MIDI Flashcards

Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Terms Definitions
Master only..?
Transmits
Omni
Omni on Poly
Slave Devices only...?
Receive
What is Message 7?
Volume
What is Message 1?
Modulation
Bob Mooge
Supported MIDI Standard
Trigger-To-Midi has less ________
Latency
What is controller #64?
Sustain
What is controller #7?
Volume
What note number is C1?
24
What is Message 32?
Bank Select
C Note is note number?
60
How Many MIDI Channel
16 Channel
Which multi-timbral mode allows control over stereo output?
Pan
Who coined the term Sequencer?
Robert Moog
What is Message 121?
Reset All Controllers
Automatically Assigns notes of Polyphony to each channel as they are needed.
Dynamic Allocation.
What port does Master Use?
Out Port
How many patches in a bank?
128
5 most common controllers?
0,32-Bank Select 1-Modulation7-Volume10-Pan64-Sustain
1 001 0001what information is represented in these numbers?
Message
Which multi-timbral mode allows the ability to change pitch?
Tuning
______ ______ automatically assigns notes of polyphony to each channel as they are needed in real time
Dynamic Allocation
What synthesis type involves analyzing a sound and then recreating it using additive synthesis? (hardware intensive)
ReSynthesis
How many midi channels are there?
16
What note number is Middle C (C4)
60
Serial Protocol
31.25 kbaud OR 31,250 Baud
Process of moving data to a predetermined spot
Quantize
Pitch-To-Midi
Converting an analog signal or sound into a MIDI message
What synthesis type involves combining indexed waveforms and can be found in Reason?
Graintable Synthesis
System Common Messages?
Tune RequestSong SelectSong Position Pointer (SPP)MIDI Time Code (MTC)
Software is typically known as a ________ sequencer
Non-Dedicated
What does LSB stand for?
Least Significant Byte
1 001 0001 what information is represented in these numbers?
Channel
Trigger-To-Midi?
Using a key/button/knob to generate a MIDI message
What synthesis type involves removing overtones from the overall sound?
Subtractive Synthesis
Channel Voice Messages?
Note OnNote OffProgram ChangeMono Pressure Poly PressurePitch BendControllers
What is Mode 4 Most used for?
MIDI Guitars
What is a sample?
A Recording Triggered by MIDI
What are the Disadvantages of a Hardware Sampler?
Lower Memory
What numbering system is used for SYS EX Data?
Hexadecimal
What does MIDI stand for?
Musical Instrumental Digital Interface.
Pin 4 Carrys?
+ 5 Bias Voltage (Data Checker)
The Max Length of a MIDI Cable
50 Ft
Which Port Passes information to the next devices?
Thru Port
What does ppqn Stand For?
Parts Per Quarter Notes
_____ ______ changes some aspect of sound depending on how fast you strike the keys (Volume, Pan, Filter, etc)
Velocity Switching
What synthesis type involves changing the phase angle of a waveform to create a different sounding wave? (Combining additive and FM synthesis)
Phase Distortion Synthesis
System Real Time Messages?
Timing Clock (MIDI Beat Clock)StartContinueStopActive SensingSystem Reset
What is the most basic wiring configuration in MIDI?
Daisy Chaining
List the Exclusive Messages:
Start of Exclusive (F0h)Manufactures IDProduct IDDevice IDProgram DataEnd of Exclusive (F7h)
What was the first hardware sequencer called?
The Circle Machine
What are the Advantages of a Software Sampler?
Higher Memory
What is Truncating?
Cutting off the silence at the beggining and the downbeat at the end of a sample
What are the Advantages of a Hardware Sampler?
Higher Stability
The Ability to play more than one Note at a time?
PolyPhonic
Which Pin on a MIDI Cable Carry data?
Pin 5
Group That Defines Standards for MIDI
MMA (Midi Manufacturer Association
What Function reduces data load by 30% by removing redundant status Bytes?
Running Status(Haui)
What synthesis type involves recording of analog sounds into digital format? (realistic sounds-most common)
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation)
What is the corresponding Voltage Control unit for Pitch?
Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
True or False : Patch Mapping is only a function of a slave device.
TRUE
The max amount of notes the device can play at one time is known as...
Polyphony
How many patches are found in a bank?
128 (0-127)
In which message category does all notes off belong?
Channel Mode Message
What is PPQN?
Parts Per Quarter Note. It measures the accuracy of the timing of your recording
Which of the Location Synch Formats are Relative?
SPP and MIDI Synch
What is MIDI beat clock?
Keeps multiple sequencers locked to the same tempo at 24ppqn
What is the Most Common Mode
Mode 3. Omni Off Poly
Multi Timbral Mode
allows a device to receive MIDI on more than one channel.
What Range of Value do we get with one Data Byte?
0-127
If the msb is 0 What type of byte?
Data Byte
What does DIN stand for?
Douche Industry Norm (aka Deutsche Industry Norm)
What is the max length of a midi cable?
50 feet
What is the circuit that is used to shape sounds over time?
Envelope Generator
What is a Zone?
2 or more instruments with note ranges that overlap
What are the MIDI Realtime Messages?
Start, Stop, Continue, and Active Sensing
What are the controller categories?
0-31 Low Res Controllers, 32-63 High Res Controllers, 64-95 Switches, 96-119 Various/Effects, 120-127 Modes
Utility designed to tell the computer what MIDI interface + Hardware is being used, as well as sound card/connections are built into what systems?
Mac OS X + higher,
Which Pins on a MIDI Cable are Actually Used?
Pins 2, 4, 5
The last bit in a Byte is called
lsb (least significant bit)
What is middle C known as on a midi board?
C4 (#60)
At what point is there no pops or clicks?
Zero Crossing Point
What are the most common controllers?
0,32 Bank Select1 Modulation Wheel7 Volume10 Pan64 Sustain Pedal
What is a root note?
The note in which the sample playback will be the same pitch and tempo as the original
What are the three methods of transferring SYS EX Data?
Direct Transfer (manual), Request For Data (sequencer's request), and Handshaking (Continuous Request)
The C note is also known as
Middle C, C4, MIDI note 60
A Status Byte for a channel Voice Message tells us what 2 pieces of information?
MIDI message, and MIDI channel
What is the baud rate of a midi cable?
31.25 (or 31,250 baud)
What are the two types of MIDI Time Code Messages?
Full Frame and Quarter Frame
What role does RAM play in Samplers?
Samples are recorded and loaded into the RAM, it affects your record time
What are the 4 midi receive modes?
1)Omni ON Poly2)Omni ON Mono3)Omni OFF Poly4)Omni OFF Mono
What are the 7 Channel Voice Messages?
Note On, Note Off, Pitch Bend, Pitch Change, Channel Pressure, Note Pressure, and Controllers
What is the relationship between pitch and tempo?
It is a direct relationship, when one goes up, the other goes up
What are possible tick Value for 1/8 notes for 440 ppqn
0 and 240 (divide ppqn in half)
What Information is coming out of MIDI Output that is a slave Device?
None (There is no MIDI data Being Transmitted thru a slave)
What are the Four MIDI Modes in Order?
Omni On POLY, Omni On MONO, Omni Off POLY, OMNI OFF MONO
Two ways to save Sys Ex Data?
On a disk or on a track in a sequencer
USI
Universal Synthesizer Interface
Mono
Omni Off Mono
Binary =
Base 2
What is Message 64?
Sustain
What is Message 127?
Poly
What is Message 10?
Panning
What does pitch equal?
"Tempo!"
Controller #1 is what?
Modulation
Pitch-To-Midi is more _________
Expressive
LFO modulation of VCO?
Vibrato
How many possible banks?
16,384
What is Message 0?
Bank Select
What is Message 122?
Local On/Off
What is Message 124?
Omni Off
Omni On
Receive on All Channels
2nd Data for Controller message?
Amount
How many different value possibilities are allowed in a data byte?
128
What is Message 120?
All Sounds Off
What is Message 123?
All Notes Off
What Port is Optically Isolated?
In Port
2 Types of Sequencers
Dedicated and Non-Dedicated
What channel voice message controls some aspect of sound on a channel?
Controllers
What synthesis type involves conversion of raw waveforms into much smaller elements or indexes?
Granular Synthesis
This provides temporary storage for edits...
Clipboard
Controller Categories?
0-31 Low Resolution31-63 High Resolution64-95 Switches96-119 Various/FX120-127 Modes
Number of Notes a Device can Play?
Polyphony
How many possible banks are available in MIDI?
16,384
What does MMA stand for?
Midi Manufacturers Association
Locking up two or more devices together in time
Synchronization
Which port does the Master utilize?
OUT port
What synthesis type involves recreating the circuitry components in the original synths?
Analog Modeling Synthesis
What synthesis type involves taking one wave at a certain frequency and modulating it with another wave at a certain frequency?
FM Synthesis
Hardware is typically known as a ________ sequencer
Dedicated
What does MSB stand for?
Most Significant Byte
Which pin gives +5 bias voltage?
Pin 4
System Exclusive Messages?
Start of exclusive (F0h)Manufacturer IDProduct IDDevice IDDATAEnd of Exclusive (F7h)
What synthesis type involves combining multiple sine waves at various frequencies to create sound?
Additive Synthesis
Define a Layer.
Two or more sounds playing simotaneously on the same channel
How Many Possibilities does a Low Res Value give you?
127
How Many Possibilities does a high res value give you?
16,384
What is MIDI Time Code?
Digital Version of SMPTE
Changes some aspect of sound depending on how fast you hit the keys.
Velocity Switching
Omni Mode
Recieves on All Channels but merges all data together
What is ppqn aka?
Timing resolution of a sequencer
2 Types of MIDI Byte
status Byte, Data Byte
Connection from the computer to the interface is called the _____ _____ connection.
Dual Serial
How many possible amount values do you have with a data byte?
128
How many possible patches in a bank?
128 (0-127)
Which bank select controller is the MSB?
#0 (MSB)
In which message category does manufactures ID belong?
System Exclusive Message
What is the fifth Mode available on Newer Synthesizers?
Multi-Timbral Mode
What are the two types of Synchronization?
Tempo and Location
How Many Pins does a MIDI Cable Have?
5 Pins
How Many Pins are Used on a MIDI Cable?
3
Multi Timbral Mode is Equaled to?
Mode 3 times 16
Omni Off
Receives on One Channel that you can select Which Channel it will Receive on.
List the Controller Categories
0-31 Low Res32-63 Hi Res64-95 Switches96-119 Various FX120-127 Modes
What Channel Voice message has 14 bit resoulution
Pitch Blend
How many quarter frame messages make up a complete SMPTE address?
8 QF messages
A recording that can be triggered by MIDI is known as what?
a Sample
What control do we access to hear internal sounds?
Local Control
List the system common messages:
Tune requestSong selectSong Position Pointer-SPPMIDI Time Code-MTC
List the system Real-Time message:
Timing Clock (MIDI beat clock)StartContinueStopActive SensingSystem Reset
Which Mode is the most common?
Mode Three, Omni Off Poly
What are the location Synch formats?
SMPTE, MTC, SPP, MIDI Synch
You Want to Wire your Keyboard to Your Computer; What do you need?
MIDI Interface
What are possible tick value for 1/16th notes for a 440 ppqn.
0, 120, 240, 360
If the msb is 1 What type of byte?
Status Byte
Channel Mode Messages
120 All Sounds Off 121 Reset All Controllers122 Local Control 123 All Notes Off124 Omni Mode Off125 Omni Mode On126 Mono Mode On127 Poly Mode on
How do you bring up the Extended Region Parameter box?
Apple + Click
What are the 8 Parameters Of Multi-Timbral Mode?
Channel Assignment, Timbre Assignment, Volume, Panning, Output Assignments, Tuning, Note Ranges, and Channel Enable/Disable
What are the System Common Messages?
Tune Request, Song Select, Song Position Pointer, and MIDI Time Code
Wha are the Tempo Synch formats?
MIDI Beat Clock and MIDI Synch
If you have more than 3 slave devices, what do you need for live situation?
Midi Thru Box
The 8 Parameter of Multi Timbral Mode?
Channel Assign, Timbral Assign, Volume, Pan, Output Assign, Tuning, Note Ranges, Channel Enable/Disable
You want to just play the sounds on your Keyboard. What has to be on?
Local Control On.
The First Bit in a byte is called?
msb (most significant lit)
3 ways to transfer Sys Ex Data?
Direct Transfer - manually initiateRequest for data - sends messageHandshake - continuous request
Which port would we utilize in a live scenario with 3 or more devices?
MIDI Thru Port
Utilizing both low res and hi res in combo to increase range?
mirroring (bank #32)
What are the two types of MIDI Bytes?
Status Bytes and Data Bytes
What are the Channel Mode Messages?
All Sounds Off, Reset All Controllers, All Notes Off, Local On/Off, Omni Off, Omni On, Mono, Poly
What is an Offset?
Setting a device to a time other than zero
Mulit Timbral Mode is equaled to?
Omni Off Poly X 16 Channels
What do we need to hook midi up to a computer?
MiDI interface
Which port is optically isolated? Why?
IN port.To reduce loops, hum, and buzz.
What are the Channel Voice Messages?
Not On, Note Off, Program Change, Mon Pressure, Poly Pressure, Pitch Bend, Controllers
What is the Baud Rate of MIDI?
31.25 Kbaud or 31,250 Baud
What reduces the data load by about 30% by removing redundant messages?
Running status (only for channel messages on playback)
What are the three sections of a Status Byte?
Status (msb) Which Message (3 bits) and Which Channel (4 bits, 16 Possibilities)
What are the Parts of a SYS EX Message?
F0h (start), Manufacturer ID, Product ID, Device ID, Program Data, and F7h (end)
Where do we cut samples? Why?
At the zero crossing points. To eliminate pops and hisses
What are the 3 ways to transfer System Ex. Data?
1. Direct Transfer2. Request for Data3. Handshake
Whether a Byte is Status or Data is determined by the _________.
Most Significant Bit, the one on the left. 1=Status Byte, 0=Data Byte
Where are the two places to save Exclusive Messages?
1. On a disk2. On a track in a sequencer
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