Microbiology 62 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Artificial active?
flushot
bacitracin
cell wall
osmosis
diffusion of water
inhibits bacterial growth
Antiseptic
Measels
Paramyxoviruses (RNA, enveloped).
 
 
Viruses
 
 
Microscopic, acellular agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by protein coat.
Propionibacterium acnes
gram positive rod
Alpha Interferons
WBC's. Fever production.
commercial sterilization
killing C.botulinum endospores
Group B streptococcus
S. agalactiae
Gram +
Coccus
Catalase -
Gamma hemolytic
 
E. faecalis
Are bacteria prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
prokaryotes
Extended spectrum
Examples?
Increased activity against Gram-negative rods, including Pseudomonas species.  ticarcillin, piperacillin
size of typical bacterium
mega basepairs
How is Strep Faecalis(enterococcus spred)
Opetunistic
capsomere
capsomeres are protein subunits; capsids are made of capsomeres
Capsule
Outercoating around bacteria, and don't stain well
one celled plant.Often grouped according to their shape and arrangement of cells when seen under a microscope: Cocci, Streptococci, Staphylococci, Diplococci, Bacilli, Sprilli
Cocci
kills all microorganisms including their endospores
sterilization
Major Tissue protozoans
Chagas disease
African sleeping disease
Leshminiasis
name of vaccine for Mumps?precautions needed?
MMRdroplet
Endocytosis
is phagocytosis where molecules are engulfed in the cell by wrapping the cell membrane around the molecule.
 
 
 
 
 
Alcohol disinfectants
 
 
 
 
For skin: use 70% ethyl alcohol, alcohols plus aldehyes for surface use
Which flora are disturbed most easily?
Intestinal
Mumps
Characterized by enlarged jaw tissues arising from swollen salivary glands
mRNA
Carries the message for a polypeptide, translated by the ribosome (translation)
Viroids
Simpler than viruses-- single, short piece of nucleic acid, specifically RNA, without a protective coat -- much smaller than viruses-- can only reproduce inside cells-- cause a number of plant diseases
What is an important nosocomial pathogen not Pseudomonas or Stenotrophomonas
Acinetobacter
Word association:

Kidney bean-shaped diplococci (associated gram stain)
Neisseria (gram neg)
Ocular
Part of microscope you look through
10X
autotrophs
organisms that use inorganic compounds (Co2 gas used)-ie. photosynthetic organisms-5% of the cell
What are two types of leukocytes?
Granulocytes
Agranulocytes
Influenza A, B, C
Orthomyxoviruses(RNA, enveloped) Influenza, influenza pneumonia.
HIV related infections: name the cutaneous infections
HSV
VZV
bacilliary angiomatosis
molluscum contagiosum
For the following pathogens, name the anatomical area they commonly establish latency: EBV
B-cells35-2
Relapsing Fever
The following symptoms are indicative of what disorder?


High fever, N/V, chills, HA, fatigue
muscle aches
abdominal pain
extensive damage to the liver, spleen, heart, kidneys, and cranial nerves
gyrase
a type 2 toposiomerase that adds negative supercoils (allows DNA strand to unwind)
Disinfection
Removal of pathogens & lowering of microbial numbers
Syndrome
a particular group of signs or symptoms that usually accompanies a specific disease - ex., AIDS characterized by weight loss, malaise, loss of certain white blood cells, diarrhea, pneumonia, toxoplasmosis, and tuberculosis
cell wall
rigid structure that protects against osmotic pressure damage and provides cell shape - cylindrical (bacillus), spherical (coccus), or helical (spirillum)
Double pneumonia
both left and right lungs involved
Describe Vibrio Cholera
-curved gram negative rod
-single polar flagellum
-pathogen factor: cholera toxin
-causes cholera
parasitism
one organism benefits at the expense of another
Industrial microbiology
make things on a grand scale
what are some characteristics of clostridium botulinum?
anaerobic
spore forming
The process of using energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates.
Photosynthesis
Endergonic
a process accompanied by or requiring the absorption of energy; the products of the process are of greater free energy than the reactants
encode enzymes for catabolism of unusual compounds
R factors
the study of microorganisms, microbes, germs, and their activities. It can only be seen through a microscope.* A relatively new science.
Nosocomial Infection
What are Pointed bacteria that are found in the gingival crevice of the gums?
Fusobacteria
Unique thing about ethylene oxide
It inactivates spores.
smallpox vaccination policy
disease does not spread rapidly (requires close contact)
retains immunity up to ten yrs
vaccinate close contacts and patient isolation may contain the outbreak
since vaccine stopped in 1980, our current population is not immune
T/F It will likely be necessary to continue polio vaccination even if human transmission is successfully stopped.
True.CC-9
how many cases in US are nosocomial?
2 million
Cycle of Disease
-Pathogen will incubate inside the host
-manifestion of the disease or illness
Signs (observable effects) vs. symptoms (experienced) -convalescence period of recovery after disease: Infection may be resolved completely—recovery and boosted immunity. Person may become asymptomatic/symptomatic carrier (B. pertussis, S. pyogenes, HIV)
Iris diaphragm
controls the amount of light entering the condenser
a prophage
Viral DNA is incorporated into the host’s chromosome
True
True or False - E.Coli K12 includes plasmids
S. pneumoniae diagnosis
1) rusty sputum2) G+ diplococci3) Alpha hemolytic4) sensitive to P disc (optochin), unlike other alpha hemolytic strp
What is catabolism?
all decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones
Light microscope
Microscope that uses visible light to observe objects
What is an example of a fast-growing bacteria?
Clostridium
which is true of competitive inhibition?
a. it involves an allosteric enzyme
b. substrate and inhibitor both bind to the active site
c. mercury is a competitive inhibitor
d. inhibitor has a chemical structure similar to the normal substrate
e. B and D
B and D
q. Minor antegenic differances are so minor we keep them in the same genus but all them a different ____________.
a. Strain.
Anti Viral agents (1)
Synthetic: Base Analogues. Fake nucleotide bases the virus incorporates into genome
mesophiles
bacteria with an optimal temp range of 25-40*C (37-98.6*F)- most common including:a) normal microbiotab) most pathogensc) unknown bacteria, in BCC labs
What causes rheumatic fever?
Strep pyogenes in cardiovascular system
What is another name for dark repair?
excision repair
Consisting of a simple tube with lenses at each end. The magnificaiton of objects under view range from three to nine times
compound microscope
gram negative
is septic shock most often caused by gram negative or gram positive bacteria?
Name the gram reaction and morphology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Acid fast bacillus
Gastroentertitis; from eating raw seafood and oysters
Vibrio Vulnificus and Vibrio Parahaemolyticus cause what condition? And how is it contracted?
Normal flora (microbiota)
microbes that colinize a hose without causing a disease.
Antigenic drift
minor change of antigen on surface of virus that continually happens over time - due to accumulation of mutations in viral genome
 
 
What are characteristics of typhoid fever and extraintestinal diseases caused by Salmonella?
Typhoid fever
Bacteria go from intestinal wall and to regional lymph nodes (cause constipation, headache, and general symptoms)
Bacteria spread through blood stream to body. 
Bacteria phagocytized, not killed;intracellular multiplication occurs.
Re-enter bloodstream; prolonged, severe septicemia may result (fever, shock from endotoxin - LPS)
Bacteria may re-enter intestinal tract, cause diarrhea and may infect gall bladder
Severe, freq. fatal disease results if not treated.
Treat with antibiotics.
Vaccination can reduce risk of disease for travelers in endemic areas.  Produces anti-O and anti-Vi antibodies.
What common elements can organic compounds contain (besides C and H)?
O, P, S, N
What is coagulase?
an enzyme that causes blood to clot.
What does streptokinase do?
hydrolyzes fibrin and other host proteins, helping organism spread through tissues (when bound to bacterial cell surface, plasmin is not inhibited by alpha-macroglobulin), purified enzyme from Gropu G Strep is used to dissolve blood clots, antigenic
the minus strand of DNA serves as the template for RNA production. T/F
true
Naked virus
a virus that does not posses an envelope. In these viruses the capsid forms the outer layer
Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci
this opportunist is the most frequent cause of life-threatening pneumonia in AIDS patients
What does Herpes virus 3 cause? Where is it found?
Chickenpox
Skin
What region of the DNA does RNA polymerase bind to?
the promoter
What substance aids S. aureus in tissue destruction?
Hemolysins – most alpha
What are the 2 most important bacteria that cause urethritis?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Chlamydia trachomatis
CC 3-4
normal flora that is present on your body temporarily, can be washed away or dies in competition with other flora
transient micro flora
Gram-negative cell wall
Thin cell wall, has an outer membrane consisting of lipopolysaccharide and protein, periplasm, one to three layers of peptidoglycan and a cytoplasmic membrane
Type of bacterial species that produces them or for type of disease caused
diphtheria toxin (C. diphtheria), tetanus toxin (C. tetani), cholera toxin (V. cholera), botulinum toxin (C. botulinum
What is the type b capsular carb for h. influenzae?
PRP (polyribosephosphate)
Transduction
The transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell by a bacteriophage
Four Mechanisms for genetic exchange
transformation - uptake of naked DNAtransduction - transfer involves a becteriophageconjugation - cell to cell contact requiredtransposition - mobile genetic elements
MACA: what Gram-positive cocci would fall under the hymolysis group D
a. Enterococcus faecalis
b. Streptococcus agalactiae
c. Streptococcus pyogenes
d. E. faecium
a. Enterococcus faecalis
d. E. faecium
The proximal end in the outer half of the membrane on gram-negative bacteria that anchors it to the cell.
Lipid A
Which test is used to confirm Rickettsia infection?
Weil-Felix (except Q fever)
What does a unique repeated sequence of transposons allow them to do?
move through the chromosome
Aside from its antibiotic resistant, what other factors allow MRSA to live long?
persistent colonization up to four years in the nares

contamination on environmental surface can be as high as 30% (ex: bed rails, table, bp cuffs)
For the following anti-viral, name its drug class, and viruses for which it is indicated: penciclovir?
Nucleoside analogue. Indicated for HSV.13-2
Which of the following statements about infectious mononucleosis is false?a. It is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infectionb. it is characterized by proliferation of monocytesc. It is caused by herpes virusd. it has an incubation of 4-7 weekse. C
It is caused by herpes virus
By time she is 6 weeks old she
loses her mothers estrogen
Name some virulence factors for Campylobacter jejuni
1. capsule
2. flagella
3. Type III secretion system
4. Glycosylation
5. cytotoxin that causes breaks in DNA
Can you recognize the addition units for polysaccharide biosynthesis?
ADP- or UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose, adn UDP-glucuronic acid.
How can one differentiate between strep A, B and C and Pneumococci?
using an agglutination test with different specific antisera
Effects of Lipopolysacchride (LPS)
1. Can lead to death in 2 hours
2.Secrete proteins that:
-Increase body temp (fever)
-Increase permability of capillaries causing water to leak into surronding tissues
-Loss of blood volume causes blood pressure to fall
-Blood clots form
Why are acetobacter and gluconobacter important?
Bacteria that convert ethanol into acetic acid (vinegar)
What criteria does CDC used to define potential of biologic agents to be used as weapons
ease of dissemination
potential for major public health impact
requirements for public health preparedness
we are in contact with the definitive hostpathogens can evolve to infect humans as primary reservoirsbiological warfare
why should zoonoses be studied?
How do pigments act as virulence factors for pseudomonas aeruginosa?
-pigments are toxic to WBCs
-usu increased production of pigments when environmental conditions not favorable
-pigments have antibiotic properties
What is the pathology of ecthyma granulosum?
necrotic skin lesion; serum resistant and complement resistant P. aeruginosa invades tissue-- a little spot of local necrosis is first seen, then infection disseminates; invasion of blood vessels (vascular tropism) allows elastase to destroy vessel causing cloting, obstruction, or necrosis
how does naegleria fowleri infect a person?
penetrates the nasal mucosa and cribriform plate, then ascend along the olfactory nerve to invade brain tissue, resulting in purulent meningitis and encephalitis
What is a latent virus?
A virus that inhabits the hosts nerve cells but causes no damage until it is activated by a stimulus such as fever or sunburn
Name the class of the following drug as well as the generation: Ciprofloxacin.
2nd generation quinolone. DNA damaging agent. Used in UTIs and against pseudomonal infections. No longer used against G pos because of resistance.4-9
Is it better or worse to not having flora where you should have them that having flora in either the wrong place or the wrong type of flora?
Trick question, just as bad
How is gonorrhea due to N. gonorrhoeae diagnosed?
Men: seeing GC (gonorrhoeaecocci) in PMNs on a gram stain
Women: culture of cervical pus
T or F viruses are infectious agents too small to be seen by the light microscope
True. viruses are infectious agents too small to be seen by the light microscope
What are the 2 functions of DNA microarrays?
detection of mRNA expression profiling and test for different organisms present
to prevent contamination from airborne microbes
Why should a petri dish not be left open for extended periods of time?
What are some of the features of generalized transduction?
bacterial DNA is injected, any gene can be transferred, occurs at low frequency, no viral DNA is transferred to host, bacteria must be closely related, DNA is incorporated through homologous recombination
What is cancer and how is the immune system involved in the disease process?
the new growth of abnormal cells; Overgrowth of abnormal tissue arises due to malfunction of immune surveillance
Write the overall reaction for aerobic respiration of glucose.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38ADP + 38Pi --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + 38ATP
- The F plasmid of E. coli has two replication origins
- orN is used to replicate and maintain the plasmid in non-conjugating cells
- orT is used to replicate the plasmid during conjugation
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