Microbiology Exam 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
(Lambda) integrase
Spherical bacteria
Class 2 phage
-move by pseudopods
Methicillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin 
(penicillinase-resistant penicillins)
MOA:  Bind penicillin binding proteins, block transpeptidase cross-linking of cell wall, activate autolytic enzymes.  Pencillinase resistant b/c of bulkier R group.
Use:  S. aureus (except MRSA which is resistant b/c of altered penicillin-binding protein target site)
Toxicity:  Hypersensitivity reactions, methicillin - interstitial nephritis
small blistermicrobe invades epitheliumfluid filled ex) HSV, varicella zoster virus
bacill-, bacilli-
small staff, rodlet
bacteria, viruses, protozoae, helminths, and arthropodes that live at the expense of the host are called?
Tertiary syphilis
GummasAortitisNeurosyph (Tabes dorsalis causes ataxia, + Romberg)Argyll Robertson pupils
Whooping Cough (pertussis)
Bordetella pertussis
Gram-Negative coccobacillus
Attaches to and multiply in ciliated tracheal cells but don't invade deeper
Many toxins: tracheal cytoxin damages ciliated cells, pertussis toxin causes systemic symptoms
Cold symptoms, gasping for air
Secondary complications can be CNS anoxia, secondary pneumonia
Major cause of death worldwide
Host Defenses
Bacterial/fungal -- antibiotics, nucleases
Plants -- the hypersensitive response causes apoptosis (programmed cell death) leading to an oxidative burst -- peroxides directly attack pathogens and also increase the rigidity of cell walls in surrounding, living cells
Animals – physical/chemical barriers and the immune system (innate, adaptive)
Campylobacter jejuni
Helical/Vibriod (Gram-negative); AKA: food-borne enteritus
gram positive cocci in clusters
flagella all over the cell
Long protein structures responsible for most types of bacterial motility
All Nesseria are Oxidase ____________
bacterial pneumonia
influenza infection predisposes compromised patients for acquiring:
Do prokaryotes have a nucleus?
Tapeworm GI Infection
Taenia spp.
A helminth (Cestodes)
Travels to muscle of the intermediate host
Has three stages:
Adult worm in intestines of humans lays eggs and are excreted in feces
Eggs are ingested by grazers (intermediate host) and hatch into larvae
Humans eat undercooked meat and larvae develop into adults that attach to walls of SI
wear this when contact with biohazardous material expected
read template, add next monomer(DNA, RNA,Protein)
Eukaryotic Cytoplasm
Complex structure of rods (microtubules) or cylinders (microfilaments) responsible for transport of material inside the cell, cytoplasmic streaming.
Study of metabolic reactions which occur in all living organisms.
Does respiration require a terminal electron acceptor?
Nosocomial Infections
Infections acquired during hospital care.
water pipes, storage reservoirs, tanks, and other means used to deliver drinking water to consumers or store it before delivery
distribution system
Icosohedral - simplest - dome likeHelical (m13) - single stranded dna and proteinHelical and Icosohedral (t4 and lambda)
Staphylococci look like???
G+ cocci in clusters
formed externally on a pedestal (basidium)
immunity produced by injection of ready-made antibodies present in the immune serum
What is the site of translation?
strep pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, Neisseria meningitidis, Salmonella, group B strep
("Some Killers Have Nice Shiny Bodies")
Name the encapsulated bacteria
Is the following a characteristic of yeast or mold: produce multicellular forms?
predisposing factors contributing to disease susceptibility
genderagenutritionfatigueclimate and weathergeneticsage, habits, chemotherapy, pre-existing conditions, stress, lifestyle
Gel Electrophoresis
Electrophoresis – the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field 
The electric field forces the fragments to migrate toward the positive potential due to the net negative charge of the phosphate backbone of DNA.
The molecules will move through the matrix at different rates based on mass
 Small fragments move quickly, large fragments move slowly
What do Bacillus bacteria tend to produce?
what disease causes the development of cataracts in utero?
Active Carrier
carrier that exhibits signs and symptoms
Count Buffon
philosopher - in league-colleague with Needham - "heat of course, destroys the vital force"
What is systemic tularemia similar to?
Typhoid fever
Organism that grows in high salt concentrations
An important cause of food spoilage-- have a temperature optimum between 20°C and 30°C, but grow well at lower temperatures
Does Pseudomonas have low or high antibiotic resistance?
bacterial cells with teichoic acids in their cell walls will be purpose at the end of the gram stain. T/F
q. Which domain is termed Eukaryote(true nucleus) and contains internal organelles and a membrane bound nucleus?
a. Eucarya.
Q: Nematodes are also called what?
A: Roundworms.
-long wavelengths = 265nm-slow, low energy particles-not very penetrating-damages cellular DNAex. UV light (in lab)
ionizing radiation
What are phagocytic blood cells that produce toxic proteins against parasites?
What factor selectively transcribes the genes that you want?
the sigma factor
Viridans strep
Name the bacteria:
normal flora of the oropharynx and cause dental caries and subacute bacterial endocarditis
Resistant to optochin
Name the gram positive rod that produces an exogenous heat-stable enterotoxin.
Bacillus cereus
What is chikungunya?
It causes a Dengue-like illness (fever, bone pain and rash). It has a mosquito vector.14-6
fluid filled exanthem, red itchy that starts on trunk and moves to face and limbsmember of herpes family, trans by aerosols
chicken pox/varicella
Louis Pasteur (immunization)
developed first vaccines based on attenuated or weakened strains, fowl cholera, ravies.
Genomic islands
Non endemic genes
can have flanking repeats, fragments of other elements, inserted in vicinity of tRNA sequences, unstable
A glycocalyx is composed of what?
Polymer of polysaccharides
F' cells
has an extrachromosomal F factor that also carries some chromosomal genes incorporated during aberrant excision of an integrated plasmid. are poor recipients for conjugation due to their synthesis of surface exclusion proteins
Describe colony characteristics of Klebsiella
1. produces large, goopy capsule in high glucose
2. non-motile (no H antigen)
3. does NOT cause enteric infections
-can cause infections outside of enteric system in hospitalized system
4. can be primary or opportunistic pathogen
procedures used to reduce microbial load in water supplies
filtration and chlorination
Beta-lactam ring
penicillin - member of the beta-lactam antibioticsinactivates the transpeptidase binding to transpeptidase results in acylation of transpeptidase, causing irreversible inhibition of transpeptidases.
meningitis and sepsis in newborns and immunocompromised adults and gastroenteritis are diseases caused by what gram-positive non-spore forming bacteria?
Listeria monocytogenes
R plasmid
a plasmid tha encodes resistance to one or more antimicrobial drugs
Differential medium
A medium which is used to differentiate different types of microorganisms based on their different eg colors or shapes of colonie
inorganic elements required in small amounts-usually as enzyme cofactors
Organic growth factors
-can grow at 0c -Highest good temp. 20-30 not above 40found in refrigerator food spoilage
What is a disease that develops rapidly but lasts only a short time
Acute disease
the pathogen is spread through out the body by way of the lymph or blood
anthrax: symptoms, causative agent, epidemiology
Bacillus antracis
spore forming gram positive bacteria

zoonotic disease of herbivores
occurs naturally in humans handling contaminated animal products
transmission- skin abrasion, inhalation, consume infected meat

cause dermatologic, GI, and inhalation illness
Name the first antibody to appear in a person with HBV infection.
What is conjugation?
Process with the sex pilus (involving an F+ cell)
In what group of bacteria would we find fimbrae?
Gram Negative
What is Interferon
a protein molecules that is produced by a cell that has been infected by a virus.
Treating salmonella sp
1) Ab not indicated in mild gastroenteritis since disease is brief and limited to GI.2) for Typhoid fever, Ab are used
Protoplast fusion
"Hit and miss"Does not add a specific gene to a cell
how do Aby protect us?
neutralize toxins, mark for phagocytosis, or mark for complement
diphtheria is a disease which can be caused by what gram-positive non-spore forming rods?
corynebacterium diptheriae
DNA Polymerase I
excises RNA primer and fills gaps; polA
Q: Mold is a filamentous form of fungi. What is it called when a collection of hyphae are growing in one place?
A: Mycelium.
Define Bacteria and its shapes
1. Bacteria- single-celled: appear in a variety of shapes. Three Basic Shapes: round (cocci), oblong and spiral.
What is A serological test used to identify antibodies in a patient's serum?
Western blotting
MRSA are formed by...
SCCmec inserting into the MSSA chromosome
life cycle of T. brucei
tse tse fly introduce organism
gains access to blood stream and replicate (rhod: weeks, gam: months, yrs)
enlarge post. cervical lymph nodes
access to meningnes and cause meningitis
What are 3 agents that commonly cause neonatal meningitis?
E. coli
Streptococcus agalactiae
Listeria monocytogenes
Slide 23
1) To culture all organisms present (enrichment). 2) To differentiate species by biochemical characteristics. 3) Select certain species.
Describe primary media (battery):
What are examples of basic dyes?
Crystal violet, methylene blue, safranin (red) malachite green
T or F - The "sewage fungus" is a eukaryote.
Describe the characteristics of acinetobacter in culture
1. grows on minimal media
2. nonmotile
3. encapsulated
4. unable to reduce nitrate
5. respires only
6. nutrionally versatile
Who is known as the father of modern microbiology?;
Lois Pasteur
What are some infections commonly caused by Strep. pneumoniae?
pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, bronchitis, bacteremia, meningitis
The formation of macromolecules happens in two steps. what are those two steps?
1. synthesis of the subunits
2. joining together of the subunits
Q: Cestodes (flatworms) are also called what?
A: Tapeworms (these are hermaphrodites).
What are four techniques of genome sequencing?
Random shotgun sequencing
Reverse genetics
Southern blotting
Western blotting
Ascaris lumbricoides Life Cycle
If someone has nematode eggs, they are passed into the environment
The A. lumbricoides eggs begin to develop into the larval form with an egg casing
The larval form with the egg casing becomes ingested by another person
It begins to mature in the small intestine
It can then go to the lungs, where it migrates up the trachea to the pharynx
It will then be swallowed to the stomach, make its way to the small intestine, and undergo further maturation there
The adult forms will mate, make unfertilized eggs, and the cycle is repeated
Name some common toxic side effects of antibacterial drugs.
Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, and hypersensitivity.
non-immunized pregnant women;
because contracting rubella may cause severe congenital deformities
What patients are at great risk if exposed to rubella? Why?
Biosynthesis of Nucleic Acids
RNA and DNA are made up of nucleotides, purines and pyramidines (the C and N atoms come from amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartate) and pentose (sugar) and phosphorous group (from ATP)
What are the mechanisms potentially involved when a bacterial pathogen is associated with a chronic disease? Example?
1) persistant inflamation leading to tissue/organ damage. (periodontal disease)2) production of autoantibodies attacking self tissues due to molecular mimicry/cross reactivity (GAS and rheumatic fever)3) Bacteria make product that has a direct efect on host's cellular activities (H. pylori and gastric cancer)
A capsule can help evade microorganisms by:
1. prevent phagocytosis
2. cover C3 binding sites on LPS -> reduces efficiency of PMNS, Macrophage from binding with C3R
3. E.coli with K1 capsule is heavily sialylated
-prevents activation of alternative complement cascade
What test helps differentiate between ≤-hemolytic strep?
bacitracin test; S. pyogenes is bacitracin sensitive; others are not
Chlamydiae trachomatis:

-Best way to diagnose?
-What method to culture?
-What diseases does it cause (name 3)?
Chlamydiae trachomatis:

-Best way to diagnose?

-What method to culture?
spin down (?) shell vial culture

-What diseases does it cause (name 3)?
1. Chlamydial STD
2. trachoma (eye infection)
3. Lymphogranuloma venereum (which serovars for LGV?) - painless genital ulcer (like a syphilis chancre) but then later get painful lymphadenopathy in groin
Chlamydiae trachomatis:

-Best way to diagnose?
-What method to culture?
-What diseases does it cause (name 3)?
Lymphogranuloma venereum (which serovars for LGV?)
L1, L2, L3
source of energy for substrate level phosphorylation:
high energy bond between donor
Organism that makes shiga-like toxin and disease associated with this.
Enterohemorrhagic E. coli and it inhits eukaryotic protein synthesis.
Which of the following drugs has problems with resistance in HBV:a. alpha interferonb. Lamivudinec. Adefovird. Entecavir
b. LamivudineResistance is a problem due to mutations in viral polymerase (reverse transcriptase)19-8
What are some physical factors for innate immunity?
Cillia, presence of musous, urine flow, tears
In regards to the development of a disease, what is droplet transmission?
transmission via airborne droplets that travel less than one meter from the reservoir to the new host. This is different from airborne transmission.
How does alcohol affect gram negative cells during gram staining?
dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes in peptidoglycan.
What is a commensal relationship?
when bacteria live on the host but don't cause harm (normal flora), in fact normal flora have a beneficial relationship with the host
Q: Where would you find fungi?
A: Fungi are ubiquitous! They can survive in a wide range of environments. In my notes I wrote, high salt! high sugar! moist! acidic!
What are the 2 forms of illness seen with B. cereus?
Emetic form and diarrheal form
How does the following virus generally enter its human host: enterovirus?
Fecal-oral through the GI tract, or contact with the eyes. It is systemic.12-3
What is a host range?
the range of host cells the virus can affect
sulfur dioxide (sulfites) is added to the wine in order to kill the natural yeasts because:
the wild yeasts are less alcohol tolerant and can produce undesirable compounds affecting quality and taste of the final product.
how does it work? Heavy Metals
works by cross linking proteins, mercury (wounds), copper (grapes), silver nitrate (burns)
What does the pertussis toxin do in host cells?
The A subunit ADP-ribosylates the Gq protein and inactivates. This allows adenylate cyclase to remain active and produce cAMP.
How do microbes aid in the digestion processes of animals?
They use bacteria to break down cellulose (that they could not usually digest) to sugars that they can digest.
q. When was the Golden Age of Microbiology?
a. Golden Age was 1854-1914, after theory of spontaneous generation was disproved.
Role of MinC andMinD proteins in cell cycle
o MinC and MinD are localized to the poles, and actually switch back and forth in as little as 20 seconds (measuring???)
Selects for Gram - cells (species) and differentiates for lactose fermentation
Why is EMB agar selective as well as differential?
Ozone (o3)
Lecture 9
pH > 7.5
respiratory infections
streptococcus pneumoniae-capsules
A plasminogen activator.
Microbial Size
Eukaryotes 10-100 micrometersProkayotes 0.4-10 micrometers
Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
gram positive rod
Skin Associated Lymphoid Tissues
acid-fast stain
primary stain (carbolfuchsin)heatdecolorizing agent (acid-alcohol)counterstain (methylene blue)
L. monocytogenes
meningitis and sepsis
How is Toxoplasma Gondii diagnosed?
Are yeast multicellular or unicellular?
multiple flagella from one end
purple pigment, relative of Neisseria?
Are pili or fimbriae longer?
Are enterobacteriae oxidase negative or positive?
"Gathers" or "condenses" the light
natural body protections against disease (i.e. skin, mucous membrane, tears, saliva, etc)
viological taxonomic grouping below genus in which all organisms bear a close resemblance to each other in essential features and sexually can produce fertile progeny
causative agent of Chagas disease
Trypanosoma cruzi
Group A strep:incubation period:communicability period with NO Abtics:"" with Abtics
1-3 days10-21 days
Photoorganoheterotroph examples
purple nonsulfur bacteria; green nonsulfur bacteria
Bisguanide disinfectants

Chlorhexidine- commonly used in dentistry for surgical scrub, as an anti-plaque agent and as a denture disinfectant.
Effectiveness: absorption on to hydroxyapatite and salivary mucus
Pinworm, Hookworm (from soil in south)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Chancroid
Replication fork
Point at which replication occurs
Mycobacterium species
Resistant to many chemical treatments-- stronger or more toxic disinfectants must be used**example: M. bacterium (TB)
Which Enterobacteriaceae are nonmotile?
Klebsiella and Shigella
Name the pigmnts associated with Pseudomonas
Herpes viruses
large, posess latency, cause infectious mononucleosis, dna
-most microorganisms grow at pH7-the wrong pH, the unfavorable pH, denatures enzymes or BACTERICIDAL-low pH inhibits most bacteria, not fungi
What alters membrane permability in helminthes?
lesion formed by a drying fluid.
tx newborn sepsis
early onset: ampicillin, Gentamicin
late onset: tailor depending on nosocomial pathogens present in nursery (usually vancomycin and cephalosporins)
therapy for 10 days for sepsis and 2 wks for meningitis
supportive therapy- fluid and electrolytes, monitor for hyperbillirubinemia, watch for DIC and administer blood products
adjunct therapies- granulocyte transfusions, IgIV
T/F An autoinducer may stimulate quorum sensing as well as a two component regulatory system.
True 32-5
Which virus causes a serious diarrheal disease that may be fatal in children?
opportunistic pathogens
cause disease in a compromised host
binds to 50S ribosomal unit
inhibits gram +/- 
- treats infections from interstinal perforation
** clindamycin most common
normal genes that if altered, can make a normal cell cancerous (involved in cellular proliferation)
Cellular Immunity (cell-mediated immunity)

Cellular Immunity (cell-mediated immunity)

nform of immunity arising from T cells as effectors

nimportant defense against:

qviruses, rickettsia, and bacteria that live within body cells

qfungi, protozoa, and cancer cells
klebsiella Pneumonia characteristics
more aggressive than strepnot susceptible to penicillin
Define staphylococcus aureus
=main pathogen of genus staphylococcus
(gram positive bacteria)
Study of the cause of a disease
Aerobic respiration
uses oxygen as final e- accepter
what is a diesase in which mycobacterium tuberculosis causes?
What did Snow contribute?
-Infection control & epidemiology
a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight
-other enzymes are expressed only as needed, either repressible or inducible
Acquired Immunity
formation of antibodies in infected host which protects against future invasions of same organisms.
What are Animals that carry pathogens from one host to another?
Carrying the information for more than one protein on one mRNA
clinical course of tularemia
1-21 day incubation
nonspecific acute febrile illness
Hepatitis A Virus belongs to the family: a. Papovavirusb. Coronavirusc. Picornavirusd. Reovirus
c. Picornavirus 15-16
disease seen worldwide, epidemic of a specific disease, crosses continentsex. influenza, HIV, TB
Pandemic disease
Sterilization of medical instruments
Autoclave: kills most microorganisms and even some endospores
Does a GP cell have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell wall?
enveloped viruses
Many viruses that infect animals and humans have lipid bilayer membrane or envelope
Class VI.genome = 2 molecules of RNA derived from dsDNA intermediate.RNA genome (in virus), DNA genome replicative form.
What type of growth of p. aeruginosa is via single celled, motile organisms?
Gene expression
DNA transcribed to produce RNA; mRNA then transferred to proteins
Grow optimally at a pH about 8.8-- often live in alkaline lakes and soils
What kind of spore does C. difficile have?
Genus Mycoplasma
a. has mycolic acid in the cell wall
b. naturally lacks cell wall
c. has dipicolinic acid in the cell wall
d. has pleomophic cells
c. B and D
B and D
q. what are responsable for the production of Oxygen and Nitrogen?
a. Organisms
Cytopathic effects are
Virus damage seen with light microscope - giant cell fusions & fragmented or misshapen
means long exposure time leaves a residue
gaseous chemosterilizers
What does chloroquine do?
Inhibit DNA synthesis in protozoans
What are donor cells that carry a plasmid that codes for fertility factor or F factor called?
Greek physician Hipportates
Ethical standards for practice of medicine. He associated particular signs and symptoms with certain illnesses and realized taht diseases coud be transmitted from one person to another by clothing or other objects.
specific complement on the surface of the antigenstimulates degranulationdestroys the antigen
explanation of #3
For the following pathogen, name the immune cell that it infects and destroys: HIV.
Resting T cells.35-2
Herpes simplex virus
What virus do the complications of latency and recurrent infections become more severe with age, cancer chemotherapy and immunosuppression?
Golden Age of Microbiology (1850-1900)
many bacterial diseases were identified, improvements in public health, studies on immunology by PastuerDiscovery of viruses as agents of disease by Dmitry Ivanovsky and Martinus Beijerinck
Gain or loss of one or several base pairs designated: +1 -1 +2 -2 ect.
What are some common virulence factors associated with Enterobacteriaceae?
Antigenic phase variation
Sequestration of growth factors
Resistance to serum killing
Antimicrobial resistance
Name some common acids
stomach acid, lemon juice, grapefruit juice, wine, urine, milk
What is Scabies?
The mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrows in the skin to lay eggs500,000/yr in USTreatment: topical insecticides
What is an important diagnostic test for TB?
acid fast stain
Staph sapprophyticus:

Site of infection?
Resistant to which abx?
UTI's in child bearing age female.

Novobiocin resistant on KB disk test.
The ratio of the total amount of light passing through the objective lens to the eye
influenza (flu)
which of the following is not caused by Haemophilus influenzae?
Where is Herpes Gladitorium commonly found?
Wrestlers, nurses and doctors
What type of cell will not grow when transformed cells multipy under selective conditions?
How is pulmonary anthrax treated? Is there a vaccine?
Treated with penicillin or tetracycline which is effective against the bacteria however does not resolve the effects of the toxins. Vaccine – purified toxoid given in 6 injections over 1.5 years with annual boosters
If a patient has a defect in opsonization and/or reticuloendothelial system, what 3 pathogens would be better able to cause infection? What component do these 3 have in common?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Neisseria meningitidis
They all have capsules
CC 3-5
Streptococcus species can exhibit which types of hemolysis?
all - alpha, beta and gamma
topoisomerase type 2
cuts both strands and passes them from somewhere else in the DNA or even another DNA through the break before resealing it. -changes 2 supercoils at a time
Viruses are classified on basis of their capsid structureHelical - resemble long rods ex. Ebola, Rabies, Tobacco Mosaic VirusPolyhedral - many sided, roughly sphericalIcosahedron – 20 triangle faces, 12 cornersex. Adenovirus, PoliovirusEnveloped – hel
Helical Polyhedral Icosahedron Enveloped Complex
Group I MOTT examples
(Slow grow, yellow in light)1) M. Kansasii: TB-like pulmonary disease common in HIV patients in midwest2) M. marinum: Causes granulomatous skin lesions/draining ulcer. Associated with trauma in contaminated water.
DNA polymerase
Makes a molecule of DNA from a DNA template
ideal growth in the absence of O2 (but can grow with little O2 present)
Aerotolerant anaerobe
what causes meningitis in adults and otitis media and sinusitis in children?
Streptococcus pneumoniae

also causes pneumonia in adults
What is penicillin? Who developed it?
An antibiotic, antimicrobial agent that is produced naturally by an organism
studies the production of human proteins by bacteria
biotechnology microbial ecology and molecular biology
What are the elements for di-deoxychain termination?
single-stranded DNA template, primer that anneal to template, DNA polymerase, 3 of 4 deoxynucleotides, and 1 of 4 dideoxynucleotides
vascular catheter infections risk factors
type of catheter: greater risk with plastic than steel
multiple lumber greater risk than single lumen

location: central greater risk than peripheral
duration of placement: more than 72 hrs
emergency placement greater than elective
skill of venipuncturists
What is the definition of endemic?
An epidemic whose incidence remains stable for a long period. (So an increase to epidemic proportions, and then stabilizing at that level to become endemic).14-7
Schistosoma species
Swimmer's itch / schistosomiasis
swimmer's itch - contaminated water -> skin -> rash
schistosomiasis - contaminated water -> skin -> dmg vessels -> liver, bladder, lungs or brain
Recognition occurs by...
the antibody on the surface of the B cell attaching to the receptor of the invading cell.
Define streptococcal toxic shock syndrome
-caused by group A strep (similar syndrome caused by S. aureus)
-b/c of release of pyrogenic toxin
What enzyme complex is responsible for N fixation?
Nitrogenase (complex of MoFe protein and 1 or 2 Fe proteins)
What are some (non-oxygen dependent) microbicidal proteins?
cationic proteins (cathepsin G) damage membranes, lysozyme hydrolyzes cell wall, lactoferrin sequesters iron, proteases digest organisms, defensins and cathelicidins are pore-forming
what movement of flagella causes straight swimming?
association into a bundle and counterclockwise motion
Why are Agobacterium important?
a plant pathogen that causes a disease called crown gall
What are the most commonly seen results of Type IV hypersensitivity?
TB skin testing, contact dermatitis, transplant graft rejection
What are the 2 most important causes of genital ulcers? State if the ulcer is painful or not.
Herpes simplex virus (painful ulcer)
Treponema pallidum or syphilis (painless ulcer)
CC 3-4
40S Ribozome Subunit
Subunit is made up of a protein + 2 molecules of rRNA
What is the catalase test?
-use to tell you if gram positive cocci is:
1. staphylococcus or
2. streptococcus
-drop hydrogen peroxide on step --> nothing happens
-drop hydrogen peroxide on staph --> bubbles
When do most people develop rheumatic heart disease?
only after multiple episodes of ARF
ticks, lice, and mites are what type of parasites?

live on surface of other organism
Why are viruses not considered living?
No cell
Can not live on their own
Name the class of the following drug as well as the generation: Levofloxacin.
3rd generation quinolone. DNA damaging agent.
Waht is an example of a microbe that can produce many diseases?
E. Coli:UTI, wound infections, etc.
Describe the mechanism of action of diptheria toxin
-synthesized as single AA chain, must be cleaved in 2 chains to work
-catalyzes ADP ribosylation of EF2 -> knocks out host protein synthesis
-cells die and get tissue necrosis
1. throat
2. skin wounds (sometimes)
-if toxin absorbed systemically can produce cardiotoxicity
What is a useful metabolic test for diffentiating between enterobacteriaceae?
formic hydrogenlyase--- E. coli can break formic acid into CO2 and H2 when the pH drops below 6; Shigella cannot
What is are the 2 types of natural selection?
antigenic variation and phase variation
Add hydrogen peroxide to a portion of a colony on a glass slide. Bubbles present = catalase + ; No bubbles = catalase -
Describe how to do a catalase test:
What are some of the bad things that H. pylori causes?
duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, chronic and acute antral and corpus gastritis
Bactec media and commonly used to find what bacteria?
Liquid media that contains a substrate that only the target bacteria would metabolize. (has radioactive or fluorescent marker) and mycobacteria.
How many coupling sites are there for ATP generation in the ATP synthase protein complex?
There are 3 coupling sites for ATP generation
What is the first test you would do on Gram+ cocci?
catalase test--drop H2O2 and see if it bubbles (Streptococcus is negative; Staphylococcus is positive)
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