Microbiology Set Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Trichomonas Vaginalis
Trichomoniasis 
Protozoan
STD
Causes unpleasant signs and symptoms, particularly in females. It's not a serious disease. Many ppl are asymptomatic. Can cause premature deliveries in infected women. Can cause inflammation of he reproductive and urinary tract organs.
Division Gracilicutes
gram-negative bacteria
non-hemolytic toxins
beta toxin
Chlamydophila pneumonia
--pneumonia--bacterial pathogen
Campylobacter jejuni
--Enteritis--bacterial pathogens
Electron microscope
scanning--surface structurestransmission--cell wall structuresup to 250,000x
H antigens
flagellarprotein composition
F antigens
fimbrialprotein composition
Streptolysin S
nonantigenic; oxygen-stabile
Strepolysin O
antigenic; oxygen-labile;
O antigens
somaticcarbohydrate composition
Clostridium Tetani
Teranus (a.k.a lockjaw)
Bacteria
Transmission: Wound contamination
TX: Antibiotics, supportive therapy
Vaccine: DTaP or Tdap, DT, Td
Anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria that produces a neurotoxin that causes the skeletal muscles to continuously contact and spasm. The toxin is often fatal. 
osteitis
bacterial infections of bone
capsules
--antiphagocytic--presence varies with environmental conditions--can be carb or protein--increase resistance of bacteria
R-plasmids
--involved in antimicrobial resistance--can transfer this resistance between strains of same species
E. coli biovar F
glucose
pyoderma
bacterial dermatitidesskin infection with suppurative exudate
Rickettsia rickettsii
obligate intracellular pathogenproliferates in vascular endothelial cellscauses vasculitis
dyspnea
difficulty breathing because consolidation of lung tissues; associated with bronchopneumonia
Fluorescein
fluorescent dye emitting yellowish-green light
Walter Reed
1900--discovered mosquitoes transmitted yellow fever virus--army surgeon
compound microscope
--Antony van Leeuwenhoek--400x
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
--Bacterium causing diphtheria--aerobic gram-positive bacillus
Rhodamine
fluorescent dye emitting reddish-orange light
Streptococcus Pneumonia
Streptococcus Pneumonia (a.ka. Pneumococcus)
Bacteria
Transmission: Resp. droplets 
Vaccine: PCV for infants, PPV for kids over 2 yrs. and adults
Its an alpha hemolytic species of strep bacteria. Can cause many pneumonia that can be fetal in infants, elderly ppl, immune compromised pt.  It can cause many cases of otis media in kids, meningitis, sinusitis, as well as blood, bone, and joint infections.  
Treponema Pallidum
Syphilis (bacterial STD)
TX: Antibiotics 
Caused by a spirochete bacterial infection. Primary stage (10-90 days after infection) is characterized by a painless "chancre" that can last from 4-6 weeks. Secondary syphilis (months after initial infection) is characterized by a generalized non-itchy body rash that can affect the palms and soles of feet, these symptoms can last from 2-4 weeks. Ppl are most infectious during secondary syphilis. Some ppl are asymptomatic during primary and secondary syphilis, but is when ppl are most easily tx w/antibiotics. Unborn babies infected during primary and secondary syphilis are often stillborn. Latent syphilis is entered after untreated 2nd. stage and it usually lasts 1-10yrs. Tertiary syphilis causes an immune response by the body that produces small tumor-like "gummas", which can damage any part of the body in which they develop. Antibiotic tx is more difficult and organ damage is permanent. Unborn children during latent stage can develop congenital syphilis as newborns and die if infection is untreated.  
50S subunit composition
--5S rRNA--23 rRNA--proteins
prototoxin
exotoxin released without biological activity; activated by proteolytic cleavage
Thymus-independent antigens
--carbohydrate--antibodies produced to these are IgM--no memory response
Thymus-dependent antigens
--protein--antibodies produced to these are IgG and IgM--memory response
antibiotcs: cell wall
penicillin, bacitracin, cephalosporins
Louis Pasteur
1880s--showed microorganisms were responsible for fermentation--created pasteurization--Father of Bacteriology
penicillin family
ampicillin, carbenicillin, penicillin G
endotoxin effects
fever, leukopenia, hyperglycemia, alternate complement pathway, disseminated intravascular coagulation, impaired blood ciruculation
temperature-dependent motility
Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Y. psuedotuberculosis--motile at 20C, nonmotile at 37C
hemolytic toxins
alpha, delta, epislon toxins
Human coronavirus
--Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome--Viral pathogen
fimbriae
--protein structural components that may or may not be present (depending on conditions)--F antigen--used for adherence and colonization
Fluorescent microscope
--uses ultraviolet light--react bacteria with antibody-fluorescent dye conjugate--used to identify Clostridium species
Jonas Salk
1955--developed killed polio vaccine
strain
represents the descendents derived from an initial single colony isolated from exogenous source such as pathologic lesion
Penicillium notatum
--monomorphic mold--beginning of antibiotics--wonder drug!
Exotoxin A
inhibits protein synthesis by enzymatic inactivation of elongation factor 2 (needed for assembly of peptides on mRNA template)
lysozyme
hydrolyzes peptidoglycan in cell walls of bacteria
double zone hemolysis
anaerobic = clostridium perfringensaerobic = staphylcoccus aureus
coagulase
tested in Staphylcoccus speciespos = pathogensneg = nonpathogens
coagulase positive straphylococci
pathogenic--marker of virulenceS. aureus, S. hyicus subspecies hyicus, S. intermedius
pyometra
accumulation of suppurative exudate in the lumen
Lancefield Group A
S. pyogeneshyaluronic acid capsule
streptodornase (A-D)
deoxyribonucleases that hydrolyze DNA; virulence factor in streptococcus
Tincture of iodine
--in ethanol--oxidizing agent, antiseptic--surfical scrub, decontaminate wounds
suppurative inflammation
intense concentration of infiltrated neutrophils at inflammatory focus and necrosis of host tissues
alveolar macrophages
fixed macrophages in the lungs
antiobitics: nucleic acids
rifampin, quinolones, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, sulfonalamides, trimethroprim
component vaccines
selected surface components of bacterial pathogens, which are protective immunogens; S. equi
antibiotics: cell membrane
polymxin B and E
oxidase test
--aerobic gram negative--tests for cytochrome C
Hans Gram
1884--develope staining method for bacteria
Techoic acids
--structural component of outer membrane on gram pos bacteriapurely structural, no real biological role--glycerol or ribitol base
transduction
fragment of dsDNA transferred via bacteriophage
Tissue culture applications
--In vitro propagation--Vaccine production--diagnostic procedures--obligate intracellular bacteria and animal viruses
live attenuated polio vaccine
--Albert Sabin--administered orally
obligate intracellular
--bacteria type that are cell-associated pathogens--gram-negative bacteria--stained with Gimenez and Gimesa stains
Trichinella Spiralis and other species
Trichinella (trichinosis) 
Nematode (roundworm)
Transmission: Food-borne
TX: Meds. for adult worms, nothing for cysts embedded in the muscles
Zoonotic infection. Adult worms mate and die in the large intestine but their offspring enter the lymphatic system and travel through the circulatory system to all parts of the body. The larvae curl up and themselves in a capsule (making a cyst) in the muscles of the host. 
Staphylococcus Aureus (Toxic Shock Syndrome) and/or Streptococcus Pyogenes (Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome or Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome)
Toxic Shock Syndrome 
Bacteria 
Transmission: surgical incisions and wounds of the skin; tampons
TX: antibiotics, supportive care
Staph. aureus and strep. pyogenes in the upper resp. tract, on the skin, and in the vagina are most commonly the cause of TSS. Yet only certain strains of these bacteria cause the illness, and many infected or colonized ppl never get TSS or STSS. TSS occurs 2-3 days after the infection starts, pt will develop a sun burn- like rash that covers the body and will eventually peel: signs of shock will continue, which can lead to death. Infection can reoccur, but usually in a more mild form. STSS occurs w/in a couple of days of a strep infection, when there is a wound infection that hasn't been cleaned, and where dead flesh isn't removed from the wound. A blotchy rash that may peel can appear.
fibrinous inflammation
exudate with excessive amount of fibrin
assacharolytic bacteria
can't metabolize carbs as energyget energy from other organic compounds
first bacteria in intestines
coliforms, enterococci, lactobacilli; anerobic bacteria take time to colonize
4 main families of bacteria
Chlamydiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Rickettsiaseae
mesophilic bacteria
bacteria grow best at temps 25C-40C
Streptokinases A and B
lyse fibrin (plasminogen-->plasmin); virulence factor in streptococcus that aids dispersion
Robert Koch
1880s--identified agents of TB in humans and cattle--developed set of rules to prove identity of disease-producing organism
bronchopneumonia
anterior and ventral portions of lungs affected first and foremost
Foot and Mouth Disease virus
ssRNA genomeIcosahedral capsulePicornavirus
Phagocytosis
theory that leukocytes have ability to engulg and kill disease-producing agents in the body
Brightfield binocular microscope
--two ocular lenses (10x)--two objective lenses *40x = high dry lens *100x = oil immersion lens
toxemia
presence of endotoxins or toxins in blood
streptococcus cellular arrangment
chainsS. pneumoniae is in pairs
E. coli biovar C
glucose, arginine, lysine, ornithine
ethylene gas
used for sterilization; good for things that get dull with heat (surfical instruments, drill bits)
chemotactic factors
C3a and C5a released during complement-mediated bacteriolysis
IgG structure
Gamma heavy chains2 Fab sitesMonomer: 180,000 MWhinge region (proline)
peritrichous flagella
flagella are distributed across entire cell
antibiotics that inhibit peptidglycan synthesis
penicillin (ampicilling, carbenicillin, penicillin G), bacitracin, cephalosporins
Mercury compounds used for antiseptic purpose
Merbromin, thimerosal
fermentative metabolism
yields 2 ATPinorganic and organic cmpds = electron acceptorsproducts = SCFAs and/or gas
Joseph Lister
1890s--used carbolic acid spray to disinfect wounds for surgery
Taenia saginata (beef), T. solium (pork), Diphyllobothriumlatum (fish), Hymenolepis nana (human dwarf tapeworm), H. diminuta (rodents), Echinococcus granulosus (dog)
Tapeworms (flatworm)
Transmission: Fecal-oral 
Tx: oral meds
Tapeworm infestations in humans are primarily a benign invasion of parasites that inhibit the intestines due to eating undercooked beef, pork, or fish. The pork tapeworm has been known to cause cystocercosis. Eggs ingested directly can develop into larvae that can migrate anywhere in the body. Humans are the dead end intermediate hosts for the dog tapeworm. 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
etiologic agent of TB most responsible for TB in humans
DPT Vaccine
D = Diptheria toxinP = Bordetella pertussis bacterinT = Tetanus toxoid
Bacitracin susceptibility test
Used to identify S. pyogenesS. pyogenes is susceptible to it
Lancefield Group C
S. equi subspecies equiHyaluronic acid capsule; M-protein
pleomorphic
spherical cell that is able to change or adapt its shape
porin protein
function to allow fusion of substrates for movement in and out of cellamino acids and carbs can fit through
psychophilic bacteria
bacteria grow best at temps below 20C
functions of cytoplasmic membrane
--synthesis of cellular components (membrane, peptidoglycan, capsule)--electron transport--structural integrity
Bacterial pathogen classification steps
Kingdom, division, class, order, gamily, genus, species, serovar, subspecies
Nocardia
--genus that can be stained by Kinyoun stain--can also be stained with Gram--partial acid-bast bacilli
Kinyoun stain steps
1. carbolfuchsin = primary stain2. tergitol = pentrate stain through cell wall3. acidic aqueous solution = decolorizer4. methylene blue = counterstain
mural and valvular endocarditis
bacterial colonization of endocardium and heart valves
Ziehl-Neelsen stain steps
1. Carbolfuschin = primary stain2. heat = penetration through lipid-rich cell wall3. acidic alcohol solution = decolorizer (doesn't work on mycobacterium)4. methylene blue = counterstain
shiga toxins I and II
inhibit protein synthesis by inactivating the 60S subunit of 80S ribosome
Vat method of pasteurization
--62C for 30 min--Low temp-long holding method--Hand canning
bacterial ribosomal characteristics
--no ER; free!--70S = 50S + 30S
killed polio vaccine
--grown in tissue culture using kidney cells from rhesus monkey--administered parentally--Jonas Salk
Kliger Iron Agar Culture
lactose on top; glucose on bottom
Quelling test
Pos = can see capsule of S. pneumoniae because the type-specific IgM antibodies outline it
gray hepatization stage of pneumonic lesions
period between initial consolidation of affected lung and its resolutionalveoli have fibrin and leukocytes
cell wall of gram negative bacteria
less peptidoglycan, 2 phospholipid bilayers, lipopolysaccharide, porin proteins
polar flagella
flagella found on one or both ends of cell
bacteria able to invade intact mucous membranes
Brucella species, some Leptospira serovars, L. monocytogenes
Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch
1898--found agent for foot and mouth disease in cattle
exotoxin complex of bacillus anthracis
Factor I = edema-producingFactor II = antiphagocytic activityFactor III = lethal effects
How do you classify aerobic gram positive bacteria?
based on catalase reactions and ability to metabolize glucose
what is unique to cell wall-free bacteria structure?
sterols in membraneslime layer (thin capsule around it)cytoplasmic membrane has bilayer, proteins, sterolsno peptidoglycan or outer membrane
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