Microbiology vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Poliovirus:species?
Picornaviridae
Protozoa (first...)
animals
Chryosophyta
Planktonic "floating""diatoms"
Earliest adaptive immunity
Sharks
lysol
more narrow spectrum
Rudolf Virchow
Present biogenesis
Phenetics:based on
Observable characteristics
Autoinduction
-luciferase regulatory synthesis-produce autoinducer-quorum sensing
How many complement proteins?
30
transformation
capsule, pneumonia-Griffith did this-naked DNA
Chlamydia psittaci
Disease: psittacosisCharacteristics: Occurs in parrot and parrot like birds
Waksman
discovered antibiotic streptomycin from soil streptomyces
Clostridium perfringens
(bacilli)
causes gas gangrene
Penicillin
BETA LACTUM ANTIBIOTICi. Active against many gram positive, some gram negativeii. Interferes with cell wall synthesis; causes burstiii. Can cause anaphylactic shockiv. Many resistant to penicillin produce beta lactamases; inactivate penicillinv. Numberous synthetic penicillin have been made
enterotoxigenic
bacteria penetrate intestinal epithelia --> makes enterotoxin --> gastroenteritis --> traveler's diarrhea
Microbial population reduced to acceptable levels (not spores)
Sanitation
Where would you find zygomycetes?
Soil
What inhibits synthesis of PMN's?
Chemicals/radiation
Methanopyrus
hydrothermal vents, distant relative of other methanogens
Parfocal
 
describes a microscope that retains proper focus when the objectives are changed
Spikes: anatomy
used for attachment..
Hemagglutinin: RBC attachment
Neuraminidase: cells
rickettsia
obligate intracellular parasite genus responsible for diseases including typhus rocky mountain spotted fever and ehrlichiosis.
animalia
multi-ceullular, ingest nutrients, no cell wall
able to withstand extreme temperatures
endospore
Flaviviridae
RNA viruscause West Nile fever
In Nitrification, the following oxidize nitrite to nitrate:
Nitrobacter
microbial load
number of viable microorganisms
fluoride
displaces hydroxyl ions in hydroxyapetite & reduces solubility of tooth enamel
cI encodes for ____
The repressor protein
Tyndall
Endospore, spore become resistant from heat
How is Norwalk virus transmitted
contaminated food/water
TLR7 and TLR8 PAMPs
Viral SS RNA
Class VII
Double-stranded DNA genome that replicates with RNA intermediate
antigen
substance which provokes an immune response; can be protein, glycoprotein, carbohydrate
transduction
mediated by viruses; random fragments of the partially degraded bacterial chromosome may be packaged into the virus, which can then move to another cell and inject the DNA into it
Enterotoxic strans
(non-invasive) produce a enterotoxin similar to cholera which induces fluid loss in small intestine.
Koch's postulates

1. The suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy animals

2. The suspected organism should be grown in pure culture Only one type of organism should be present

3. Inject pure culture à healthy host animal
Experimental animals develop same signs and symptoms as original diseased animal
4. The organism should be re-isolated and shown to be the same as the original  
vehicle
nonliving source of pathogens that infect large numbers of individuals; common vehicles are food and water
periplasmic gel
layer contains enzymes for digestion
separates outer and inner layer
inner layer has phospholipids
outer layer has LPS(lipopolysaccharide)
capsule stain
Capsule staining provides a contrasting background, so the capsules show up as light areas surrounding the stained cells.
can enter resting/dormant stage when non-favorable feeding conditions
cyst
IgG
the most common antibody circulating in the body-secondary response-gives you the longest immunity
Bronchial tree. As conducting tubes becomes smaller, the amount of smooth muscle ______
increases
What is malaria caused by?
Plasmodium sp.
IgA
2 antigen binding sites, important circulating antibody, distribution=secretions, monomer in blood and dimer in secretions4 antigen bidning sites, major secretory antibody
plaque
biofilm of polysaccharides + proteins + bacteria
What does reverse transcriptase PCR of mRNA yield?
cDNA
 
prevalence

the total number of existing cases with respect to the entire population
Name the 4 Opportunistic Yeast
Candida albicans
Crytococcus Neoformans
Pneumocystis jiroveci 
Aspergillus fumigatus 
selective medium
encourages growth of some but suppresses growth of othersEx. SPS agar (allows growth of C. botulinum but inhibits other Clostridum species)
Function/location of Langerhans cells
Suprabasal epidermis/Function as DC's
What is titer?
Relative concentration of Ab (1/dilution)
T/F: in aerobic respiration NO3- is the terminal electron acceptor
f
metabolic analogs
mimic the natural substrate and therefore vie for active site of enzyme and prevent it from binding substrate
Name 3 resistant bacteria that polymyxin B is still used for even with its toxicity.
 
Acinetobacter
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Klebsiella
 
Endospores are resistant to:
-nutrient depletion -extreme temp-desiccation (?)-Chemical dis-infections -UV radiation -Strong Acids & bases
Antimicrobial Agent
 
- stat
inhibits growth w/out killing
agent removed microbe can grow again 
Stages in transformation

•(Re)activation

–prepares spores for germination

–often results from treatments like heating

•Germination

–spore swelling

–rupture of absorption of spore coat

–loss of resistance

–increased metabolic activity

•Outgrowth

–emergence of vegetative cell
autoantibody
an antibody that reacts to self antigens
when symptoms typical of the disease are present, we refer to this as
illness
Chemiosmosis
 
during etp considerable energy is released.
energy is used to form a... m...
electron transport system, ATP molecules
Louis Pasteur
Microorganisms are present in the air. S-shaped flask. Pasteurization. Sterilization of food.
Opportunistic Microorganisms
Microorganisms that do not normally invade tissue but that are capable of causing infection or disease when introduced mechanically or when host resistance is lowered
Virus without envelope is said to be
Naked
about how many microbes live per square centimeter on our skin?
~100,000!
What does enteropathogenic E. Coli cause?
infantile dirrhea
eukaryote
cell that contains neclues and other organells
Periplasmic flagella (or Axial filament)
▪ Long, coiled threads(“internal flagella”) run along the length (axis) of the bacterial body in the periplasmic space (outside of cell membrane, but inside of cell wall)
Persistance Virus do?
gets in, gets copied, slowly,
buds off
Explain vertical gene transfer

Vertical gene transfer
When genes are passed from parents to offspring

Bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission
photosynthesis
capture of energy from light and use of this energy to manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide
microbial growth
the increase in the number of microbial cells occurring from cell division
White pulp is similar to what of LN?
Cortex
How are epitopes determined?
Protein sequence analysis (compare with databases, check for HLA-binding peptides, look for coils, transmembrane segments, etc.)
2 ATP
1 x succinate -> 1 x fumarate
What makes up tircarcillin?
 
DOC for?
penicillin & sulfur ring
 
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other infections it causes
 
2-4x more effective that carbenicillin
Below Tm
the farther below Tm, the increased likelihood that DNA strands with mismatches will be able to associate; closer you get to the Tm of strands, more similar the strands need to be to associate
emerging virus
new viruses that are being more prominent
Adaptation of Acidophiles & Alkalophiles

•most acidophiles and alkalophiles maintain an internal pH near neutrality

–some use proton (H+)/ion exchange mechanisms to do so

•some synthesize proteins that provide protection

–e.g., acid-shock proteins (chaperones)

•many microorganisms change pH of their habitat by producing acidic or basic waste products

–most media contain buffers to prevent growth inhibition
specificity
the ability of the immune response to interact with individual antigens
oncogenesis: what is it
initiators of cancermass producingcan cause tumorscaused by a binding of a piece of the viral dna to the nucleus of the host
coenocytic
fungi that has broken down septa and they share cytoplasm
 
Three categories of organisms that makeup normal flora of body
Resident floraTransient FloraOpportunists
form of release when a non envoloped and complex viruses released when the cell dies and ruptures
lysis
What type of virus usually animal virus?
enveloped virus
How do you treat ringworm?
topical, nonprescription antifungal (miconazole, clotrimazole) or oral (griseofulvin or ketoconazole)
What is the cause of whooping cough?
Bordetella pertussis
Catalase test
the first biochemical test used for the identification of aerobic gram positive bacteria; catalase decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
What are Streptococcus pyogenes exotoxin virulence factors?

Streptolysis - lysis RBC (Cause Blood Agar reaction - Beta Hemolysis)

Erythorogenic Toxin - causes scarlet fever, red rash
The phase when growth stops, but cell function continues. Nutrients depleted, wastes accumulated
Stationary phase
Describe the differences between competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition:
-In non-competitive inhibition, the inhibitor and the substrate at on different enzyme sites. An example of this is allosteric inhibition, where the inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site, which causes te active site to deactivate or distort.
-In competitive inhibition, an inhibitor which is sturcturally similar to the substrate competes with it for the active site, blocking the real substrate from binding to the enzyme.
cell walls of archaea
-some may entirely lack cell walls-some may have unusual walls that lack true peptidoglycan (pseudomurein instead)
neutrophiles
organism that grows best at pH of 5.4 to 8.5
On what chromosomes are TCR genes located?
beta=7, alpha/delta=14, gamma=7
how is energy captured?
=pigments (2 types) 1) cholophyll: oxygenic phototrophs2) Bacteriochlorophyll: anoxygenic phototrophs -Pigment color: transmitted light-Energy: absorbed light-Ex: chlorophyll a is green b/c it does not absorb green light
What is the DOC for VRE?
Linezolid
 
alternate for SERIOUS MRSA
Symptoms of Strep Throat:
High fever, coughing, swollen lymph nodes and tonsils, fiery red throat. Complication- can also infect middle ear called otitis media

Spiral Bacteria shapes

•Vibrios - curved rods



•Spirilla - 2 or more twists



•Spirochetes - corkscrew shaped

complement
a series of proteins that react in a sequential manner with antibody-antigen complexes to amplify or potentiate antibody activity
 
Chrysophyta
g... b, y... g...
include d...
which are major component of p......
include d... e...
golden brown, yellow green
include diatoms: shells of silicon dioxide (two halves overlap)
diatoms are major component of phytoplankton
diatomaceous earth: filtering material
magnification
the number of times larger an image is compared to the object
Virus not use RNA as its genome
e.g. smallpox virus
How does Listeria monocytogenes move?
rocketing movement through host cells
What are the virulence factors of mycoplasma pneumoniae?
cross reacting antibodies
What is their heat stability?

Exotoxins - heat labile (unstable)
Endotoxins - heat stable (boil for 1hr still toxic)
When foreign DNA is inserted into a plasmid in HGH, what is inactivated?
the lacZ gene
What kind of environment do halophiles prefer to live in?
-high osmotic pressure environments
Give the make up of Rhinovirus
1.  (+) ssRNA
2.  Icosahedral nucleocapsid
3.  Nonenveloped
 
Cardinal features of inflammation
Redness, Swelling, Heat, Pain and Loss of function
What kind of bacteria does anoxigenic photosynthesis?
-purple nonsulfur bacteria-green sulfur bacteria-purple sulfur bacteria-heliobacteria
What does MBC determine?
the amount of antibiotic needed to kill the bacteria
 
 
Growth Rate Constant
measure of the # of generations that occur per unit time in an exponentially growing culture 
 
k=1/g
 
d=kt
k = growth rate constant
t = time
 
d = t/g
or
g = t/d
g = generation time
What are streptokinases?
exotoxins of group a strep that break up the neurtrophil net
certain cilia serve a s... f...
 
unique to ciliates is the presence of two types of n... , the m... and m...
 
both function in r... m... by mitosis and m.. by pinching apart to yield d... c...
sensory function
 
nuclei, micronuclei & macronuclei
 
reproduction. micronucleus-mitosis,
macronucleus- daughter cells
Golden Age of Virology
1980's-1990's. Time period where huge advancements in techniques for studying viruses were made
How does one get C. psittaci?
Inhaling feces from infected birds
How do you diganose pharyngitis?
quick strep ELISA, culture (beta hemolytic, bacitracin sentsitive)
Amino acid (substrates)
has an amino group and a carboxyl group; polypeptides and proteins are composed of amino acids
Genetic material DNA and RNA
all instructions for making more viral particles
What is an endergonic reaction?
-An endergonic reaction is a reaction that requires energy to initiate it
A chronic HBV infection can give you ______, & _______ ____________
Cirrohosis & hepatocellular carcinoma
which domain has bidirectional synthesis 
Bacteria and archaeal due to circular DNA 
 
archeal does not have histones 
Discuss the five types of fungal diseases based on the location in the body.
1)Systermic mycoses: deep within body
2)Subcutaneous mycoses: beneath skin
3)Cutaneous mycoses: (dermatopytosis) affect hair, skin, nails
4)Superficial mycoses: localized on outermost skin layers/hair shaft
5)Opportunistic mycoses: caused by normal microbiota or fungi that are normally norpathogenic
 
Growth curve in batch culture
-batch culture started in flask broth and bacteriaLag Phase (building up preparing) --> Ex G phase --> Stationary Phase --(sporalation begins, nutrition levels drops)--> death phase
What are the characteristics of toxic shock syndrome?
colonization elsewhere, toxin enters bloodstream, body-wide effects
most are saprobes, whic means
 
some are parasites, meaning
 
fungal contamination common in a... foods
they live on dead organic matter
 
they thrive on living things and causes diseases
 
acidic
Double stranded DNA viral life cycle
"early" genes are transcribed and subsequently translate, creating viral enzymes necessary for later steps"late" genes are transcribed, and viral DNA is replicated "late" translation synthesizes capsid proteinsCapsid proteins migrate into the nucleus, where maturation occurs ( virions are constructed)Release of viral particles occurs through the endoplasmic reticulum via budding and does not need to kill the cell
what is post exposure prophylaxis?
already exposed to rabies, then they give you a vaccination
What are the ways you can screen urine specimen for bacteria?
dipstick, filter staining
If the repressor protein is inactive, it results in:
the induction of the lytic cycle
How do you get diardiasis? 
Where does it attach in the Intestine?
Contaminated food or water
In the small intestine 
In what molecule do chemokines induce a change?
Integrins (unwind for clearer binding to ICAM)
O2 0.01% outside the cell, 1% inside the cytoplasm
Facilitated diffusion would not workSimple diffusion would not workActive transport does not need to be involved
Cell wall of bacteria divided into
Gram -

•Gram Negative (G-)

–Thin layer of peptidoglycan

–Has outer lipid layer

–Stain red in Gram stain

 

•More complex than G+ cell wall

•Has thin layer of peptidoglycan

•Lacks teichoic acid

•Contains LPS (lipopolysaccharide)
- Antigen in G-     - Provide negative charge
•Antibiotic susceptibility:

–Penicillin resistance




 

•Outer membrane is a barrier to transport

•Provide protection against:

–antibiotics

–digestive enzymes

•Is more permeable than plasma membrane due to porin proteins (e.g. let glucose through)

 
Thicker periplasmic space 

 
Flagella basal body composed of 4 rings 
What leads to localized type III hypersensitivity reactions?
deposition of immune complexes in blood vessels
How do you prevent herpes simplex virus?
prevent direct contact with lesions, good hand washing
What is the gram stain of clostridium difficile?
anaerobic gram positive spore former
what are the two types of viral penetration?
engulfment (creates a vesicle that breaks down along with the rest of the virus), membrane fusion (virus loses envelope to membrane and rest of it breaks down)
What is glycerol metabolized by? What are fatty acids metabolized by?
glycerol by glycolysis, fatty acids by beta oxidation (to form acetyl CoA which is then oxidized via Kreb cycle for more energy)
Differences in glucose products from fermentation and TCA
Fermentation ( 2 NADH and 2 ATP)TCA :-2 NADH*-2 ATP2(4 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP)** denotes use in ETC
What is the major characteristic of the lymphatic system?
it is very permeable (easy flow betweenblood system)
What are the variable tips on antibodies?
they bind antigens (different for each antibody)
What are the virulence factors of clostridium difficile?
toxin A (causes diarrhea), toxin B (cell destruction), stops bowel movement
Is mitotic spindle found in prok, euk, or both?
found only in eukaryotes during cell division
What is bacteremia? how does this happen?
prescence of bacteria in blood; get in through invasive procedures (tooth pulled) or wounds
Which particle is the most important in Hep B? why?
dane particle; its the one that can infect
What type of microscope can magnify an organism 1000-2000x, but does not have good resolution?
light microscope - can use UV or infrared
On what chromosomes are the Ig genes located?
H = 14, kappa = 2, lambda = 22
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