Middle Ages 45 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
warriors
makers
Curtain
stone wall
Burgs
Medieval towns
fief
piece of land
lance
a steel-tipped spear
William Shakespeare
who wrote Macbeth?
abbesses
head of a convent
patron
supporter of the arts
convent
a commuity where nuns live
who claimed the throne second
Harold
Pepin
2nd king of the Franks
Motets
Three, four, or five-voice compositions poplar during the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance. Most early ones were sacred, while later ones could be also be secular.
Leonin
Organum composer from Notre Dame
louis ix
king of France 1226–70.
Leo
(400-461)
Kept the Huns out of Rome
vassal
person who is given a fief
Vassalage
relationship between him and his lord
Tournaments
contest where knights could fight; useful in helping knights train for war
cobbler
someone that made and sold shoes
Palestrina
Is credited for saving polyphonic music from the Council of Trent.
Sunni
was the most important Muslim group
Crypt
An underground chamber, vault serving as burial place
Christendom
Gregory strengthened the vision of ___
franks
direct and unreserved in speech; straightforward; sincere:
cathadic
a word meaning universal or "all embracing"
Friars
Members of a Catholic order who preached in towns and practiced poverty.
Inquisition
tribunal held by the Church to suppress heresy
knight
an armoured warrior who fought on horseback
Missi Dominici
Royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's laws
lord's obligations
protection, legal defense and keeping the peace, sustenance provided by the fief
Monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to God
charter
written documents that set out rights and privileges of the town
Santa Sophia
a beautiful church in Constantinople built by Justinian
Gabrieli
A music master at St. Mark's Cathederal in Venice, one of the greatest musical jobs on the planet at the time.
Page
age=7, sent to castle to begin training, learned chess, used a wooden sword, learned good manners, learned to ride a horse, ran errands for nobles
haiku
an epigrammatic Japanese verse form of three short lines
Clovis
one of the Frankish leaders who brought Christianity to the rest of Europe
estates
another term for "classes" of people [the clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), townspeople & peasants (third estate)]
feudalism
system of government based on land ownership and personal loyalty; nobles offered protection and land in return for service. began in 3/4th century in roman empire.
RENAISSANCE
THE RENAISSANCE WAS THE PERIOD OF HISTORY KNOWN AS REBIRTH OR INTEREST IN PAST CULTURES.
Battle of Actium
battle between Marcus Antony and Octavian for control of the empire. Octavian won in 31 B.C.
Charlemagne
A brilliant warrior and a strong king who led the Franks in building a huge empire.
Council of Constance
Under support of Emeperor Sigismund, cardinal, bishops, abbots, and theologians from across Europe came to solve the Great Schism; its goal was to reform the church in hopes of never seeing a second schism occur; elected an Italian pope, Martin V and ended the schism
Reconquista
long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain
spanish inquisition
an ordanization of priests in spain that looked for and punished anyone suspected of secretly practicing thier old religion.
serfs
peasants of the manor, bound to the land
Clergy
Men who performed the services of the church helped people follow rules of how to live
Feudal Contract
an unwritten set of rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal - the major obligation was to perform military service (40 days a year)
tithe
a church tax that villagers owed to the village priests
Divine Comedy
Written by Dante Alighieri Was written in Italian and his dialect became the standard of the Italian language.
Feudalism's Decline
wealth and ability was not a birthright
Cathederal
A church headed by the bishop or Patriarch.
serf
peasants on a manor; they were bound to the land; they were not slaves who could be bought and sold—still they were not free
Byzantine Period
Eastern Roman Empire; refers to the period of Roman history when the capital city was located at Constantinople, which was founded by Emperor Constantine in A.D. 330. During this time, Greek was the primarily spoken language, and the old pagan (polytheistic) Roman religions were outlawed and replaced in favor of Christianity
The person who was chiefly responsible for increasing the Church's secular role during the middle ages was
Gregory I
Magna Carta
A legal document written by English lords in 1215 that stated certain rights and limited the power of the King
canterbury tales
an uncompleted sequence of tales by Chaucer, written for the most part after 1387.
Treaty of Ramia was part of the ____ crusade
3rd
apostrophe
speaking to an object as if it could respond
Canon Law
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
portcullis
a grating of iron or wooden bars or slats suspended in the gateway of a fortified place and lowered to block passage
What is Fioretti's story?
Francis miraculously tames a fierce wolf and he makes peace between the wolf and the townspeople.
William the Conqueror
Norman king; in 1066 he defeated Harold, the Anglo-Saxon king, to become the first Norman king of England.
Papal States
Region in central Italy that was under control of the pope.
Fief/manor
-a piece of land held under the feudal system
-the fief usually consisted of land and the labor of peasants who were bound to cultivate it. The income it provided supported the vassal, who fought for his lord as a knight.
-the district over which a lord had domain and could exercise certain rights and privileges in medieval western Europe
Joan of Arc
maid who led France during the 100 Years' War, rallied France and changed the course of the war
they are from scandinavia, very good traders, sailers, farmers. looted and burned coasts of Europe
Who are the vikings?
Parliament of 1295
Edward I invited 2 knights from every country & 2 representatives from each town to meet to make new taxes; 1. House of Lords 2. House of Commons
King John I
King of England from A.D. 1199 to 1216; in 1215 he signed the Magna Carta.
the Venerable Bede
English monk who wrote a history of England
Who were the Normans?
The tribe that fought the Vikings and gave their name to Normandy (in Northern France).
Effects of the collapse of Rome
1. Downfall of cities
2. Disruption of trade
3. Population Shift
4. Decline of Learning
5. Loss of Common Language
6. Franks emerge as the strongest tribe in Europe.
what happend by 700 A.D.
they controlled a large part of Europe (the Franks)
What was the First crusade?
The first war to push the Muslims out of the holy land. Over 3,000 knights and many lords from France, Germany and Italy fought. It was the most successful Crusade.
What did the development of various languages in the Western Europe demonstrate?
It minored the continued break up of the Roman Empire
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