - 134C for 1sec
What does Mycoplasma pneumoniae cause?
tracheobronchitis with nonproductive cough and primary, atypical pneumonia in young adults and children
Bergey's manual is divided into groups based on which characteristics??
phenotypic characteristics
Q: Intestinal botulism has been linked to the injestion of what?
A: Honey
Diaphragm Lever
Opens and closes the diaphragm and regulates how much light leaves the condenser
Which gram - groups are classified as "enterics"?
What type of bacteria is staphylococcus saprophyticus? How does it metabolize?How do you obtain it? What are its virulence factors? What is the clinical manifestation?
Gram positive staphylococcus
Facultative anaerobe
UTI in sexually active women
Which RNA molecule forms part of the ribosomal machinery used in protein synthesis?
cell wall/cell membrane (gram positives)
Name the bacterial structure:
Contains peptidoglycan for support and teichoic acid induces TNF & IL-1
Functions as the major surface antigen
This is a porin that Pseudomonas aeruginosa may down regulate to resist quinolones.
What is OprD?7-4
What infection is only endemic in areas that are 15 degrees away from the equator on either side?
Yellow feverCC 6-5
toxin-mediated GAS 2' infections
scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock
What is the source of syphillis?
blood and body fluids
Basal Body
Anchors the filament and hook to a cell wall by a rod and series of either two or four rings of integral proteins.
In the case of proving the cause of an infectious disease with Koch's Postulates does the pathogen from the pure culture need to cause the disease when it is innoculated into a healthy, susceptible laboratory animal?
Name some important virulence factors associated with Clostridium perfringens
1. alpha toxin
=lecithinase=Ca dependent phospholipase C
-causes lysis of RBCs and other cell
2. Enterotoxin type A
-causes acute food poisoning
-ex. stuffing in the turkey filled with spores
Fastidious bugs
These bugs are very picky and fussy and will not grow on blood/ do not have teeth
What bacteria binds CFTR?
Salmonella typhi, cause of typhoid fever, binds to CFTR
3 mechanisms of cell death
cytolytic toxins, induced phagocytosis by activated WBC, induced apoptosis
Facilitated diffusion
a substance not soluble by itself in lipids is transported across a selectively permeable membrane by combining with a transporter (carrier) molecule
the bacteria has to be suspended in an anti-freeze so ice crystals don't formie glycerine, ethylene glycol-50*C-95*C (bacteriostatic)
Why are sphaerotilus important?
Contributes to bulking an important problem in sewage treatment
What is the study of the sequence of DNA?
neutropenia and defects in phagocytic defenses (location of infection)
offending organism usually colonizes area that becomes infected
skin- catheter related with staph, gram neg. fungi
oropharynx- oral candidiasis, HSV
lungs- bacterial, fungal pneumonia
colon/perianal area- abscess
Name the gram negative diplococci that ferments maltose.
Neiserria meningitidisCharts after lecture 2
Gastric ulcers or gastritis
Patients with type O blood and patients who take NSAIDS are at high risk for what?
If a bacteria is really small, what shape do you classify it in?
not round: bacillusround:coccus
what is all the genetic info. in a cell called and where is it contained?
genome, chromosomes
what type of microscopy is similar to phase contrast, but has better resolution, 3D image and color, and uses 2 light beams?
differential interference contrast
Activated sludge system
Air or pure oxygen is passed through effluent from primary treatment
How does Shigella use a type III secretion system?
to invade cells
enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) can cause what disease?
diarrheal outbreaks in hospital nurseries and in bottle-fed infants
What methods are used to rapidly identify viral infections?
Electron microscope, serology, cytology (pap smears), viral antigens
What vaccine is used for haemophilus influenza-type B meningitis?
Polysaccharide from Haemophilus influenza type B conjugated with protein
What uses fluorescently labeled probed to detect certain nucleotide sequences?
fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)
Name 4 important function of M protein on GAS.
Antigenically variableAdherence w/ lipotechoic acidBinds host factors such as factor HInduce autoimmunity26a-4
What are Koch's Postulates? (4)
1. Same pathogen in every case2. Pathogen isolated and grown in pure culture3. Isolated pathogen causes the diesease when injected4. Pathogen reisolated
What is gas gangrene?
Acute and fatal type of tissue death from bacterial infection
Infections occur with impaired blood supply secondary to trauma, surgery, foreign bodies, or malignancy
Clostridium can originate from external environment or from host's natural flora
How does Mycoplasma pneumoniae cause infection?
-M. pneumoniae spread by respiratory droplets
-attaches to epithelial cells by P1 adhesion
-damages mucosa by producing hydrogen peroxide and superoxide -> ciliastasis and epithelial necrosis
Removal of water to inhibit growth Microbiostatic - doesn't kill
in the "release" stage of animal virus, what happens
cell lysed; budding in persistant infection, or exocytosis
Give the purpose of photosynthesis?
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. Photosynthesis takes place in two stages. In the first stage, called the light-dependent (light) reactions light energy is used to convert ADP and P into ATP.
When does DNA replication end?
when the replication fork reaches the end of the parent strand, which is called the termination point
EBV infects B cells via the receptor:a. BCRb. CD19c. CD21d. zeta chain
c. CD21 or complement receptor CR219-11
The four kingdoms of Eukarya are ___, ___, ___, and _____.
Protists, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
What are the features of gram positive bacteria?
1. Cell envelope
-different components vs gram negative
2. Lipoteichoic acid
3. No sex pili
4. Permeases
-in cytoplasmic membrane
-involved in active transport of nutrients
What are common diseases caused by ≤-hemolytic group C Streptococcus?
uncommon infective agent, but causes syndromes similar to group A including cellulitis and lymphangitis
List and describe the features of the lac operon.
Structural genes:
lacZ - Encodes β-galactosidase, which cleaves lactose into glucose and galactose
lacY - Encodes β-galactoside permease, which transports lactose into the cell
lacA - Encodes β-galactoside transacetylase, whose function is not well elucidated

Regulatory gene:
lacI - Encodes the lac repressor protein

DNA elements:
lacP - Site where the RNA pol binds
lacO - Site where the lac repressor binds
What does the SOS system produce?
a new highly error prone DNA polymerase
How should a blood culture be collected?
At two different sites at two different times.CC 1-4
How is ethylene oxide used as a control unit?
gaseous sterilant useful for hospitals to sterilize equip that cant be heated
- kill everything
- react w proteins
What are the benefical roles of microbes in genetic engineering?
Gene therapy has come from genetic engineering which uses a harmless virus to carry the missing or new gene into certain host cells.
what is the normal habitat of proteus species (P. vulgaris & P. merabilis)?
human colon
environment - Soil and water
What the 3 types of plague? Is there treatment available? Vaccine available?
Bubonic, pneumonic, septicemic; 95% survival rate with antibiotic Tx; Killed or attenuated vaccine available but only lasts for a few months
How does one perform a capsule stain? (3steps)
1. Use positive stain to stain bacteria2. Negative stain to stain background3. clear halo of capsule is left between the stains
What is a simple preventive measure that can protect against transmission of GBS to the newborn from the mother?
test vagina for GBS and treat with antibiotics if needed
A 35 year old patient with chronic bronchitis and positive culture for H. influenza likely has what type of H. influenza?
60% of the time patients with COPD have nontypeable H. influenza, especially with exacerbations and chronic bronchitis
What is the function of site-directed mutagenesis?
Used to make a specific change in a gene
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