Middle Ages 49 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gui
Matins
morning, before daybreak
Gothic Period (time)
1000-1150
Vere Dignum
-plainchant-reciting tone-three sentences, in phrases, last phrase in lower reciting tone. - preface for mass on Whit Sunday
motet
polyphonic song with originally religious meaning
paraphrase
embellishing plainchant by adding notes
Neumatic
small number of notes per syllable
Trouveres
northern france, 13th century, spoke "langue d'oil"- medieval french which turned into modern french
Hermannus Contractus
Benedictine monk, musician and theorist alive in the first half of the 11th c.
 
Composed many antiphons including Alma Redemptoris Mater and wrote an important treatis which dealt systematically with modes
cauda
Long, textless passages at the beginning, end, or before important cadences of polyphonic conductus.
 
These often introduced rhythmic contrasts and featured preexisting clausulae
Alleluia
A responsorial chant, which occurs just after the Gradual and just before the Sequence in the Catholic mass.
 
The word Alleluia is Hebrew word for praise.
 
The typical format for alleluia is to have a soloist sing the word "Alleluia", followed by choir echoing the soloist on Alleluia, with a melismatic extension on "ia" known as the jubilus.  Then the soloist sings an entire psalm verse with the chorus joining on the last phrase.  The "Alleluia" is again sung by the soloist, and joined in by the choir on the jubilus.
 
Alleluias feature a highly integrated musical style as opposed to being improvised.
 
 
The entire form is as follows: Solo Alleluia, Choral Alleluia + jubilus - Solo verse (often with choral conclusion ) - [solo alleluia] - Chroal Alleluia + jubilus.
 
troubadours
poet-composers who came from south france
Ballata
14th century italian song genre with the form AbbaA, in which A is the ripresa or refrain, and the single stanza consists of two piedi (bb) and a volta (a) sung to the music of the ripresa
Goliards
students or clerics who migrated from school to school before universities were established
estampie
one line dances where musical phrases are repeated in variation
Graduale
a liturgical book which contains all the music for the Roman-Catholic mass (both Proper and Ordinary)
Single-texted motet
Also known as the conductus-motet, defined by Johannes de Grocheo around 1300 as three or four-voiced motet in which the upper voices all sing the same text, thus forming conductus-like texture above the tenor
Franconian motet
13th C Composer introduced differences in style between each voice of the motet, so that each is in a different rhythmic mode, usually slow to fast from the bottom up
sequence
Long textless melismas which were used as extensions or additions to chant.
 
Particularly added to the jubilus of the Alleluia.
 
Called sequentia cum prosa when text is included
organum
medieval polyphony most often based on a canuts firmus
 
imitative polyphony
Quant En Moi
Guillaume De Machaut(1300-1377) - motetplainchant repeated, with two love poems, with faster
Cantus Firmus
"fixed melody", usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
Magnus Liber Organi
"The Great Book of Polyphony", combined by Leonin and Perotin, series of elaborate polyphonic compositions for the main feasts of the church year, based directly on plainchant
Antiphoner
The music for the offices is collected in this book - also called antiphonale
Virelai
first appeared in France near the end of the 13th c.
 
A three-voice example appears amongst the rondeaux of Adam de la Hale, monophonic examples appear in the Roman de Fauvel.
 
The derivation of the form is unclear.  It may come from the Cantigas de Santa Maria or from 13th c Italian lauda.
 
Its form is as follows: refrain -verse 1 - refrain - verse 2 - refrain - verse 3- refrain. 
 
Verses are cast in pedes cum cauda form.  The two pedes use the same music, though sometimes the first has an open cadence and the second a closed cadence.  The music for the cauda is the same as the music for the refrain.
 
The overall form of a three verse virelai then is: AbbaAbbaAbbaA (A = refrain, b = pedes, a = cauda)
Phillipe de Vitry
1291-1361.  Bishop of Meaux, and French composer and poet, he wrote a treatise on Ars nova, or the "new art" 1322-23).
 
This new style included: acceptance of the duple division of long and breve along with triple, and the use of four or more semibreves as equal to one breve, as Petrus de Cruce was doing in his motets
Pastourelle (pasrorela)
troubadour form of poetry (vers) which portrays the often witty dialog between a shepherdess and a knight who tries to seduce her
Notre Dame
became a major cultural center through a confluence of political, religious and educational events in the 12th c.
 
The Notre Dame School of composition (as embodied by Leonin and Perotin) became the source of an international style that remained in vogue until the 14th c.
 
This style had its genesis in the music and liturgy of Notre Dame and featured not only the birth of organum purum but also the later codificatio of rhythmic notation, and the birth of the motet
Alleluia Diffua Est Gratia
Artist: Perotin (the Great)c. 1200-starts with Gregorian Plainchant, then goes into the organum- early polyphony, organum
ars nova
"new art"  changes in musical style in the 14th century
Chanson de geste
song of deeds, epic narrative poem recounting the deeds of heroes, simple melodic formula, passed down orally, song of Roland
Montpellier Codex
The largest and most sumptuous of the original motet manuscript sources from motets of 2nd half of the 13th c.
 
Probably compiled c. 1300.
 
Only polyphonic motets occur in this text.
 
Such motets include French and Latin double motets, Latin triple motets, macaronic double motets, Fr, 2-part motets.
 
There are no siorhythmic motets. and examples though anonymous have eventually been attributed to Adam de la Halle, Petrus de Cruce, and even works of Perotin
 
 
Hildegard of Bingen
abess of Rupertsbeg in germany. first woman composer for whom a large number of works have survived.
reciting tone
a single note to which each verse of text in a psalm tone is rapidly chanted, also called the tenor.
 
The note chosen depended upon the mode in which the psalm was chanted
how did organum begin?
2nd improvised melodic line moving in paralell motion with the melody usually at the interval of a fourth or a fifth
Ut queant laxis
hymn set by Guido so that the notes C-D-E-F-G-A fell on syllables Ut through La.
 
this was the basis of his system of hexachords
Weelkes: As Vesta was from Latmos Hill Descending
thomas weelkes 1575- 1623english madrigal
Why is it called Gregorian Chant?
named after Pope Gregory the first who reorganized the catholic liturgy.
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