Middle Ages 44 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
burgher
townsperson
Manor
lord's estate
Mass
Worship service
Middle Ages
500-1500 A.D.
Haste
quickness of action
kenning
like a stock epithet
serf
peasants on a manor
Deforestation
the clearing of forests
excommunicate
cast out of the church
lesser lord
who is a vassal
Clovis
Founder of the Frankish kingdom
Dufay
A transitional composer. Occasionally used secular tunes as a basis for his compositions rather than traditional Gregorian Chant. Early works use isorythmic techniques but he later abandoned them for free-flowing rhythimc schemes.
western schism
end of papal supremacy
urban ii
French ecclesiastic: pope 1088–99.
Feudalism led to...
higher standards of living
childrens' crusade
led by stephen of cloyes
Medieval
another word for the dark ages
Capital
money for investments, spurred the growth of banking houses; banking houses were needed when merchants pooled their money together to finance big projects that would have been impossible for individual traders
Valkyries
beautiful warrior maidens who who bring soldiers to Valhalla and serve them
Syllabic
one note per syllable, simplest form
The church in Europe dominated intellectual and cultural life in the Middle Ages. (true or false)
true
Aachen
Capital of Charlemagne's empire, c. 800; a city in present-day Germany
sepulchre
a tomb, grave, or burial place.
icon
holy pictures of Jesus and the Saints
Benedict
A Roman official who founded a monastary in Monte Cassino Italy. He created the Benedictine Rule.
John Huss
Bohemian professor who taught the authority of the Bible; burned at the stake in 1415
Franks
Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul and established a great empire during the middle ages (now it's called france)
coat of arms
sign that identifies the knight
Kent
the most powerful of the British independent kingdoms. Ruled by the Christian Queen Bertha and King Ethelbert
Knight
a mounted warrior who had great prestige in the Middle Ages; they dominated warfare in Europe
chivalry
required knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word
Angle-Saxons
two germanic tribes who settled in Britain;
it became Angle-land today known as England
Neumatic
Refers to the term "neumes" (the notation system at the time). Indicates two or three notes per syllable.
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Spanish Inquisition
the Inquisition that guarded the orthodoxy of Catholicism in Spain (especially from the 15th to the 17th centuries)
monk
also called diocese; a group of parishes headed by a bishop --- his area of authority is called this
CHIVALRY
CHIVALRY WAS THE KNIGHT'S CODE OF HONOR.
Vassal
a person holding a fief/ had to provide military protection to his lord
Renaissance
The period of rebirth of learning in Europe between about 1300 and 1600, the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
Martin V
pope chosen by the Council of Constance; this decision ended the Great Schism
Services
Things done for other people in the church
Apprentice
a trainee in a particular trade; a long process that youngsters went through to obtain membership in a guild (around 7 or 8 yrs. of age)
Age 14
Squire. Servant to the knight. Took care of armor, horse, weapons and escorted the knight to battle
Chain Mail
interlinked rings of metal forming a flexible piece of armor worn by knights
Fealty
The bond between the warrior and his chieftain.
100 years war
struggles between the French and English
Guilds
an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards- wanted all members to have equal opportunity- discouraged innovation; security and quality more important than profit- often worked at trading fairs
nun
a female who dedicates her life to God; avoids the things of the world
Westwork
The front entrance of the church; the facade and towers at the western end of a medieval church, principally in Germany
fedualism
a political system in which nobles, or lords, are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king. in return nobles owe loyalty and military service to the king and protection to the people who live on there estates
fief
middle ages a property given to a vassal in exchange for his loyalty
gothic
noting or pertaining to a style of architecture, originating in France in the middle of the 12th century and existing in the western half of Europe through the middle of the 16th century, characterized by the use of the pointed arch and the ribbed vault,
In Aniani
Arrested pope and starved him, and he died of shock
Homage
Oath of the loyalty sworn to a higher lord
aside
makes comment not meant to be heard by others on stage
Scholastica
lived in the Sabine hills as a hermit; wrote a book describing rules for monastic life; emphasized balance between work and study
abbot
the head of an abbey for men; superior of a monastery
Odoacer
He led the fall of the western roman empire leaves a huge gap in western Europe
Wh odid Pepin III defeat when he led his army into Italy?
Lombards.
Charelmagne
King of the Franks from 768 to 814 A.D., and the emperor of Rome from 800 to 814 A.D.
Hanseatic League
A group of northern German cities and towns that worked together to promote and protect trade. Controlled most of the trade between Europe, Russia and the Baltic region.
Lord
in the middle ages, a noble who owned and controlled all activities on his manor
Pope Urban II
Wanted to increase his power in Europe and split the Roman and Byzantine churches. Wanted the Christian nights to fight so they don't fight each other.
Pepin the Short
He was Charles Martel's son. He was king and the Pope asked him for help against the Lombards who were invading. Pepin helps him and defeats them and in turn, the Pope names him king of the Franks. Then Pepin gives the Pope land called the Papal States.
Queen Elizabeth II
The Sydney Opera House was opened by this person.
band of warriors
every Germanic chief led a ___ who pledged their loyalty
What is a monastery?
A place where monks live together to pray, study, and work.
Peter the Hermit
Man sent in 1095 from the patriarch to the pope in Rome asking for help in dealing with Muslim invasions
Henry IV (HRE) and Pope Gregory VII Fight
1075 A.D.
King does lay investiture
Pope yelled at King
King removed Pope from being Pope
Pope excommunicates King
King begs for Pope forgiveness
Pope undoes excommunication
Fought again two years later
King runs Pope out of office and replaces him
Both Dye- No problem solved
What was a manor?
A village on the fief of a noble. It had everything it needed and peasants to work the land.
What was the major long-term effect of ongoing conflicts among German princes and between German Kings and the pope
Germany did not become a unified nation state during the middle ages
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